Scaffolding and the Zone of Proximal Development

Who Dares to Teach Must Never Cease to Learn

On our fitness journeys, we will inevitably be sharing the road with people ahead, and those behind. Everyone ahead has something to teach us, everyone behind, something to learn. This article uses the work of Russian educational psychologist Lev Vygotsky, to contemplate the role of others in the process of learning.

Scaffolding

Imagine a building with scaffolding surrounding it, a temporary structure that allows workers access to the building during construction. The scaffolding, in this example, is the way in which other people support us to build skills and knowledge. In the gym, this would be having somebody spot us on a lift, correct our form, or show us a new exercise to do. The principle is that having either too much scaffolding, or too little scaffolding can slow progress.

The Zone of Proximal Development

The Zone of Proximal Development lies between two boundaries. At the bottom end is the ‘easy’ zone, in which a learner can complete a given task on their own. Above the ZPD are the ‘hard’ tasks, that one cannot complete, even with maximal assistance (a.k.a scaffolding).

Optimal learning occurs around during challenges that lie between these two boundaries.

Efficacy

When considering self-efficacy, it can be counterproductive to spend too much time in either the impossible or the independent zone. Trying to complete a circuit with too high a level of difficulty will erode self-efficacy, whilst failing to learn new exercises will fail to build confidence, which can be boring and demotivating. We need others to be optimally challenged, which might require you to humble yourself and ask for help from time to time.

The good news is that there is no shortage of people to help in the gym. I’m sure you’d be pleasantly surprised what will happen when you pluck up the courage and ask someone for help.

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📅︎ May 25 2020
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Name of a theory discussing how what can ideally/efficiently be taken from a piece of content depends on current knowledge? Similar to zones of proximal development.

I stumbled across an article discussing this awhile ago but can't for the life of me find it again, or even what it was, exactly.

To oversimplify it, if we treat all knowledge that exists as being contained in a large sphere, and our current level of knowledge as a smaller sphere inside the larger one.

When engaging with a piece of content, there are lots of things that could be focused on, but just beyond the boundaries of our current knowledge is a sweet spot/band of knowledge that can be particularly effortlessly acquired. Even if we are able to grasp onto somehow far beyond the bounds of our sphere, it'll be difficult to hold onto (or we'll recall it in a limited fashion) because it's too many steps away from our current level of knowledge and not grounded in anything.

An important takeaway from this is that what we can take from a given piece of content will change over time, so we should expect to revisit content and, each time we do, to slightly re-adjust our sights.

(It seems like it may be related to Stephen Krashen's hypotheses on comprehensible input)

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📰︎ r/education
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👤︎ u/SuikaCider
📅︎ Feb 21 2020
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Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development. Or why bourgeois social scientists need Marxism even though when they like to denounce it. youtube.com/watch?v=0BX2y…
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👤︎ u/bradleyvlr
📅︎ Dec 11 2012
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Does The master slave dialectic Hegel have anything to do with Vygotsky's zone of proximal development?
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📅︎ Feb 16 2017
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Language Learning, Scaffolding, and the Zone of Proximal Development lingholic.com/language-le…
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📅︎ Jul 27 2015
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Was the zone of proximal development before or after Czikszentmihaly's flow theory?

The title pretty much describes my question. Did Vygotskij "create" the zone of proximal development as a way to further the flow theory? Or did he just happen to make something that goes perfectly with another theory?

An answer would be amazing, I'm writing a fairly large paper, and I haven't been able to find any definitive answers anywhere.

EDIT: I'm not entirely sure this is the right sub to contact, but I guess I'll find out!

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👤︎ u/Nimbo343
📅︎ Dec 06 2012
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[REQUEST] The zone of proximal development: Virtues and pitfalls of a metaphorical representation of children’s learning

Full reference: Paris, S., & Cross, D. (1988). The zone of proximal development: Virtues and pitfalls of a metaphorical representation of children’s learning. The Genetic Epistemologist, 16(1), 27–38.

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👤︎ u/eshton
📅︎ Apr 30 2013
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The Zone of Proximal Development cuppacocoa.com/the-zone-o…
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👤︎ u/invah
📅︎ Dec 31 2014
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YSK about the Zone of Proximal Development en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zon…
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👤︎ u/ozyman
📅︎ May 14 2012
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LGBT+ friendly Sunday school

> Jesus said love ev’ryone; > Treat them kindly too. > When your heart is filled with love, > Others will love you. — Children’s Songbook

In light of recent commentary and commotion, I just wanted to start by pointing out that Jesus said “love everyone.” He didn’t add: unless they’re different from you or unless they make choices you disagree with. To be clear, I am calling out hate speech, not excusing those who say hurtful things.

The lesson manual teaches that we all have divine potential. People can be amazing and accomplish great things. But we don’t start out that way, and we need to learn “grace for grace” or a little at a time. I think this is a beautiful way to accept ourselves as not yet perfect. There are some things were good at. There are some things that are currently out of our reach (like perfection), and there are things that we can work on. In education theory, that is called the zone of proximal development. Is what you already have the foundational skill’s and knowledge for and are able to work to acquire. It’s like saying you need to walk before you can run.

> Be who you are and say what you feel, because those who mind don’t matter and those who matter don’t mind. — Bernard M. Baruch

If you’re interested in ideas of complexity and cooperation, you might want to read about emergent order. It’s how thousands of starlings can fly as a flock or thousands of ants can act as a colony, each with their own roles, or how millions of single-felled organisms can work together to create a slime mold that appears as a single organism (like a slug or a mushroom). In a similar way, scientists believe that the millions of neurones in our brain make up our self, with all of our contradictory ideas and behaviours. In section 93 of the D&C, we are taught that we are under the influence of the Holy Ghost, if the wicked one, and we choose which we will listen to.

> The test of a first-rate intelligence is the ability to hold two opposed ideas in mind at the same time and still retain the ability to function. — F. Scott Fitzgerald

The manual also includes a section on the responsibility of parents for the actions of their children. To what degree do you think this is valid? My parents taught me all throughout my youth, but they worried that it wouldn’t stick. They were relieved when I went on a mission and got married in the temple. But my younger sister left the church in high school. It has taken them many years to accept he

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What sages are worth internalizing?

I'm interested in where and which sages are worth paying attention to, in order to get into the zone of proximal development? Do you have a list, alive or dead? Which virtues do you aspire to, that they afford?

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📅︎ Jul 08 2021
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Reconstruction of Symbol Pt.2

Symbol’s productive cycle. Experiences happen that trigger reveries during waking and sleeping life. These reveries have an essentially captivating affect lending themselves to compulsive activity. Sudden events with unconscious associative potential occur—giving opportunity for a person to reveal the subject-level interpretation by approaching the pre-subject levels of production of a living symbol’s dynamism—can be constructed by the symbol as ends to transformation of personality. The exclusion between conscious-unconscious “poles” are abridged with the person’s synthesized symbols (anamorphic objects), ideally curating what is contingently necessary to a potential for production.[1] This is not an effort to make something more “real” than it previously was, more “objective.” This is a practice in critically apprehending and acting on consequential connections and disjunctions; as surprising, coincidental, meaningless, and petrifying or dissolving as they might initially seem (within the capacities available to the individual).

This requires identifying the conscious representational quality and the unconscious productive flows and dynamisms, the quality and intensity of the symbol as mechanism, completing the structure of production of intensity through a judgement and/or perception. [2] This constructive subject-level interpretation compensates for a person’s potentially myopic relation through creative synthesis of the cause’s/stimuli’s/motive’s horizon; revealing the symbol’s production of meaningfulness available to conscious representation; and all this ideally adds something to the admixture of the person’s personality, causing changes in their world, different than before the symbol’s corresponding complexes’ sensations and worldly causes were identified. [3]

The symbolic event represents and wills (with the latter being the necessary part, representation guarantees very little) an abridgement between a person’s memory of significant experience: a present occurrence that provides a gradient for the manifest energy, then the manifested energy affects the pre-subject level of the production of personality.[4] This canalization of the individual’s affective production by the symbol allows for the excess that escapes into compulsive (re)action, repetit

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📅︎ Jul 26 2021
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Passed intro to sociology (72), intro to educational psychology (75) and human growth and development (75)

Passed these tests last week and wanted to give a report of it.

I took all three tests the same day. Each one took me 45 minutes to an hour of the allotted 90 minutes.

As it says in the title, I got a 72 on sociology, and 75 on educational psychology and human growth and development! Here's the resources:

For human growth and development I uses these two quizlets:

https://quizlet.com/hero351/folders/clep-human-growth-and-develop/sets

https://quizlet.com/60094560/human-growth-and-development-clep-flash-cards/

For educational psychology I just used this one:

https://quizlet.com/6193475/intro-to-educational-psychology-clep-flash-cards/

For sociology I watched this youtube video set (takes about 2 hours total) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W-QWeK4wwOw&list=PLuxLjokSzjLaR4O29Y7ZPjBIN0lYLEsCs

and this quizlet

https://quizlet.com/12107212/sociology-clep-flash-cards/

I began studying three days before all the tests. Day one I studied for human growth and development for about 4 hours. Day two I did the same with educational psychology. Day three I studied for sociology for about 5 hours. I did all three of the practice tests on day three (the day before the tests). The practice tests are definitely important to take! But I found that just taking the practice tests in the CLEP test book was enough to give me a solid base. Additionally, I woke up early the morning of the test to cram. This is important! When doing these tests, make sure you study until just before going to bed the night before (this'll help you consolidate learned information in your sleep) and cram before taking the test when getting up.

It's also worth noting that I had an advantage going into this. I'm a 24 year old transfer student and I've done almost half of my psychology degree (5 classes - psych 100, clinical psychology, cross cultural psychology, research methods, and introductory statistics). I'd say around half the content covered in these tests is stuff I already knew about from prior classes. Around a quarter of it or more felt to be simply common sense stuff - things I could've gotten r

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📅︎ May 25 2021
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Education should be blind.

The color of your skin, your socioeconomic background, your gender, your intelligence... none of that matters when it comes to teaching a child.

Education should be based on merit. Can you do it or can you not? We promote based on age, and that needs to stop! I work in the industry, and I see it first hand. We have all kinds of support to help the “disenfranchised or disadvantaged”, and we have done it to the detriment of merit.

Set the bar, tell students what you need to DO to reach that bar, offer them all kinds of supports like computer programs, afterschool intervention, summer school and then everybody will have an equal opportunity to achieve. Instead, what we do is teach to the lowest level. We blame the teacher when the child doesn’t achieve. But what incentive does the child have to achieve?

In education, it’s not a competitive world we nurture; it’s an age-based system that tells more than 50% they’re failures or “basic, below basic or far below basic”, but still promotes them to the next level. We throw more money at those students, more scaffolding and assistance to try and bring them up, and they continue to fail! If you continue to do the same thing, and you get the same results, what do we call that?

And what do we get as a result of all that? We get students who do not try... and do not care. But why should they. Standards get harder with every grade level bump, and they continue to fail. What do teachers do to respond? They differentiate the curriculum, small group instruction, offer after school intervention.... they work their butts off trying to reach these kids. And thus, the whole system slows down so we can catch those who fall behind up.

Next year is going to be pivotal! We have a large percentage of our country who have Lost a full year of education. How are schools going to respond this? Well, there is going to be a long litany of interventions, support systems in the classroom and teaching essential standards. What does that mean? Picture a dartboard, and the center of the dartboard is the most important standards that a child needs to know to pass the test. The big question here is, instead of teaching a child where they are at, the approach of the educational system will be to double up, catch up. And that means we will have to give up some important educational items. Because, in the end, if we had the ability to teach two years in one, wouldn’t we be doing that as a right regular SOP?

We need to offer support f

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📅︎ Apr 24 2021
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There’s a paradigm in education that needs to be addressed...

Why do we promote based on age and not achieve or aptitude? Right now, teachers are responsible for the educational growth of kids... why aren’t families responsible?
We hold back the gifted, and we make slow learners feel inept.

Why can’t students learn at their own zone of proximal development? If you’re not ready to learn fractions, why are we cramming it down your throat? Why are we giving RTI, IEP‘s, after school tutoring and busting our butts to help bring students up to grade level standards when they’re not ready, not willing, or not focused? We are spending the bulk of our time, the bulk of our resources on those who are not keeping up.

We still teach an age-based progression, one size fits all curriculum. And, for many students that doesn’t work. In general, our gifted kids are held back, not allowed to reach their maximum potential because teachers are too busy teaching to the lowest. Our lowest students, and standards (with all kinds of differentiation strategies and focus standards) drive the instruction. Why?

Why are we reaching SO far outside our own baseline curricular standards just to make our lowest successful on SBACC or PARC. We get classrooms stacked with students who have up to 12 grade levels difference in ability. For example, you could have a nonreader in the same clsss with a level 12 reader

Why do all kids get the same diploma regardless of whether they graduate as valedictorian or bottom of the class? And why are college level courses predominantly reserved for high school graduates? Is it possible that some students could be qualified for college level training while they’re still in high school?

Imagine a world where students progressed based on their ability to meet the standard. Imagine a world where age determined the school you go to, but not the instruction you receive. Imagine a world in which an eight-year-old could be reading at a level five or he could be reading at a level 10. And, he would be taught accordingly— never made to feel inept... just celebrated when he makes a jump to the next level (like a merit badge).

Imagine a world where the level of instruction was used to build a class, not the age of the student. Could classes be built that teach level 8 reading to students within a target age range? I know there would be a lot of nuanced details, but my point is to teach them at their level not their age.

Imagine a world where your diploma, the certificate you graduate with, was stamped with you

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📰︎ r/Teachers
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📅︎ Feb 13 2021
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Math Beta Testers Wanted for Math Fluency Game

Hello Math Teachers,

I'm a developer. It’s the end of the school year and if you are looking for something fun and engaging to do, I’m looking for some beta testers to provide feedback for a new Math Fluency Team Game designed to help at-risk students advance their math. This is a group game so it requires students to be in class and with a laptop/chromebook.

Eligibility Details:

  • In class with laptops preferred.
  • Participation 1 week minimum 3 days a week.
  • 10-15 minutes a day. Usually bell work.
  • 10-30 students in a class.
  • Title 1 preferred but not necessary.
  • Provide an honest review.
  • Get free access next year.

Who we want:

From each state teachers 1 Elementary School 4-6th grade, 1 Middle School, 1 High School Integrated Math 1

How it works:

The program is web based and turnkey so no training is necessary. Students sign in and have one button to click, START. The teacher logs in and monitors a leaderboard.

Without going deep into the science behind the program, it uses adaptive AI to advance students through the success zone of proximal development, getting them engaged and successful while practicing math facts upwards of 300 questions correct per 15 minutes. The team element creates positive interdependence as the system projects a team score for the class to reach. If you want to know more we have a lecture on it.

Here’s an example of a 4th grader who started at counting on his fingers, testing 2nd grade after a couple months. It advances him on to more complex word problems in the next months.

https://youtu.be/bJYTGxgY-Gw

Let me know if you are interested! Thank you!

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👤︎ u/congeek
📅︎ May 10 2021
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When writing a paper, do you have to cite something you've already cited before?

For example, I'm doing a paper on cognitive development, and I have to cite the work of multi theorists quite a lot. For example, if I mention Vygotsky's "zone of proximal development" [ZPD] (Vygotsky, 1978) more than once, do I have to provide the in text citation every time I mention "ZPD"?

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👤︎ u/Unidann
📅︎ May 26 2021
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I wrote my favorite author a letter and this was their response

Nobody with a shitty, reactionary, regressive take on the classics in the classroom today... actually knows a GODDAMN THING about literacy or the point to English instruction in public schools. Hint, dumbasses: it's NOT to churn out English majors. We teach English to foster reading & writing in young people's lives, to guide them to mastery of skills they really need, to instill in them a love for and ability to use written language that will last them a lifetime. We don't need the old books y'all fools love for that.

In fact, studies have shown repeatedly that forcing kids to read work well outside their zone of proximal development, books that have no relevance to children's lives, actually HAMPERS their literacy. It raises their affective filter, turning them AGAINST reading & writing. This is especially true for children from communities of color, where different dialects of English or different languages may be the principal means of communicating.

Literature that isn't even written in the PRESENT-DAY VERNACULAR / TARGET DIALECT consigns them to failure. THERE IS NOTHING INHERENTLY IMPORTANT ABOUT YOUR GODDAMN FAVORITE CLASSICS. Have you read THE TALE OF GENJI? JOURNEY TO THE WEST? POPOL VUH? RAMAYANA? NO? Then please shut the fuck up. You know a tiny fucking SLIVER of the world's literature, ignorant assholes. You disgusting worms, I can read in TWELVE DIFFERENT LANGUAGES. I have a MA in English and a doctorate in Education... and EVEN I think that the "classics" are shit for modern kids. You're not on my level, trust me. So take a MOTHERFUCKING SEAT & leave my people alone.

Your supercilious, privileged, frankly RACIST tirades against middle-grade and young-adult literature come from a place of DEEP IGNORANCE about the books that have been written over the past 30 years by writers that could MOP THE FUCKING FLOOR with your out-dated asses. The teachers you're attacking? Fools, they KNOW PEDAGOGY. They understand that their job is to TEACH KIDS TO READ, deeply and critically, and then to set those kids free in the world to dive into the books THEY choose, not what your simple-minded adherence to custom dictates.

YOU want your own children to read the classics? Buy those books for them. Read them with them, like you do whatever scripture you hold dear. Ain't nobody stopping you, friends. But this pearl-clutching and browbeating? It needs to stop. You look petty, cruel, small. Especially when you propose we force the canon on children

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📅︎ Mar 12 2021
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[Request for Feedback] A Year to Learn Japanese — V1 finished at 64k words, preparing for V2

Six months ago or so I made a post introducing A Year to Learn Japanese, my reflections on six years of learning Japanese. While it's grown a bit in scope since then, my goals with the document were (a) to create a syllabus that guides learners from zero to a point of independence, where they're comfortable exploring Japanese on their own, and (b) to keep track of especially useful posts/content shared on the subreddit that would otherwise be lost to time.

Over the course of 168 pages, 64K words and several hundred links to further reading, so far I've covered: general learning psychology, pronunciation, kana, kanji, grammar, vocabulary, input and output, then some tangential topics.

So, anyhow:

Why I created this

I've created this document because writing is my job, but unfortunately, I don't get much feedback on my writing at work. All of the content is completely free: I don't have anything to sell you, there are no affiliate links, I don't have a patreon asking for donations nor a social media channel to promote. It's just a public Google document.

That in mind, if you've skimmed the document and have a few minutes, it'd help me a ton if you would leave me a bit of feedback on how I did. I'm especially interested in feedback that offers:

  • Criticism. Did something about my writing, the document's organization, etc, not work for you? You're probably not the only person who feels that way, so please let me know! It'll help me to become a better writer.
  • Suggestions. I've got a general roadmap of what I'm planning to do in V2 (below), but if there is something you feel I didn't cover or even just something that you'd like to hear my thoughts on, that's nice to know, too.
  • *Discussion
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👤︎ u/SuikaCider
📅︎ Oct 11 2020
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7 Things I've Learned in a Decade Writing Online

I thought my latest blog post would be relevant to this group. I've pasted the entire thing here for you to read without leaving Reddit, and the original is available here: https://draft.dev/learn/writing-guides/how-to-write-better-technical-content

I recently spoke to the CTO Craft community about building a software engineering team blog. Towards the end, we got into some specific writing tips for software engineers who struggle to create strong technical content.

I’ve been writing online since at least 2010. I don’t remember if I published anything before that, but that’s the date of the oldest post I could find on my old Blogspot. In that time, my interests have changed a lot, but I’ve published relatively consistently along the way.

Most of my writing has been unpaid work done purely because the topic interested me, but in the past year since I started Draft.devand turned writing into a career, I’ve started to think more critically about what makes good technical content.

In this post, I’ll share my tips for technology professionals looking to write better content. Most of these tips will apply to anyone interested in writing, but they’ll be especially geared towards software developers as that’s my background.

This is a long post, so if you’d like to hop around, here’s what I’ll cover:

  1. Don’t Expect to Be Very Good

  2. Be Consistent Anyway

  3. Writing is Organizing

  4. Write as You Speak

  5. Prove Your Point

  6. Invest in Interesting Ideas

  7. Tell People

1. Don’t Expect to Be Very Good

> _“The

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👤︎ u/humpier
📅︎ Feb 02 2021
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Immersion isn't quite all you need. Here's why.

First, I want to begin by saying that getting massive amounts of input is incredibly important. It's just that there's more to the story than that. There are five particular things that I'd like to discuss:

  1. On immersion, in the literal sense
  2. On immersion, in Krashen's i+1 sense
  3. On immersion, before achieving a foundation
  4. On immersion, after achieving a foundation
  5. My experience with Russian and Japanese
  6. TL;DR -- based on the above, the big picture behind how I conceptualize language learning

On immersion, in the literal sense

While "immersion" is currently a buzzword, it's not a new idea in linguistics. About 150 years ago a French linguist named Lambert Sauveur wrote a book about language learning in which he completely rejected classroom antics. He felt that language should be learned completely "naturally", like a baby, without any sort of formal instruction or error correction. The topic has been being discussed ever since. Different schools of thought advocate for different balances of immersion:study.

u/TottoriJPN wrote a very readable/TL;DR overview of some "natural" theories about language learning on the r/LanguageLearning forums. Each post is a paragraph or so overview of a major theory with a few links to further reading and one sentence takeaway. You can read those here:

If you don't feel like reading the posts, what I think is important to point out is that immersion is kind of hit or miss. Some people achieve incredible results with it, whereas other people can literally live for decades in another country but fail to achieve even a basic level of fluency in their target language. They're literally immersed, learning the language would improve their quality of lives and they have every opportunity to go out and practice/learn the language... but, for whatever reason, they don't.

Even conservatively speaking, then, I think it's safe to say that immersion isn't all you need without any conditions. There's obviously more to the story. But what? (if you read through the posts, you can extrapolate that people who learn from immersion had some sort of force constantly pushing them towards refinement/im

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👤︎ u/SuikaCider
📅︎ May 31 2020
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Episode 2 -On my Journey to Learn the Bass

Hi everyone! Thanks to so many of you who commented and offered me suggestions on my last bass cover! I try to incorporate in my bass playing the most popular advice that I get. I just published my latest video. In this one, I show you how I'm preparing myself to play the bass cover of Childish Gambino's awesome song "Feels Like Summer". I discuss my choice of bass covers in relation to Lev Vygotsky's concept of "Zone of Proximal Development", my hand positioning for both my fretting and plucking hand and how I will try to be creative by coming up with my own fills. Join me on my journey to learn the bass. Please make sure to comment and leave suggestions to help me improve!

https://youtu.be/zOpnB5SBqSk

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👤︎ u/gue2020
📅︎ Apr 18 2021
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A Reconstruction of Anima-Animus.

Anima-animus. The anima-animus is then the face of the complex of ‘I am not x’ ideas and affects adapted to psychic objectivity[i] which owe their actuality, in part, to the possibilities of persona required for depositional/staying power in a social sphere.[ii] The fact that it has been reduced to gender or sex is a red herring and fetishizes a single side of the phenomena Jung was referring to.[iii] The anima-animus (translated from Latin to mean soul, life, heart, vitality, spirit;[iv] with the connotations of animation), is comprised of the things which might not be acceptable for the persona to produce and maintain its existence as a role in the social sphere:[v] things that mores and folkways exclude which nevertheless have consequences in discourse, or a production of nothing but that obfuscates the complex’s production, which might also be a reparative experience for an individual and/or a community.[vi]

Without reading his whole corpus, it appears as if Jung reifies gender in personifying the activity of the anima-animus (or in accounting for their empirical referent, being contingently determined representations, in dreams).[vii] Identifying the anima as a representation is misleading. The anima-animus is a portion of the bridge built from the space of dimly lit consciousness to the radical alterity that is the undifferentiated collective unconscious—from persona to the collective unconscious and vice versa. [viii] Jung described the psyche in terms of intensities in productive capacity and qualities as a representative capacity of this unconscious production, that the unconscious is undifferentiation where we then recognize productions in fantasy, intensities, possibilities, thresholds, and dynamic flows (in consciousness we see differentiation of a reservoir into representations which may or may not have logical consistency).[ix]

The anima-animus is sometimes better served by being considered in terms of differences in the production of intensities (and/or affects) flowing to and from extensities b

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📰︎ r/Jung
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📅︎ Feb 18 2021
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LEARNING FROM VYGOTSKY'S SOCIAL-CULTURAL THEORY

Now it is time to learn another learning concept but this time from Vygotsky's point of view. He is a Russian psychologist who argued that culture has a major impact on a child’s cognitive development. On one hand, many authors and researchers as Piaget defended that the development stemmed directly from the child, on the other hand, Vygotsky stated that skills as language, writings, and concepts arising from the.

This author supports the idea that social interactions with adults and more facilitate a child’s potential for learning. In other words, Vygotsky defended that we are social beings who need to interact a lot, and as a result of this interaction many things shall be discovered. On the contrary, if children only base their knowledge on what they see, it will be a sort of hurdle in the knowledge path.

The teacher’s role in the educational context is to act and perform as a facilitator for learning. In other words, teachers should act as tutors who guide exchanges, handle comprehensive discussions, and create an engaging community as strategies for cognitive development. Many educators use some of Vygotsky’s ideas in their curricula in order to facilitate social connection and small group learning in the classroom in an effort to see more growth.

For example, the teacher can implement items or topics as culture, which can be defined as the morals, values, and beliefs of its community members, which are held in place with systems and establishments. Positive conduct will be communicated by the use of language, creating a nice channel of communication. For that reason, culture is shaped over time as the result of specific events or specific moments in the life of the community members. That is why Vygotsky emphasized the crucial role of communication, creating another concept called the zone of proximal development,

Zone of Proximal Development

One of the theories that were also Vygotsky best known is the concept of the Zone of Proximal Development (also known as ZP) In this theory, the author highlights that children should be taught in the ZPD, in other words, it is the interaction between two people: one that dominates the knowledge and another one who does not. The main focus in this topic is to guide the learner to accomplish in the future to fully dominate the knowledge. The role of the guide is to help, build, and support throughout the whole process.

To wrap up, the author defends that the concept of being a social being not just fol

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👍︎ 7
📰︎ r/pedagogy
💬︎
📅︎ Jan 13 2021
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Paradigm Shift: The Case For “Loot For Progress” In Vermintide 2

Hey folks, jsat here to talk to you about what I consider to be the number 1 design flaw in Vermintide 1 and the number 1 unsolved design problem for Vermintide 2. The design flaw is called the “loot for victory” paradigm and it simply means that players predominantly only get extrinsic rewards (items, crafting gear and cosmetics) for successfully beating winning a mission. The design problem is “loot for progress” and it means that players predominantly get their extrinsic reward for making progress in a mission. I feel releasing V2 without even an imperfect solution, here, will cause lasting damage to the common perception of what Vermintide is, the reception of the game and the playerbase. Let me lay out my arguments and you tell me how you feel.

Extrinsic rewards are extremely motivating; any gamer who has lost a day to a diablo grind, played “one more game” of COD for a whole afternoon or logged in daily on Vermintide “just to do the contracts” knows this. Gamers have long showed a willingness to shape their gameplay around maximizing rewards; any gamer who has looked up loot run strategies, did “grinds” of content they thought was boring or ran the same exploit over and over knows this (basically doing things “for efficiency”). I have done all of these things. I will again. Gamers are really good at optimizing to achieve and generally we enjoy doing so. I don’t think there is anything wrong with extrinsic motivation in general, but as with any extremely powerful motivator, a game has to be designed very careful to make sure that the behaviors that are motivated are good for the long term enjoyment of the playerbase as a whole. I think we can reflect on the experience of 2 years of Vermintide 1 and safely conclude that on the whole the “loot for victory” paradigm motivated too much unfun and antisocial behavior to remain.

Why “Loot For Victory” MUST GO:

  1. “Loot For Victory” and The Meaning of Failure: Recall a run that sounds something like this--mid way through a pub run you had an epic fight of ogre+horde+double packmaster that resulted in 2 guys going down and 2 clutching it out. You lost a grim, but what a save. You get to the finale and are crushed by a gas rat you missed. How do you feel? Now if your goal was epic experience then Vermintide just delivered like a boss. If your goal was progressing in game knowledge and skill you just had a big learning opportunity. **However, when reward is your goal and onl
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👍︎ 264
📰︎ r/Vermintide
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👤︎ u/j_sat
📅︎ Feb 22 2018
🚨︎ report
Just passed Human Growth and Development with a 56. These are all the questions/topics I remember.
  1. They give you the names of five theorists and ask you who is a nativist.
  2. There are about three questions having to do with what part of the brain affects development (hypothalamus, hippocampus etc.)
  3. A good five questions were about IQ. One of those questions were like this: the five answer choices are profiles of five people with varying levels of skill and IQ, and they'd ask you who had a severe intellectual disability.
  4. Understanding the beliefs and theories of Sigmund Freud and Jean Piaget* IS A MUST. There must have been at least 15 questions about their theories.
  5. I remember one question asking you who founded the idea of accommodation and assimilation, and I'm pretty sure that was Piaget.
  6. There was one question about identifying over-extension, and another about identifying overregularization. If you get the basic definition for those two, you're good.
  7. There were five questions that asked you to identify Cross-Sequential, Cross-Sectional, and Longitudinal Design. Make sure you understand the similarities and differences between these terms, as well as the terms below. There was one question that mixed them all up in the answer choices and boy, that really threw me for a loop.
  8. Know what the following mean and their examples: Case Study, Observational Study, Experimental Study
  9. A few questions were about the Ecological Systems Theory. Know how to identify Macrosystem, Exosystem, Mesosystem, and Microsystem and be able to give examples.
  10. There were two questions about identifying the independent or dependent variable in an experiment.
  11. What were intelligence tests originally created for?
  12. Know the difference between terms such as Egocentrism and Magical Thinking.
  13. Some other theorists mentioned were Noam Chomsky, Bandura, Ivan Pavlov and Kohlberg. Speaking of which...
  14. The three levels of Kohlberg's theory is: preconventional, conventional, and post- conventional.
  15. Understand examples classical conditioning and operant conditioning.
  16. There was a weird question where they gave you a situation where a newborn gained weight and was sent home early from the hospital, and you're supposed to know what kind of treatment they were given. Some of the answer choices were: watching cartoons, listening to music, given a massage.
  17. One question asking you what disorder made someone have a low-IQ, but good spe
... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 15
📰︎ r/clep
💬︎
👤︎ u/Sparabic17
📅︎ Oct 30 2019
🚨︎ report
TESOL ANSWER SHEET Module 1 quiz B (topics 5-8)

Link to answer sheet for module 1 quiz A here

  • According to Stephen Krashen’s theory of second language acquisition, classroom methods involving meaningful interaction with little focus on accuracy, highlight Krashen’s hypothesis related to

interaction-based language learning

  • According to Krashen, the sequence in which second language learners acquire language forms is similar to the sequence in which they acquire their first language. This is referred to as

the natural order hypothesis

  • According Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, the two cognitive levels in which a learner’s cultural development occurs are

interphysiological (between people), intraphysiological (in the mind of the individual)

  • According to the social cultural theory, which of the following teaching methods adequately support language development?

both the other two

  • According Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, ZPD stands for

zone of proximal development

  • According Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, learning is a

socio-cultural process

  • Vygotsky uses the term ZPD to describe

the area of exploration for which the student is cognitively prepared, but requires help and social interaction to fully develop

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📰︎ r/vipkid
💬︎
📅︎ Apr 09 2019
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Digital game (video game) for beginner EFL students

What free mobile games for beginner EFL students have you found useful? I teach beginner EFL students at a university in Asia (mostly CEFR A1 but with some A2). I have been using Spaceteam ESL for the past few years but I wish to diversify to other video games (COTS or serious games). I'd like a game with more interaction where students can help and scaffold each other (i.e., work in each other's ZPD (Zone of Proximal Development). I really would like to try a MMORPG but none of them suitable for beginner EFL students.

👍︎ 2
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👤︎ u/baedaebok
📅︎ Feb 14 2020
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A note to new CC transfer students! Welcome to UCI and ZOT ZOT!

Welcome to UCI, the number 4 UC and the biggest UC of its size!

So my comment is just about transferring into a quarter system at a UC from a CC, for one just remember, there is only so much they can make you do in a quarter.

A semester is like 16 weeks, maybe 17. A quarter is 10 weeks and an 11th finals week. So yes it's faster, and in my experience we didn't cover less material necessarily. What is good though is that you are pretty frequently tested because of that, and the info is more fresh. There is only so much you can be expected to learn. Many of my classes were HUGE, like IMAX movie theater huge, hundreds of students so exams were often multiple choice scantron, depending on the subject matter, then again some professors killed their TAs by having us write out essay and short answer on tests and all that crap.

That's another new thing, TAs. TAs should be treated with kindness, they have a really hard job and are really just a student like you except a few years down the line and in grad school, they aren't like professors. I mean some of them are I'm sure very leet, but most are putting on a little show for the professor and all of you, trying to look professional etc. I mean I'm a grad student, I could be a TA (I'm not going to btw) and I'm just like you, I'm not more advanced or some smarty pants or a bad ass, I'm just a poor, tired, caffeine addicted college student, and that's what your TA's are. They have to grade ALL THE WORK, do all their insane classes, their internships, and stay sane, and it's hell I'm sure but it pays for their graduate degrees. Some of them will grade pretty easy, some wont, so a lot of your grading will just vary based on things out of your control like who the TA is and if they had coffee that day, so be nice to them, pitty them, even if they aren't nice, like you wouldn't be nice either, so be cool!

So TAs are new and office hours for professors and TAs are new, as are discussion sections. Usually these discussion sections are optional, and quite informal, just sort of review but can be helpful. Office hours with a professor can be helpful for building a relationship, and this is important for grad school letters of recommendation. I say find a few professors you think sound cool in lecture, visit them in office hours and if you like them then stop by every few weeks and see what you can learn from them. At the end of it all ask for a letter of rec for grad school and I'm sure they will be happy to do it.

Exa

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👍︎ 106
📰︎ r/UCI
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📅︎ Sep 12 2018
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Why I love Playing with Noobs

I've seen a lot of frustration on more than a few Reddit threads about playing with new people in Capoeira, so I decided to write this piece on how my thoughts how to play with beginners. A little bit on me. I have trained for 12 years, 6 with CDO and currently teach in New York City.

I personally love playing with noobies, but I get it. It can be confusing. You don't always know what the newbie is going to do, and that's partially because they have no idea what they are trying to do. Their technique needs work and their execution is usually off. I think about it as an opportunity to train, and this is how I do it.

PRACTICAL STUFF

First, some practical advice. Cocorinha and Pêndulo are your friends! Why? Because newbies don't know how to kick, and these two esquivas are among the safest. One second you think they're doing Meia lua de Compasso, and suddenly their foot falls on your head - pêndulo (A basic esquiva to the side where you shift from one side to the other like a pendulum) prevents this from happening. I strongly advise using these two esquivas, at least until you get a good read on the noobie's movement. This is how I avoid getting hit in the face.

ATTACKING

Another issue with playing noobs is that they may not know how to esquiva properly. Fear will take them in and they'll esquiva into whatever direction their body deems safest. Sometimes this works, and other times their face leans aggressively into your foot.

Exaggerating your movement to Communicate your kick is the baby talk of Capoeira (goo-goo ga-ga). The easiest kicks to throw in this scenario are Meia Lua de Frente and Meia Lua de Compasso. With exaggerated hand and torso movement, both kicks can be communicated to the noob player before the actual kick comes. If the person is so new that they barely know how to esquiva, you may need to signal with your hand for them to understand how to avoid the kick. Why do I do this? I do it mostly to allow the newer play to engage in a conversation with me. If the game consists of me "getting" them, then it's less of a conversation and more of a monologue. I want my partner to be challenged, but there's a sweet spot in trying to hit between making the game to easy for them and bullying them around - more on that later.

MOVING AROUND THE RODA

Noobs love to follow the Ginga of the person they are playing, so when you move around the roda in an unexpected way, they easily get flustered and sometimes f

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 32
📰︎ r/capoeira
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👤︎ u/Dendearts
📅︎ Jul 12 2018
🚨︎ report
The master of the English language David Bowles has blessed us with this beautiful work for us to enjoy. Here is the full rant in all it's awe.

Nobody with a shitty, reactionary, regressive take on the classics in the classroom today... actually knows a GODDAMN THING about literacy or the point to English instruction in public schools. Hint, dumbasses: it's NOT to churn out English majors. We teach English to foster reading & writing in young people's lives, to guide them to mastery of skills they really need, to instill in them a love for and ability to use written language that will last them a lifetime. We don't need the old books y'all fools love for that.

In fact, studies have shown repeatedly that forcing kids to read work well outside their zone of proximal development, books that have no relevance to children's lives, actually HAMPERS their literacy. It raises their affective filter, turning them AGAINST reading & writing. This is especially true for children from communities of color, where different dialects of English or different languages may be the principal means of communicating.

Literature that isn't even written in the PRESENT-DAY VERNACULAR / TARGET DIALECT consigns them to failure. THERE IS NOTHING INHERENTLY IMPORTANT ABOUT YOUR GODDAMN FAVORITE CLASSICS. Have you read THE TALE OF GENJI? JOURNEY TO THE WEST? POPOL VUH? RAMAYANA? NO? Then please shut the fuck up. You know a tiny fucking SLIVER of the world's literature, ignorant assholes. You disgusting worms, I can read in TWELVE DIFFERENT LANGUAGES. I have a MA in English and a doctorate in Education... and EVEN I think that the "classics" are shit for modern kids. You're not on my level, trust me. So take a MOTHERFUCKING SEAT & leave my people alone.

Your supercilious, privileged, frankly RACIST tirades against middle-grade and young-adult literature come from a place of DEEP IGNORANCE about the books that have been written over the past 30 years by writers that could MOP THE FUCKING FLOOR with your out-dated asses. The teachers you're attacking? Fools, they KNOW PEDAGOGY. They understand that their job is to TEACH KIDS TO READ, deeply and critically, and then to set those kids free in the world to dive into the books THEY choose, not what your simple-minded adherence to custom dictates.

YOU want your own children to read the classics? Buy those books for them. Read them with them, like you do whatever scripture you hold dear. Ain't nobody stopping you, friends. But this pearl-clutching and browbeating? It needs to stop. You look petty, cruel, small. Especially when you propose we force the canon on childre

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 84
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📅︎ Dec 02 2020
🚨︎ report
Episode 2 -On my Journey to Learn the Bass

Hi everyone! Thanks to so many of you who commented and offered me suggestions on my last bass cover! I try to incorporate in my bass playing the most popular advice that I get. I just published my latest video. In this one, I show you how I'm preparing myself to play the bass cover of Childish Gambino's awesome song "Feels Like Summer". I discuss my choice of bass covers in relation to Lev Vygotsky's concept of "Zone of Proximal Development", my hand positioning for both my fretting and plucking hand and how I will try to be creative by coming up with my own fills. Join me on my journey to learn the bass. Please make sure to comment and leave suggestions to help me improve!

https://youtu.be/zOpnB5SBqSk

👍︎ 5
💬︎
👤︎ u/gue2020
📅︎ Apr 18 2021
🚨︎ report
Experience with class that has never been taught before?

I’m taking a class and I feel like it is outside of my zone of proximal development... the grading seems to be pretty lenient and I am enjoying the lectures but feeling very overwhelmed.

Has anyone taken a class in the first quarter it was offered? How did the curve work? Was it lenient to any degree? Did you feel like your professor had a good understanding of your prior courses?

👍︎ 8
💬︎
📅︎ Feb 05 2021
🚨︎ report
PhD in Education and English Postgrad Can Read in Twelve Different Languages, You Disgusting Worms

Nobody with a shitty, reactionary, regressive take on the classics in the classroom today actually knows a GODDAMN THING about literacy or the point to English instruction in public schools. Hint, dumbasses: it's NOT to churn out English majors.

We teach English to foster reading & writing in young people's lives, to guide them to mastery of skills they really need, to instill in them a love for and ability to use written language that will last them a lifetime. We don't need the old books y'all fools love for that. In fact, studies have shown repeatedly that forcing kids to read work well outside their zone of proximal development, books that have no relevance to children's lives, actually HAMPERS their literacy. It raises their affective filter, turning them AGAINST reading & writing.

This is especially true for children from communities of color, where different dialects of English or different languages may be the principal means of communicating. Literature that isn't even written in the PRESENT-DAY VERNACULAR / TARGET DIALECT consigns them to failure. THERE IS NOTHING INHERENTLY IMPORTANT ABOUT YOUR GODDAMN FAVORITE CLASSICS.

Have you read THE TALE OF GENJI? JOURNEY TO THE WEST? POPOL VUH? RAMAYANA? NO? Then please shut the fuck up. You know a tiny fucking SLIVER of the world's literature, ignorant assholes.

You disgusting worms, I can read in TWELVE DIFFERENT LANGUAGES. I have a MA in English and a doctorate in Education and EVEN I think that the "classics" are shit for modern kids. You're not on my level, trust me. So take a MOTHERFUCKING SEAT & leave my people alone. Your supercilious, privileged, frankly RACIST tirades against middle-grade and young-adult literature come from a place of DEEP IGNORANCE about the books that have been written over the past 30 years by writers that could MOP THE FUCKING FLOOR with your out-dated asses.

The teachers you're attacking? Fools, they KNOW PEDAGOGY. They understand that their job is to TEACH KIDS TO READ, deeply and critically, and then to set those kids free in the world to dive into the books THEY choose, not what your simple-minded adherence to custom dictates. YOU want your own children to read the classics? Buy those books for them. Read them with them, like you do whatever scripture you hold dear. Ain't nobody stopping you, friends. But this pearl-clutching and browbeating? It needs to stop. You look petty, cruel, small. Especially when you propose we force the canon on children from

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 17
📰︎ r/copypasta
💬︎
👤︎ u/CMuenzen
📅︎ Dec 01 2020
🚨︎ report
WTW for the educational theory describing the ever-changing "zone" or "window" of knowledge we're best able to assimilate at a given time, based on what we do and don't currently know.

Basically, the theory suggests that there is a certain "window" of knowledge that is particularly accessible to us at a given time. We learn best when the content we're consuming is slightly beyond our current knowledge, but because we're constantly learning, this "window" is constantly in flux.

This is related to memory and helps show why it is important to go over content more than once - we must be at a certain threshold of understanding for certain things to click, and we're constantly progressing through old thresholds and working towards old ones. Thus, we will get different things out of the same bit of material as a beginner and as an intermediate learner.

I've found the following theories, but they're much too specific. I'm interested in the name for the theory that pertains to learning in general, not a specific subfield of learning.

Edit: misspelled Stephen Krashen's name

👍︎ 8
💬︎
👤︎ u/SuikaCider
📅︎ Dec 02 2019
🚨︎ report

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