Very specific questions regarding the August 7 2260's eclipse

Hi. I need to start by saying that i'm not a native english speaker, please forgive me if I do some mistakes.I try to write something sci-fi, and for some reason that I won't explain I want precisions regarding august 7's eclipse. As you seen, i already did some research, but I don't really understand this graph that much, and I be would glad to have some precisions.

  • It says that it has a magnitude of 0.929, is that the ratio of light that will be stop ? So is it like, a very dark Eclipse ?
  • What "TD" means, i mean it's for Terrestrial Dynamical Time i suppose, but I'm not sure of what time it is, is there a way to convert it to gmt or something of a kind ?
  • What are the different line ? I suppose it's safe to assume that the pink line is the "dark area", but then what are green line ? Are these place that are are partially under the eclipse (so it may be a bit darker but not that much ?
  • Also what is the "Gam" number ? I don't think it refers to the Global Astronomy Month but I can't find anything else.

Sorry for these unusual questions, and thanks in advance if you took time to read/answer me !

Edit : typo and grammar fallacy

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📰︎ r/Astronomy
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👤︎ u/Zartornado
📅︎ Mar 22 2021
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$ASTS - The SpaceX for Mobile Phones - $6MM YOLO with Real DD

Let me start by saying I've invested nearly $6MM in what I believe to be a generational investment opportunity brought about by significant cost disruption in satellite launch costs, innovations in marrying satellite technology to low-earth orbit ("LEO") applications, and advances in LTE network architecture. We are early in the commercialization of LEO and $ASTS is at the vanguard.

Inside of SpaceX, most investors rest their hat on the value of Starlink, which will provide FIXED-POINT broadband to customers, albeit at very high costs and with unclear quality. They value is at $40bn+. This equates to $200 per share for $ASTS, by way of comparison. So there "is a there, there" in terms of what we are playing for here.

Just like Facebook found out after it's IPO, the real market is and always will be in MOBILE. Starlink cannot translate to mobile unless you intend to haul a trailer behind you with a satellite dish. See below for an artist rendition of Starlink's mobile solution vs. ASTS' actual mobile solution - your existing handset

Haha - let's get back to business...read on

$ASTS AST Spacemobile has re-imagined what's possible after the significant cost disruption in satellite launch, which has allowed it to marry two key innovations to provide satellite connectivity to A REGULAR MOBILE DEVICE:

  1. Because launch costs are just a fraction of what they used to be, $ASTS is launching satellites 10x as large as those of traditional satellite phone satellites. This allows the satellite to do the work, not the phone
  2. By innovating with software, $ASTS can make the satellite connection work with existing LTE networks by only working with the carriers' ground terminals to compensate for the Doppler effect; importantly, ASTS works with any normal phone without requiring any modifications

Here is the overview of the FACTS

PRODUCT:

• ASTS is building the first-of-a kind and only space-based cellular broadband network that is direct-to-device; a consumer’s existing handset will work with ASTS’s service in tandem with traditional terrestrial mobile service - ASTS also works with IoT enabled devices

• The constellation utilizes low and mid-band frequencies shared with partners on a non-interference basis; ASTS does not use mobile satellite spectrum but instead delivers service over spectrum alloc

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📅︎ Jun 16 2021
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Open ecology article of the week: The spatial synchrony of species richness and its relationship to ecosystem stability

Hi everyone, hope you are all doing well! I'm sorry this one is TWO days late! I was busy Sunday night, then forgot to do it after that, until now. Anyway, I have another open article of the week and this time we return to the journal Ecology.

You can find the open access link here: https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ecy.3486

As always, please feel free to discuss this article in the comments below if you like. Questions, comments, or anything remotely relevant is fair game!



Abstract: Synchrony is broadly important to population and community dynamics due to its ubiquity and implications for extinction dynamics, system stability, and species diversity. Investigations of synchrony in community ecology have tended to focus on covariance in the abundances of multiple species in a single location. Yet, the importance of regional environmental variation and spatial processes in community dynamics suggests that community properties, such as species richness, could fluctuate synchronously across patches in a metacommunity, in an analog of population spatial synchrony. Here, we test the prevalence of this phenomenon and the conditions under which it may occur using theoretical simulations and empirical data from 20 marine and terrestrial metacommunities. Additionally, given the importance of biodiversity for stability of ecosystem function, we posit that spatial synchrony in species richness is strongly related to stability. Our findings show that metacommunities often exhibit spatial synchrony in species richness. We also found that richness synchrony can be driven by environmental stochasticity and dispersal, two mechanisms of population spatial synchrony. Richness synchrony also depended on community structure, including species evenness and beta diversity. Strikingly, ecosystem stability was more strongly related to richness synchrony than to species richness itself, likely because richness synchrony integrates information about community processes and environmental forcing. Our study highlights a new approach for studying spatiotemporal community dynamics and emphasizes the spatial dimensions of community dynamics and stability.

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📰︎ r/ecology
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👤︎ u/Eist
📅︎ Nov 03 2021
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Carnosaur Scavengers : Response to criticism

Hello everyone - I authored the Carnosaurs as Apex Scavengers paper and I want to address a few of the big problems others have noticed with the research. Although may people across the internet seem to hate me, or think I am a hopeless ignoramus, I think I need to defend the research at least a little bit. I do not want to be antagonistic , just realistic. I welcome any response.

  1. One of the main concerns I've heard is that the model ignored many of the other dinosaurs present in the ecosystem, some of all of which could have been targeted by allosaurs as prey items. Camptosaurs, stegosaurs, baby dinosaurs of other types were certainly present in the Morrison. I understand that omitting these could be a significant problem to some people. This is a very valid criticism in some ways -- the model was definitely incomplete and I know. I admitted this in the Conclusion.
    But, ecological modeling is a computational discipline that describes systems. It is never meant to comprise all variables in a system. Example: The original Wolf-Sheep model, on which my model was based, included only wolves and sheep. No elk, no deer, no hares, no lynxes. No coyotes. No ravens or bison. The wolves in the model couldn't hunt in packs. They actually couldn't hunt at all. They also only killed a sheep if they accidentally intercepted one. These are obviously not realistic conditions AT ALL. The assumptions make no sense. BUT. The Wolf-Sheep model has been cited more than 4000 times, because although it is not a realistic or factual representation of how wolves hunt, live, or reproduce, not to mention it has nothing about population density... Wolf Sheep models have answered many questions about current ecosystems despite their oversimplified nature. They help us develop theoretical ecological frameworks, many of which have been consistently used by ecologists for many years. Not just for predator-prey relationships, but for all kinds of different ecological phenomena. My paper was published in an ecological modeling journal because the model itself, its conditions, and the code I wrote for it, were acceptable, produced reasonable data, and operated on very few unjustified assumptions, (from a modeling perspective). The facts about binocular vision, bite force, craniocervical anatomy, and their relationships to predatory behavior were also accepted as reasonable by the ecologists who peer reviewed the manuscript. One reviewer suggested that I submit the pape
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👤︎ u/stenops
📅︎ Aug 22 2021
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The War of Exaltation - Chapter 19

Previous Chapter || Next Chapter

The sea air was supposed to reinvigorate the soul, or so the doctors said. But in reality it just felt cold and stank of brine. The surge of the waves over pebbles mingled with the screech of gulls while the grey sky weighed heavily down on her. The blanket over her knees did little to ease the ever present chill, but her legs could have been on fire and she would have barely noticed.

She half turned her head at the sound of footsteps and a ghost of a smile graced her lips. The approaching figures paused as she regarded them, then the male of the pair spoke: "Elizabeth, the nurse said we could find you here."

'Here' was the promenade of Gunwharf Quay, part of the extended naval fort around the docks. She'd asked her ever-present chaperone of a nurse for some privacy and part of her felt a dark stab of resentment at the arrival of these two. But her heart softened against it: bitterness was not a salve for the soul, not what she needed. She adjusted her shawl and managed a weak smile, "Mr Wells. Mrs Wells. A pleasure. I was having a morning constitutional."

George glanced at his wife and gave an awkward nod, "Well, we felt you shouldn't be alone at such a troubling time. And we wanted to let you know, you are among friends, here. I can… imagine the pain. But..."

The man stumbled over his words, clearly ill experienced at the oratory needed. She sighed and tugged at the shawl again, "Mr Wells, we have all suffered. I am trying not to dwell on the darkness. To avoid the same snare that my dear Nathaniel fell towards. Despair is not path of the lord. Only hope."

Carrie stepped forwards and knelt next to Beth's wheelchair, "In which case, would you like us to pray with you?"

She was taken aback - she hadn't seen these two, kind though they were, as the pious sorts. Not that she was particularly pious herself - a free spirit Nathaniel had called her, with a laugh in his voice. The earnest look upon Carrie's face cracked her cold resolve and she managed a genuine smile, "That… would be kind."

George knelt on her other side and the three lapsed into silence, lost in their private missives to the Lord, until Beth whispered a painful "Amen". Carrie reached up and squeezed her shoulder, then stood and huffed, "Come now, let us get you some tea. You'll catch your

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📰︎ r/HFY
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📅︎ Nov 03 2021
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Next generation network. How AST SpaceMobile leverages an innovative and disruptive terrestrial component

A figure in the FCC application for the SpaceMobile constellation shows the space portion of the network, where satellites provides multiple input - multiple output connectivity to regular cellular devices by means of multiple beams and how they use multiple downlinks to multiple gateways in order to get these signals up and down from earth.

Back down on earth, the figure shows, they are promptly packeted for distribution via the internet. This is then a next-generation network (NGN) approach.

A next-generation network (NGN) is a packet-based network which can provide services including Telecommunication Services and is able to make use of multiple broadband, quality of service-enabled transport technologies and in which service-related functions are independent from underlying transport-related technologies.

A virtualization of network and handsets creates digital twins that help Artificial Intelligence slice the real network capacity for optimum performance when using the real handsets.

Mobile cellular communications are traditionally distributed via dedicated networks, not the internet.

So whereas both NGN and legacy mobile network infrastructure is geographically fixed the NGN allows for a more dynamic and smart use of its capacity and is infrastructure agnostic, whereas legacy system will be comparably dumb and static, locked up to certain dedicated infrastructure and thus more inefficient, than NGN. Legacy approach will have more bottlenecks / Issues with latency/lag and speed.

Terrestrial towers can not assist eachother in order to light up another cell. Mobile towers they are not very mobile in this sence, but rather fixed and static in what they do.

In the full constellation there will be multiple satellites that can instantly steer beams to increase capacity at high traffic cells. The field of view in which an AST satellite can lend a beam to a high traffic cell under another satellite is wide.

Adding the capability of AI aided dynamic capacity not only to the use of fixed landlines, but also making the total communication throughput of each cell dynamically adjustable in real time, through lighting it up with more beams from more satellites. Adding a geographic / spatial dimension to the network equivallent to having the ability of moving the celltowers in a terrestrial network and increasing their capacity in real time / milliseconds to meet customer demand.

If you watch the facial expressions of AST SpaceMobile CEO, or commmunicati

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📅︎ Sep 04 2021
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The evolution of Chizuru's feelings: A chapter by chapter analysis - Part IV

This is Part IV of a multi-part series on the evolution of Chizuru's feelings. Part III can be found here

As we have seen in earlier parts, Chizuru actually admits to herself that she has feelings for Kazuya. Only that she doesn't know what to do. She just takes minor steps which are nothing compared to Kazuya's grand gestures. But she does do things to get close to Kazuya. Just then Sayuri gets hospitalized and before her steps gain momentum Kazuya comes up with his next grand gesture - the movie project. Chizuru still feels reluctant to do anything big because unlike Kazuya who doesn't care if she loves him or not, she really cares about what his feelings towards her are. Not knowing is her problem. Even if she thinks if a real relationship is possible, she'd change her approach. That happens in this part.

ACTING UPON HER FEELINGS (IN SMALL WAYS)

https://catmanga.org/series/kanokari/117#16 and https://catmanga.org/series/kanokari/117#17 So we see here Chizuru feels something strongly about Kazuya, she runs away from him. So far we haven't seen such a situation arise. She has deep feelings for him. He occupies her thoughts often. And she takes small steps towards him. But here, Chizuru actually sees that Kazuya working his ass off for her sake. That evokes something more than just romantic feelings inside of her. This is the first time their relationship changing from romantic to something more. And there will be more of this as we will see. Interestingly, Chizuru still doesn't know what to do about this, because she still doesn't think something real will come out of it. It takes two to tango, right?

https://catmanga.org/series/kanokari/121#17 About Kazuya she feels "whatever". I don't know if this is an accurate translation, because there are other translations (Jet Yau scans for example) that say "I haven't thought of him as a boyfriend". The latter sounds less apathetic than the former. Anyway, we know it's a lie. But there is something important to note here.

The illustration - her eyes to be specific. Reiji wants to show us that she closes her eyes when she lies. Just like she turns away to hide her emotions, she closes her eyes when she's not being truthful. She opens her eyes slowly when s

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📅︎ Aug 27 2021
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!BOOK SUMMARY! Probability's Nature and Nature's Probability: A Call to Scientific Integrity. By: Donald E. Johnson. (Reading Difficulty level: Very Advanced)

Book Cover

https://preview.redd.it/bxiswlgn9dk71.jpg?width=433&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=29739ad739027dd09e51e60a31a52ee3140de511

About the Author

Earned Ph.D.s in both Computer & Information Sciences and Chemistry. Senior research scientist for 10 years in pharmaceutical and medical/scientific instrument fields. Served as president and technical expert in an independent computer consulting firm for many years. Taught 20 years in universities in the US and Europe.

Prof. Dr. Donald E. Johnson

Introduction

  1. This book will show that undirected naturalism lacks known scientific facts in several critical areas, and that some intelligent agent better accounts for many observations. [Donald E. Johnson: Probability's Nature and Nature's Probability (A Call to Scientific Integrity), Booksurge Publishing 2009, p4.]
  2. Over time, the author began to doubt the natural explanations that had been so ingrained. It was science, and not his religion, that caused his disbelief in the explanatory powers of undirected nature in a number of key areas including the origin and fine-tuning of mass and energy, the origin of life with its complex information content, and the increase in complexity in living organisms. [Donald E. Johnson: Probability's Nature and Nature's Probability (A Call to Scientific Integrity), Booksurge Publishing 2009, p4, 5.]
  3. The fantastic leaps of faith required to accept the undirected natural causes in these areas demand a scientific response to the scientific-sounding concepts that in fact have no known scientific basis. Scientific integrity needs to be restored so that ideas that have no methods to test or falsify are not considered part of science. [Donald E. Johnson: Probability's Nature and Nature's Probability (A Call to Scientific Integrity), Booksurge Publishing 2009, p5.]
  4. For example, one should not be able to get away with stating "it is possible that life arose from non-life by ... " without first demonstrating that it is indeed possible (defined in the nature of probability) using known science. One could, of course, state "it may be speculated that ... ," but such a statement wouldn't have the believability that its author intends to convey by the pseudoscientific pronouncement. [Donald E. Johnson: Probability's Nature and Nature's Probability (A Call to Scienti
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📰︎ r/extomatos
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📅︎ Aug 29 2021
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Summer 2021 - List of Popular Modpacks

This is a draft for a post that I intend to make next week in /r/feedthebeast. I'd love comments on what I have here, since I feel like I really can't keep up with all the new packs, the way I have in the past.


Are you looking for something new to play? Have you browsed Curseforge looking for popular packs, and been left dazed and confused? This post should help out!

This post is a carryover from the subreddit I made called /r/mcpackreview. If you are interested in reviewing packs, and want to do it there, I'd love some help. I haven't written nearly as many reviews as I had intended over the last year, so the sub has mostly become people asking for packs that meet their needs, which is fine also.

If you are just looking for what is new since the last post that I made like this (October 2020), then I encourage you to jump directly to What's New. Otherwise, keep on reading to see my selection of featured packs for this year.


Featured Packs - There are so many great packs that aren't going to make this list, but I challenged myself to pick 1-3 of the best packs for each category, and this is the result.

  • Beginner packs

    • FTB Academy (1.12.2) - Kitchen Sink pack filled with awesome tutorials, designed for players new to modded

      • Key mods: Tinkers + Leveling, AA, Thermal, Botania, Astral Sorcery, Twilight Forest
      • Other Thoughts: I've never seen a tutorial system as awesome as what you get in this pack. Even if you are experienced, this pack can be a lot of fun to play, especially if it is with people who are brand new to modded Minecraft.
    • FTB University (1.12.2) - followup to Academy, with a focus on mods with more complexity.

      • Key mods: Logistics Pipes, Mekanism (v9), Pneumaticraft, NuclearCraft:Overhauled, RFTools+Dimensions, Advanced Rocketry, Thaumcraft, Mahou Tsukai
      • Other Thoughts: It does not have Tinkers or Tetra, which seems odd for a beginner pack, but I kind of like that you are forced to look at other options for mining tools.
    • Awakening - Sky of Diamonds (1.12.2) - Very easy skyblock pack with lots of fun things. You start on a platform made of diamond blocks

      • Key mods: Botania + addons, Chickens, Candy World, Forgiving Void, Ex Nihilo,
      • This modpack is very colorful and fun. It could be a good choice for playing with your children, because there are just so many odd toys to build and play with.
  • Kitchen Sink packs

    • **MC Ete
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👤︎ u/Chezzik
📅︎ Jul 23 2021
🚨︎ report
Starsand Planned to release Nov 4th in Early Access

ABOUT THIS GAME

"Starsand is a desert survival game set on a planet that looks incredibly similar to Earth... but it's not. A huge, open-world full of danger that holds an ancient secret only you can uncover!

Find shade, find water, find life. Use your energy wisely, avoid too much effort in the heat, keep warm in the coldest nights. You must keep your wits to survive.

Starsand is THE desert survival game. Dangers, mysteries, and puzzles await you! Find out what exactly happened, where you are and what connects you to the history of an extinct civilization. Will you manage to survive in the inhospitable environment, find answers and find your way back to your old life?

Hunt for food, make weapons, build a shelter. Secure your shelter - the dunes are teeming with scary creatures.

Find your way in the vast and lonely desert, orient yourself in sandstorms and mark your path. Thirst and heat become an invincible enemy during the day - cold endangers you during the night. Learn to live with adversity, see the beauty that the world holds, and learn from the animals and nature!

In this desert you are both a hunter and prey. Insect-like predators come out of their dark nests, always looking for food. Protect yourself with fire, blow up enemies with explosive coconut grenades, secure your base and do whatever it takes to survive.

Features:

Large open game world in an exciting desert setting with an area of over 64 km².

The lovingly designed world, far away from civilization, holds many impressive monuments, artifacts, and creatures of the past, as well as modern times.

Survival action par excellence! Weather and desert capers as well as terrestrial and extra-terrestrial enemies awaken the pure survival instinct!

Gather, build, secure - for protection against heat, cold, and the unknown enemy.

Dynamic weather and day/night changes demand good planning, wise action, and a large portion of courage, especially in the desert.

A mystical, thrilling story and the solving of numerous puzzles answer many open questions during the exciting journey into the unknown."

Starsand is planned to release in Early Access on November 4th 2021

https://store.steampowered.com/app/1380220/Starsand/

This subreddit is not associated with Tunnel Vision Studio in anyway, it is fan made unofficial subreddit.

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📅︎ Oct 25 2021
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Album of the Year 2013: Tim Hecker - Virgins

Howdy y'all, welcome to the final day of the Album of the Year 2013 series, our special throwback writing series where r/indieheads users discuss some of their favorite records of 2013 through their own unique perspectives as writers. For today's final writeup, we have /u/Earthrise discussing Tim Hecker's Virgins.

October 14th, 2013 - Kranky

Background by /u/Earthrise:

Tim Hecker is a Canadian electronic musician, who primarily composes ambient/drone music. Raised in Vancouver, he began releasing music under the alias Jetone while attending Concordia University in Montreal, quickly becoming affiliated with the likes of Godspeed You! Black Emperor and Fly Pan Am. His first release under his given name was 2001’s Haunt Me, Haunt Me Do It Again. Subsequent releases through the 2000’s saw his profile steadily rise, including 2006’s Harmony In Ultraviolet and culminating with 2011’s Ravedeath, 1972, which received widespread acclaim, winning several Canadian music awards. Beginning with 2013’s Virgins, Hecker began to incorporate live instrumentation into his pieces, working with musicians such as Kara-Lis Cloverdale and longtime collaborator Ben Frost, among other ensembles and choirs, on subsequent albums Love Streams (2016) and Konoyo/Anoyo (2018/2019). At time of writing, his next project is slated to be the score for Andrew Haigh’s docuseries The North Water—Hecker’s first—set for release in fall of 2021.

Writeup by /u/Earthrise:

It may seem strange, at first, to declare that an album of instrumental electronic music with imagistic-at-best song titles stands as one of the most fiercely political musical documents of the 2010s. Admittedly, there is little-to-no textual justification for this claim. But as both a sound-space and a demonstration of process, Tim Hecker’s 2013 Virgins is seething with righteous, prophetic alienation and anger. What occurs within it is among the most striking embodiments we have of what it means to experience our hologram-world-in-crisis, a state of decline that has only become more pronounced in the time since its release. Virgins said everything we needed to know without ever saying a word, long before most of us were ready to hear it. Allow me to first clarify what I mean by “political.” Yes, Virgins is superficially apol

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📰︎ r/indieheads
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📅︎ Jul 31 2021
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[UK--England] Research assoc in soil carbon (closes 29 Oct, 3 yr fixed term)

Repost: https://twitter.com/Jen1Whitaker/status/1445780587956957186

More info: https://ceh.wd3.myworkdayjobs.com/en-US/CEH_Careers/job/Lancaster/Soil-Carbon-and-Greenhouse-Gas-Scientist_JR354

Research Associate, Soil Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Scientist
Full time (37 hours per week)
£26,533 - 27,958 (depending on skills and experience)
Fixed term for 3 years
Based at UKCEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP
The closing date for applications is 29th October 2021
Interviews will be held on 17th and 18th November 2021

Are you interested in supporting research to better understand soil greenhouse gas emissions and carbon dynamics? Then we would love to hear from you.

This role will contribute to field and laboratory biogeochemistry for a range of experiments to address questions about climate, land use change and terrestrial biogeochemical cycles.

This is a fantastic training position and therefore would suit someone who is looking to develop their skill set in this area. There will be opportunities to develop your skills through this programme over the 3 years.

Main Responsibilities

The post holder will contribute to a range of projects focused on the mitigation of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from UK and international land use.

Some of the main responsibilities will include:

  • Contributing to existing field and laboratory biogeochemistry for a range of experiments to address questions about climate, land use change and terrestrial biogeochemical cycles.
  • Operation of GHG/Carbon flux measurements (e.g. GHG chambers, eddy covariance) and more process level assessments of microbial community dynamics (e.g. enzyme assays, stable isotopic tracers).

Skills you will gain over 3 years

You will gain skills in the following areas:

  • Operation of automated chamber systems for measuring greenhouse gas fluxes from land use and climate change experiments.
  • Soil coring using percussion augers.
  • Analysis of GHG and soils datasets.
  • Training in laboratory approaches for understanding biogeochemical cycles including microbial carbon and nitrogen dynamics.
  • Remote First Aid, 4x4 training

Skills Criteria

Knowledge & Qualifications

  • A BSc or MSc degree in biology, ecology, chemistry, env
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👤︎ u/botanisty
📅︎ Oct 07 2021
🚨︎ report
A new study by the ICTA-UAB establishes that the population density of hunter-gatherer groups was reduced where they depended heavily on meat to survive. The research reveals important links between growing season length, diet composition and population density.

10/09/2021

https://www.uab.cat/web/newsroom/news-detail/meat-heavy-diets-restricted-hunter-gatherer-population-sizes-1345668003610.html?noticiaid=1345850073015

Hunter-gatherer populations with a strong seasonal dependence on meat in their diets had fewer people per square kilometer than those that had abundant plant foods throughout the year.
This new result is clear from a study carried out by researchers from the Institute of Environmental Science and Technology at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (ICTA-UAB), which analyses how environmental factors influenced the population density of hunter-gatherer societies around the world, and reveals important links between growing season length, diet composition and population density.

About 300 hunter-gatherer societies persisted into recent history and were documented by ethnographers. Due to similarities between their lifestyles and those of our foraging ancestors, these contemporary hunter-gatherers have provided much information about our species' past.  Because they subsisted on natural food resources through hunting, gathering and fishing, they were closely dependent on the primary productivity of their local ecosystems and, therefore, on the climate variability of the area. But the documented population sizes were often either larger or smaller than would be expected from the local ecosystem productivity, for reasons that were poorly understood.

The new study, published today in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution, uses a complex set of calculations to show that differences in the amount of meat in diets can explain why some societies were less densely populated than others. In regions with harsh winters or large dry seasons, the available edible vegetation was greatly reduced during a large segment of the year, leaving the hunter-gatherers highly dependent on meat consumption. Because animals tend to be less abundant than edible plants, they can only provide enough food for a small human population. In contrast, the populations settled in places where climate favoured the abundance of plant foods throughout the year were able to take fuller advantage of the overall production in the environment to grow more numerous.

“Basically, if people had to live through long dry or cold seasons when plant food was scarce, they were stuck h

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📅︎ Sep 13 2021
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Unsustainable Resource Depletion Began 10,000 Years Ago

This is a paper from Peter Salonius, a Canadian soil microbiologist which was released October 20, 2008 on the famous The Oil Drum where you can find the Bibliography.

According to Peter, humanity has probably been in overshoot of the Earth's carrying capacity since it abandoned hunter gathering in favor of crop cultivation (~ 8,000 BCE). The problem is that soil needs tightly woven natural ecosystems to properly recycle nutrients and prevent soil erosion. Earth's inhabitants have devised a whole series of approaches to increase the amount of food that can produced, starting first with hand-cultivation and culminating in the last century with the widespread use of fossil fuels. These approaches strip the soil of its nutrients and cause soil erosion. Even Permaculture cannot be expected to overcome these problems. According to the paper, eventually, to reach sustainability, the world will need to reduce its population to that of the hunter-gathers, and go back to living on the resources the natural ecosystems can produce.

Part 1: Life Before Agriculture

The major departure for humans as just another member of the global animal species assemblage came when fire was first used about 400,000 years ago by Homo erectus (Price 1995). The dynamic cyclical stability of complex systems has been shown for most animal populations, except top predators, to depend on predation to dampen overshoot and runaway consumption dynamics of prey species (Rooney et al. 2006). The ability to control and use fire removed the influence of wild animal predators as moderators of human numbers. The use of fire made possible the colonization of cold lands at high latitudes where fuel for heating shelters was available in some form such as animal oil, dried dung and wood. Even though their shelters became more complex and elaborate, they were, for the most part, temporary encampments whose main structural components could be transported across the landscape so as to benefit from variable food availability as the seasons changed.

The bulk of human history has been that of a culture of hunter gathers or foragers. They did not plant crops or modify ecosystem dynamics in any significant manner as they were passively dependent on what the local environment had to offer. They did however domesticate dogs as early as 100,000 BCE (Vila et al. 1997); these animals were useful as hunting aids, guardians, and occasionally as food during times of scarcity. Hu

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📰︎ r/collapse
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👤︎ u/YtjmU
📅︎ Apr 22 2021
🚨︎ report
Nugu Roundup #78 - Wooo! Frickin' Ahhh! - 210620 + Album Giveaway!

Hello and welcome to the latest Nugu Roundup!

What is this?: This is a bi-weekly feature designed to highlight the unknown/underappreciated groups and soloists working hard in the Kpop world that often fall under the radar. Please share your own information, favorite performance videos, fanmeet stories, or anything else relevant below!

Last roundup we had a special edition looking at breakthrough LGBT performers in Kpop. This week let's check out a girl group who's been growing their fanbase through their catchy tunes and cute charms, let's get to know Woo!Ah!

Look at the first comment below for the winner of the 31st album giveaway plus details on this roundup's album up for grabs!

What is Nugu?: While in Korean it literally means 'Who' in the broader Kpop context it refers to groups that are generally unknown amongst the greater public. It doesn't have to mean they're extremely new, though it can, and there are of course varying degrees of 'unknown' which some groups having very strong niche fandoms and others being almost invisible. I take a fairly broad view and will include groups that may be known to some, but who don't have widespread name recognition.

Let's get on with the show...

________________________________________________________

Woo!Ah!

Who are they?: A five member girl group under NV Entertainment. Their name comes from their desire to create exclamations when the members are seen, and to inspire unexpected novelties and surprises. Their fandom name is Wow!.

Company: NV Entertainment was founded by two former SM Employees and Kim Gyu Sang of the DQ Agency, a choreography team that has worked for Sistar, 4Minute, Monsta X, Astro, 2AM, and other chart topping artists. Woo!Ah! is currently the only group represented by the company.

Members

  • Nana
    • Position: Leader, Main Dancer, Lead Vocalist, Lead Rapper
    • Real Name: Kwon Na Yeon
    • Age: 20 (IA)
    • Facts: She has the longest trainee time of any of the members at three years. Her stage name comes from people calling out to her "Na Yeon-Ah!" and running it together quickly so that it sounded like Nana. She is good with languages and has been studying English to communicate better with international fans, as well as Japanese and was the first member to be able to communicate
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👍︎ 91
📰︎ r/kpop
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📅︎ Jun 20 2021
🚨︎ report
Full transcript earnings call and Q&A

Not mine, copy paste from InteractiveBrokers TWS:

AST SpaceMobile Inc Second Quarter 2021 Business Update Call

Aug 17, 2021 (Thomson StreetEvents) -- Edited Transcript of Ast Spacemobile Inc guidance conference call or presentation Monday, August 16, 2021 at 9:00:00pm GMT

TEXT version of Transcript

================================================================================
Corporate Participants

* Abel Avellan
AST SpaceMobile, Inc. - Founder, Chairman & CEO
* Scott Wisniewski
AST SpaceMobile, Inc. - Executive VP & Chief Strategy Officer
* Thomas E. Severson
AST SpaceMobile, Inc. - COO, CFO & Director

================================================================================
Conference Call Participants

* Bryan D. Kraft
Deutsche Bank AG, Research Division - Senior Analyst

================================================================================
Presentation
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Operator [1]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hello, and welcome to the AST SpaceMobile business update for the second quarter of 2021. As a reminder, this conference is being recorded. It is my pleasure now to introduce the company's Executive Vice President and Chief Strategy Officer, Scott Wisniewski. Thank you. Scott, you may begin.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Scott Wisniewski, AST SpaceMobile, Inc. - Executive VP & Chief Strategy Officer [2]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Thank you, and good morning, everyone. Let me refer you to Slide 2 of the presentation, which contains our safe harbor disclaimer.
During today's call, we may make certain forward-looking statements. These statements are based on current expectations and assumptions, and as a result, are subject to risks and uncertainties. Many factors could cause actual events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements made on this call. For more information about these risks and uncertainties, please refer to the Risk Factors section of AST SpaceMobile's Form S-1 filed in June with the Securities and Exchange Commission as well as Form 1

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📅︎ Aug 17 2021
🚨︎ report
Programming Reality (or how occult knowledge and magic aren’t what we think they are)

Original Medium Article: https://jeremymcgowan-osiris.medium.com/programming-reality-or-how-occult-knowledge-and-magic-arent-what-we-think-they-are-e705a92dd310

A programing language is a formal language comprising a set of instructions that produce various kinds of output. Programming languages are used in computer programming to implement algorithms.

https://preview.redd.it/ix83mrd97ni61.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=5429f30802f7570bb240f5d3ee96e15858946ee3

That statement is profound, in ways that aren’t yet apparent — and we’ll circle back to that in a bit…

My writing style is different. I’m not a creative writer. In fact, I’m the exact opposite of one. I am, a technical writer for a prolific defense contractor; dealing in UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) in roughly 14 different countries and a few domestic locations. I mention this for two reasons: 1) because my writing style may throw a few of you off, and 2) because I know, more than most, the capabilities of drones, unmanned aircraft, and other types of remotely piloted systems — I write the capability statements as well as the project management proposals for this defense contractor to the US Government for drone activities.

The Quick Backstory:

In 1995, I was deployed with the US Air Force to Jordan — and I saw something that I could not explain with my understanding of physics. Twenty-six years later, I still don’t have a definitive answer for what it was I saw in the Jordanian skies. That incident lead me to appear on Season 2, Episode 3 of History Channel’s “Unidentified: Inside America’s UFO Investigation” where I met Luis Elizondo.

My encounter with Mr. Elizondo would leave a lasting impression and help to shape and guide my approach with the phenomenon. Though, I will admit early in this writing that I don’t fully subscribe to everything that he (or anyone for that matter) has postulated. Not out of spite or a difference of opinion; simply because I’ve not had the same experiences or accesses which they have.

https://preview.redd.it/tnxvx0sb7ni61.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=9aa504e975cdfb5ed1b995ae7f3430ab53067cac

Early this year (2021) I worked with Lue and Sean Cahill and several industry professionals on a proof of concept for an “infotainment” production revolving around my creation of wha

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👍︎ 459
📰︎ r/UFOs
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📅︎ Feb 20 2021
🚨︎ report
VHF propagation from aircraft at 130 MHz: Long technical review on some factors which affect the in-flight performance of VHF ACARS, by Dennis Cimino

First, I want to state for the record that I have been working with high power R.F. transmitters and countermeasures sets, radar, communications, deception repeaters and jammers since 1973, and am quite experienced with in-flight dynamics of VHF signal propagation from both low altitude and high altitude aircraft, both civilian and military.

Now, the average person is not too familiar with voltage standing wave ratios, or effective radiated power, insertion or line losses, reflected power, antenna gain factors or for that matter antenna radiation patterns on aircraft, as I am. I have extensive experience in these matters and have the actual aviation experience in a wide variety of aircraft, with regard to everything from H.F. long haul communications to millimeter wave jamming or ECM systems, radar, and navigation equipment.

For this discussion we are going to talk strictly about 130 MHz, not 2 MHz, not 17 GHz, and the beam pattern and directionality and effective ranges of these systems on both commercial and military aircraft, both below and above the 12,500 pound weight category.

For those of you who are unfamiliar with path loss nomographs for 130 MHz, I would like you to make it a point to study the diagram below. Notice that no assumption is made for effective radiated power, or system gain factors, and there is a reason for this.

This diagram is shown to illustrate the fact that, contrary to some layman assertions, radio waves do not just "keep on propagating" outwards at their original radiated power levels, without being attenuated over distance. When the path losses and other factors exceed the transmitter power and effective radiated power, as well as minimum discernible signal sensitivity of the receiver system, on any radial from the aircraft, and any angle of incidence, there is no possible communication then. Does this mean that the signals just stop moving thru space? Absolutely not.

But what this does mean is that as the distance increases to a point whereupon the signal power level decays below any possibility of detection by even triple conversion receivers with very selective front end circuitry that have incredibly high (-148 dBm or thereabouts) minimum discernible signal capture capability (which ACARS does not, nominally have, at it’s fairly robust –107 dBm), then beyond that range, detection and demodulation by any terrestrial, high gain, very directional and perhaps non i

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📅︎ Sep 01 2021
🚨︎ report
Big Wave is Coming, How will GSAT profit!

Well, I starting looking around how GSAT will pull themselves out of this year with better earnings. Also, if I should continue investing into the company. I found couple of things I honestly believe company will profit from. I also noticed new investors on our GSAT channel and are wondering why isn’t the company not profiting from its 5g? Lol will it’s simple, 5g hasn’t rolled out yet. There’s big companies that have 5g but it completely sucks! GSAT on the other hand, is partnered with a sleeping giant and thats QUALCOMM. Another question is, why is the company selling their dumb devices, such as SPOT, and are they generating enough money? Here’s what I found and yes, there is a BIG WAVE coming! The CEO of QUALCOMM explained during one of his interviews. For those that don’t know, band 53 is in Qualcomm’s x65 in support of 5g.

Focuspoint - a global assistance company with 19 offices on 5 continents and over 5,000 proprietary. Using GSATs Spot Gen 4

GeoDynamics - specialises in the development of location-based software solutions for vehicle tracking (track and trace) and resource management. Supports 3,300 customers and currently enables 50,000 vehicles.

This company currently is using GSATs spot Gen 4. The cost of one of these devices is from 100-150, this doesn’t even include the extra fees. If we take the 50,000 vehicles that GeoDynamics currently has and and add one SPOT Gen 4 per vehicle, it should add up to … 5,000,000. That’s if the cost is 100. I’m a retard, correct if I’m wrong.

TracTrac - a company that shows sports and creates events that operate globally and has a network of nine country-specific partners in Europe, Africa, South East Asia and Australia. It supports 200 events annually, year-round.

Cisca Trading - the biggest oil and gas companies in the world. All 4,400 Cisa Trading containers require tracking and monitoring via satellite technology as they are moved in remote areas out of cellular coverage. Cisca is currently using GSAT Smartone Solar.

Cost of one Smartone Solar is about 300. Let me put on my thinking hat 🎩… should be around 1,320,000.

Fam, these are just numbers can change at end of the year but keep in mind this just the beginning of Globalstar! Everything that Globalstar has worked for is paying off and I continue to believe in them. Do your own DD, I’m just a retard on Reddit lol

Snapdragon X65 breaks record with download speeds exceeding 10 Gbps through 5G mmWave spectrum.

https://www.qualcomm.com/news/onq/

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👍︎ 15
📰︎ r/GSAT
💬︎
📅︎ Jul 06 2021
🚨︎ report
A Communication with the J, the Extra Terrestrials

Preface:

Hello everyone, i thought i might share this in hoping it would be an interesting read for everyone here.

J are a Group of Extra Terrestrials that i work with in Meditation, i thought it may be a good idea to ask them to write out their ideas in hope that it would be helpful to those who would find it intruiging. I feel quite comfortable posting it here, so i pray it is well recieved.

I will highlight in bold, each subject.

I understand that many are skeptical of things such as this, for that i do not blame you. Whilst i may not have evidence to prove that the communication is genuine, all i can say is that i hope the read in itself is informative even if you are skepitcal to the source it derives from.

For me, telepathy is a genuine experience and it has become for the most part, a normal aspect of my life. I wish to share my ability with people but i totally understand if you are skeptical to whether it is a real ability or not. For me personally, without telepathy, i could not have produced this writing.

If this was useful and you are desirous of more, do let me know and at some point, i will do another meditation, otherwise, Love and Light friends.

A Communication with J, the Extra Terrestrials

“Greetings, it is to our perception that in our introduction, it would be recommended that you refer to us as J

Why? You may ask.

For there is no real better name to utilize, the vibratory rate to which we exist at does not necessitate the need for names. Our collective has an agreeable vibration which has transcended the usefulness of names, which occur via the vibratory reconfiguration of atoms within the atmosphere. Instead, we refer to each other via thought-communication. This happens in a rarified kind of atmosphere much finer than the frozen one to which you reside.

The Instrument to which we work with has given us the ‘floor’ so-to-speak, to communicate with the Earth People in honest communication, for this we are grateful and would like to supply some information behind the inner workings between the instrument and us.

You will know this Instrument under his pseudonyms online, as well as his name. To us, this instrument remains nameless for we see him not in a vibratory complex via the agitation of an atmosphere, we see him neither as a gender, nor a physical body. Instead, we see this entity as the swirling energy to which he generates as a Co-Creator. That swirling energy is how we identify him as a part of our Energy M

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💬︎
📅︎ May 16 2021
🚨︎ report
Cubesat and smallsat market overview: August 2, 2021 — August 8, 2021

Hello, space fam! And once again, I posted the news yesterday, but nobody saw it because of some block or something else, I don't know why. So I decided to try one more time: welcome Precious Payload's new small satellite news overview, week: August 2, 2021 — August 8, 2021. As I mentioned before, we also have a weekly newsletter with these updates, so pm me to be added. All right. Let's go!

RocketLab will launch NASA's 25kg Capstone satellite aboard Electron by Q4 2021. The satellite will test risks for future Artemis missions by validating innovative navigation technologies and verifying the dynamics of halo-shaped orbits. (Refer)

Momentus Inc. signed a launch services agreement with the Danish Students CubeSat Program (DISCO) for a 1U CubeSat to be launched aboard Vigoride by Q3 2022. The DISCO satellite will host a series of student experiments and serve as a communication station for radio amateurs. (Refer)

Planet signed a multi-year agreement with SpaceX as its “go-to-launch provider through the end of 2025.” In the first launch covered by the deal, Planet wants to send 44 SuperDoves into orbit by Q4 2021 on the Falcon 9 Transporter-3 rideshare mission that will bring its Earth observation fleet to more than 200 satellites. (Refer)

Astra will launch two U.S. Space Force missions by September, with the first flight launching a test payload for the Department of Defense's Space Test Program from the Pacific Spaceport Complex in Kodiak, Alaska, followed by the second by December 2021. (Refer)

ispace raised $46 mln with Incubate Fund as the lead investor for its Series C investment round. These new funds will be applied toward the second and third lunar missions to be launched in 2023 and 2024, respectively.

China launched Tianhui 1-04 military satellite aboard the Long March 2D rocket built by Aerospace Dongfanghong Satellite Co. Ltd. China also launched two more satellites, KL-Beta-A and KL-Beta-B, built by the Shanghai Institute for Microsatellite Innovation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and operated by the German company KLEO-connect aboard a Chang Zheng 6

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📰︎ r/cubesat
💬︎
📅︎ Aug 12 2021
🚨︎ report
The Haunting of Earth

RESEARCH LOG FOR SPECIES 1482-PRIME

Species summary

  • Indigenous self-designation: Human

  • Sentience level: 6.32/10

  • Primary Method of Reality Interfacing (MRI): Extreme sensitivity to EM wavelengths between 380-700nm

  • Secondary MRI: Multi-sensory inputs from physical contact with epidermis

  • Tertiary MRI: Sensitivity to vibrations between the frequencies of 20hz to 20khz

  • Other MRIs: Mild sensory inputs when consuming food or inhaling gases. (Humans deem these MRIs important, however, they should not interfere with our research as much as the main three)

Notes of interest: *Despite sensitivity to the EM appearing to be the primary method of interacting with their surroundings, their primary method of communication is done through complex vibrations emitted from the mouth. This implies an incredible subconscious ability to process information from wildly different sources simultaneously. It is this researcher's opinion that research must be continued despite the technical issues with some of our surveillance equipment (See Incident Reports below).


Equipment required for field researchers assigned to species 1482-Prime

  • Anti-EM cloak set to filter out wavelengths from 380nm to 700nm. 100% of waves of previously specified length must be set to travel cleanly through cloak with NO refraction or reflection permitted. These setting MUST be checked before every field experiment.

  • Frecquency eliminator set from 20hz to 20khz.

  • Atomic phasing generator. Settings must be set to Dynamic as humans employ many different materials of varying density and to manually change settings would be far too impractical.

Head researcher's note: I realise this might seem like a lot but these humans are extremely perceptive despite their narrow (but admittedly varied) sensory sensitivity. Yes, all this equipment is going to be clunky, especially on top of all your research materials. You will just have to get used to it. You will not be reprimanded for occasional breaches of cloaking procedures if the fault lies in the quality or sheer quantity of equipment needed, but efforts must be taken to ensure our "silent watcher" policy. I know you all know what happened to the research team, and Indigenous life, on Polinar last solar cycle. Let's not have an incident like this on the council's new favourite planet please.

Humans like to try and rationalise what they can't explain, which helps us keep our cover but has led to worrying ef

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📰︎ r/HFY
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📅︎ May 10 2021
🚨︎ report
How the Decoys relate to Rick C137's character growth

TL:DR Decoys get lazier as they continue to copy. The Ricks made by C137 Rick have his trademark arrogance, but also have moments of vulnerability and normal activities with his family (Vacations, talking about Diane, polite diction, etc. . .).

I believe the 1st Gen Decoys are happier than C137 Rick because Rick made them to be happy. They are either what he either aspires to, or fears he can never attain, which is a healthy and loving dynamic with his family. I believe that later gen decoys are worse, because Ricks get lazier and thus do not care if their Decoys have a happier dynamic, reflecting traits we see in S1 Smith family.

This isn't exhaustive because I have a life.

Here's what 1st through, I dunno, 5th Gen decoys get up to in their terrestrial adventures:

  1. Eating dinner together
  2. Playing with Mr. Always wants to be Hunted together
  3. At a pool in idyllic Italy together
  4. Rick and Morty genuinely enjoying TV together.
  5. Rick explaining to family what happened to Beth's mom, which we the audience want badly, but is also a vulnerable family moment our Rick could never do.
  6. Rick and Co go to Decoy house.
  7. Rick and Co whiteboard, Rick talks about renting Highlander later, implying family movie nights.
  8. Rick makes costumes for everyone, twice. The second set of costumes are so much better.
  9. Standing in the Ocean to finish a bucket list, dying together holding hands
  10. Beth calling Rick out, and Rick being receptive and responsive, plus a hug and I love yous.

Worse Decoy Families (Gen 6 - Gen 15, probably) :

  1. Harvesting skin
  2. Starting cults, participating in death cults
  3. Betraying family like a fucking coward, Jerry
  4. Mean language and harshness toward family

Quotes throughout the episode and their impact :

"I wouldn't lie to you. Well, that's a lie, huh." An interesting line uttered by vacation Rick, this may be a version of him that stopped lying to Morty, then lied to him because he was unaware of the reason behind his own actions.

"We stick together."

"You're so mean today, I'm your father, you like having me around." Again, it suggests aberrant behavior to this Rick that we the audience are currently accustomed to.

"Little out of character to say this right now, but you guys look really cool." As Morty says, it once again suggests decoy behavior, because Rick is being better toward his family. Not by much, but still better.

If Rick made the 1st generation decoys to be happy on purpose, it could show he'

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👤︎ u/Skull025
📅︎ Jul 04 2021
🚨︎ report
LMT: A Deep Dive

Edit 1: More ARKQ buying today (~50k shares). Thank you everyone for the positive feedback and discussion!

Bottom Line Up Front (BLUF) or TL;DR for the non-military types:

LMT is a good target if you want to literally go to the moon, and my PT is $690.26 in two years (more than 2x from current levels). Justification and some possible trade ideas are listed below, just CTRL-F “Trade Ideas”. I hope you guys enjoy this work and would appreciate any discussion or feedback. I hope to catch you in the comments.

Team,

We interrupt today’s regularly scheduled short squeeze coverage to discuss a traditionally boring stock, LMT (Lockheed Martin), with significant upside potential. To be clear, this is NOT a short squeeze target like many reddit posts are keying on. I hope that this piece sparks discussion, but if you are just looking for short squeeze content, all I have to say is BUY, HOLD, and GODSPEED.

The source of inspiration for me writing this piece is threefold; first, retail investors are winning, and I believe that we will continue to win if we continue to identify opportunities in the market. In my view, the stock market has always been a place for the public to shine a light on areas of innovation that real Americans are excited about and proud to be a part of. Online communities have stolen the loudspeaker from hedge fund managers and returned it to decentralized online democracies that quickly and proudly shift their weight behind ideas they believe in. In GME’s case, it was a blatant smear campaign to destroy a struggling business. I think that we should continue this campaign by identifying opportunities in the market and running with them. It may sound overly idealistic, but if reddit can take on the hedge funds, I non-ironically believe that we can quite literally take good companies researching space technology to the moon. I think LMT may be one of several stocks to help get us there.

Second, a video where the Secretary of State of Massachusetts argues that internet boards are full of a bunch of unsophisticated, thoughtless traders really ticked me off. This piece is designed to show that ‘the little guy’ is ready to get into the weeds, understand business plans, and outpace analysts that think companies like Tesla are overvalued by comparing them to Toyota. That is a big reason that I settled on an old, large, slow growth company to do a deep-dive on, and try my best to show some of the abysmal predictive analysis major ‘research firms’ d

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📰︎ r/investing
💬︎
📅︎ Feb 01 2021
🚨︎ report
📖 Modern Politics 📖

https://preview.redd.it/r05lkkxs5uj71.jpg?width=658&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=10a2604deafb4eed846f2e25e429a11ded1e963c

We discussed in the preceding Article, the main ingredients of modern politics. It has been said that there had been something of an intellectual revolution in the United States of America, and out of it has emerged a trend to master the new complexities both in developed and developing countries by breaking out of parochialism. This trend to  create a new intellectual order may be summarized, as Almond and Powell do, under four headings:

  1. The search for comprehensiveness,
  2. The search for realism,
  3. The search for precision and
  4. The search for a theoretical order

But modern innovations are not accomplished facts and do not present a unified theory. There is a sharp divergence of approach and technique amongst the innovators themselves, and no one can say with certainty what shape Political Science may take ultimately. The most important work, both empirical and theoretical, is still to be done. During most recent times, a swing is witnessed towards what it has been discarded earlier and that, too, vehemently.

Yet, no student of Political Science can remain oblivious of the main directions of innovators. A wise bird uses both wings to fly, and we have emphasized the new trends and the various concepts used therein in the context of what an innovator would call the parochialism of a traditionalist.

New ways of saying and doing things have always tempted some and horrified others. In Political Science, particularly, methods of study and objectives of inquiry are subject to deep controversy. New approaches and objectives are likely to arouse, and actually, they have passions.

Nor should the innovators frown on the traditionalists. A dynamic study, as the discipline of Political Science is, must offer empirical solution also to the problems which confront the Age of the new nation, the name that historians certainly will not fail to give our century. All this renders the subject exceedingly complex and its expanded dimensions.

New Dimensions of Modern Politics:

New Dimension is a new term meaning more or less the same as the old one scope. Any discussion about scope or dimensions will inevitably involve discussing the subject matter, objectives, and methodological assumptions. All the

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💬︎
👤︎ u/anisurrups
📅︎ Aug 27 2021
🚨︎ report
Charter School Survival Guide: Unlearn What You Think You Know – Final Entry

(New to the school? Start here.)

Watch any organism long enough and you’ll start to understand its patterns. You’ll know where it feels safe, what it fears, how it hides or stalks its prey, how it chooses a mate, even how it dies. If you study multiple organisms, you’ll learn how they interact, who leads and who follows, how they fight and protect themselves, and how they might sacrifice some for the greater good. Biologists have been doing this for centuries. So have anthropologists, psychologists, and plenty of other "ologists."

Of course, just because you’re making observations doesn’t mean you’re getting the full picture. Biologists who study animals in captivity can mistakenly apply what they learned about those captive animals to animals in the wild. For example, you’ve no doubt heard the term alpha wolf, as it applies to wolf pack and other animal pack dynamics. This has been a popular notion for a very long time, that there is one wolf in the pack that calls the shots. All other wolves submit to this alpha. However, it turns out that these “alpha wolves” were only observed in captivity. The nature of the captivity changed the wolves. Non-captive wolves behave very differently.

Our context changes who we are, and we cannot make observations about animals, or people, without considering context. For instance, I previously mentioned how Malmasterson students have developed a very dark sense of humor as a coping mechanism. That’s just one of many ways students and faculty here have adapted to our trying circumstances. Thus, anyone who would look at our community wouldn’t necessarily get an accurate picture of humanity.

Apparently, that’s what we’re counting on.

I’ll explain in a moment, but first I need to tell you why I’m currently no longer at the school. I’m completing this message from an undisclosed location. Hopefully I won’t have to remain here for too much longer, but at this point I’m used to enduring lockdowns to save lives. I’m off the grid so I won’t be able to respond to messages. (This was messaged to a third party who posted it.)

It began with the garbled message from my future self. When I told people the story, and when I wrote about it,

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👍︎ 169
📰︎ r/nosleep
💬︎
📅︎ Apr 20 2021
🚨︎ report
Frog

A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (literally without tail in Ancient Greek). The oldest fossil "proto-frog" appeared in the early Triassic of Madagascar, but molecular clock dating suggests their origins may extend further back to the Permian, 265 million years ago. Frogs are widely distributed, ranging from the tropics to subarctic regions, but the greatest concentration of species diversity is in tropical rainforest. There are about 7,300 recorded species, which account for around 88% of extant amphibian species.[1] They are also one of the five most diverse vertebrate orders. Warty frog species tend to be called toads, but the distinction between frogs and toads is informal, not from taxonomy or evolutionary history.

An adult frog has a stout body, protruding eyes, anteriorly-attached tongue, limbs folded underneath, and no tail (the tail of tailed frogs is an extension of the male cloaca). Frogs have glandular skin, with secretions ranging from distasteful to toxic. Their skin varies in colour from well-camouflaged dappled brown, grey and green to vivid patterns of bright red or yellow and black to show toxicity and ward off predators. Adult frogs live in fresh water and on dry land; some species are adapted for living underground or in trees.

Frogs typically lay their eggs in water. The eggs hatch into aquatic larvae called tadpoles that have tails and internal gills. They have highly specialized rasping mouth parts suitable for herbivorous, omnivorous or planktivorous diets. The life cycle is completed when they metamorphose into adults. A few species deposit eggs on land or bypass the tadpole stage. Adult frogs generally have a carnivorous diet consisting of small invertebrates, but omnivorous species exist and a few feed on plant matter. Frog skin has a rich microbiome which is important to their health. Frogs are extremely efficient at converting what they eat into body mass. They are an important food source for predators and part of the food web dynamics of many of the world's ecosystems. The skin is semi-permeable, making them susceptible to dehydration, so they either live in moist places or have special adaptations to deal with dry habitats. Frogs produce a wide range of vocalizations, particularly in their breeding season, and exhibit many different kinds of complex behaviors to attract mates, to fend off predators and to generally survive.

Frogs

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💬︎
📅︎ Aug 04 2021
🚨︎ report
💬🔥 AMA with Gregory Landua of Regen Network 💬🔥 - April 16th, @ 9:00AM PST / 12:00PM EST

👩🏻‍🚀Fellow Cosmonauts!👨🏽‍🚀

Are you ready for the launch of everyone's favorite Regen Network? This Friday at 12pm EST, we have found ourselves fortunate to get a little time well-spent with Gregory Landua of Regen Network.

https://preview.redd.it/6qn6x1mczzs61.jpg?width=1280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=27361f57af48fe468df240624fcbebc5a324a04c

>Gregory is co-founder and CEO of Regen Network. Regen Network is a land ecological commons management platform and the backbone for a new approach to ecosystem service markets based on verified ecological state.
>
>Gregory Landua (co-author of the pioneering book, Regenerative Enterprise, the Levels of Regenerative Agriculture Whitepaper, and the Regen Network Whitepaper) is the co-founder and former CEO of Terra Genesis International. Terra Genesis International (TGI) is now lead by a dynamic global team of Permaculture and Regenerative Agriculture and Business practitioners and leaders working to support leading companies to transform their negative impact into regenerative effects, and leading cutting edge agro-forestry business planning around the world. Gregory is dedicated full time to launching Regen Network and raising his family.
>
>Gregory has studied marine and terrestrial ecology and evolutionary biology in the Galapagos Islands, translated for Amazonian rainforest guides, fought wildfires in the wilderness of Alaska, lived in established ecovillages, founded a successful work-live cooperative, and studied the nuances of ecology and ethics. Gregory has B.S. in Environmental Science and Ethics from Oregon State University, and a M.Sc in Regenerative Entrepreneurship and Design from Gaia University.
>
>Gregory embraces the practical aspects of regenerative agriculture design by being a tropical agroforestry farm owner and manager, and for many years worked to assist farms and communities in a variety of climate zones as a permaculture designer

Today we hope to focus the conversation on the launch, the impact, and future of Regen Network, a part of the Cosmos' Ecosystem!

🔬Ask Gregory Anything about:

  • Regen Network
  • Successful Mainnet Launch
  • Regenerative Finance
  • Token sale on the Gravity DEX
  • $REGEN
  • What comes next?
  • ...and more!

Please note that Gregory is not a financial advisor, he will not give predictions about the price of ATOM.

📑 White Paper

💌 **Conta

... keep reading on reddit ➡

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👤︎ u/Ticojohnny
📅︎ Apr 13 2021
🚨︎ report
Green leaves and green light: what's really going on

part of SAG's Plant Lighting Guide

last update: 2 June 2021

TL;DR - This is challenging the claim "plants can't use green light", "plants are green because they reflect all green light", or some close iteration that is so often found in biology. My counterclaim is the McCree curve is used in botany, and every paper on photosynthesis studies by wavelength when the test was actually done demonstrates most plants use green light efficiently, particularly compared to blue light and at higher lighting levels.

There are many links to open access papers supporting my claims below. quick link to the McCree (1972) paper

Please point out any mistakes or needed clarifications! I often go back and do edits for mistakes or to add more.



The claim and my problem with it

There is a lot of confusion about how green plants absorb light in biology, and the notion that "plants can't use green light" or "plants are green because they reflect all green light". It comes from biology books that are likely showing you a chart for pigments in a solvent or photosynthetic bacteria/algae, not how higher green land plants actually respond to light. Even with botany books sometimes the wrong charts are used ("Botany for Dummies", written by a PhD botanist, gets it bizarrely wrong by showing pigments that are not even in plants!).

The issue I have with the claim, coming from a horticulture lighting perspective, is that it has been used by many low end predatory LED grow light sellers, such as making outrages claims about the photosynthetic performance of red/blue only LED grow lights compared to some other grow light like HPS (high pressure sodium), by hitting some "magical wavelengths" based off misused science. I've seen a lot of people get taken advantage off (particularity early-mid 2010's) as well as a lot of disappointment.

There were claims about red/blue LED grow lights being better than HPS, by as high as ten to twenty times better growth per watt in the late 2000's, that was overpriced junk (my first LED grow lights were t

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📅︎ May 31 2021
🚨︎ report
The Human Instrumentality Project and Lacanian Psychoanalysis

Throughout Neon Genesis Evangelion SEELE, the antagonists of the show attempt to bring about the Human Instrumentality Project, The destruction of barriers between Human beings and the joining of all in an Immortal Body. Someone watching the show can be forgiven for failing to see why this is desirable. It seems to run counter to typical villain narratives being motivated by Egoism or a misguided idealism typical of this kind of fiction. Counter to standard interpretations, I’d like to propose that the characters and writers of the show understand humans via the lens of Lacanian Psychoanalysis. Furthermore I feel that understanding this can not only provide a better understanding of the plot of the show but also a deeper appreciation of the characters and themes of the show.

As a quick summary, all Terrestrial life in Neon Genesis Evangelion has a soul and all souls produce what is called an Absolute terror field or AT-Field for short. For large creatures like Angels and the Evangelions this produces a powerful force field that can only be overcome by the most powerful of weapons or another AT-Field. For normal life forms however an AT-Field is what gives a soul its physical form. If overcome the body will revert to primordial LCL and the soul will be no longer bound to it. An AT field gives humans form but it is also responsible for the separation and alienation between people. If they did not exist no such separation between people would exist and it would be impossible to see any difference between oneself and anyone or anything else.

Jacques Lacan was a French Psychoanalyst,who was best known for reinterpreting Frued through Structuralism/Poststructuralism and the concept of the Mirror Stage in infant development. Both of these concepts are relevant. Structuralism is Intellectual movement that holds all Human activity thoughts and perception are constructed rather than naturally occurring. Everything has a structure and this underlies all of our activity. Lacan says the Human Unconscious is structured like a language. In Structuralist linguistics a Sign is made of a Signifire, the form of a sign and Signified, the meaning. Lacan takes this further, for him there are ONLY Signifiers and no Signifred. The Unconscious is a Chain of Signifiers that only have meaning because they are not other Signifiers.

Shinji: What? It's me. The shape that I show to others,

the symbol representing me.

This (picture of Shinji), and this (doodle of Shinji), and this (

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 6
📰︎ r/copypasta
💬︎
📅︎ Jul 03 2021
🚨︎ report
[MILESTONE] To Feed the People, Pt. 8

To Feed the People, Pt. 1

To Feed the People, Pt. 2

To Feed the People, Pt. 2.5

To Feed the People, Pt. 3

To Feed the People, Pt. 4

To Feed the People, Pt. 4.5

To Feed the People, Pt. 5

To Feed the People, Pt. 5.5

To Feed the People, Pt. 6

To Feed the People, Pt. 6.5

To Feed the People, Pt. 7

To Feed the People, Pt. 7.5

---

Program Summary: This entry contains the final installment of the Small Scale Geoengineering Milestone. After the Milestone is complete, we hope to implement the To Feed the People initiatives on a global scale, starting with partner nations in tropical regions.

---

[M: This is part 5/5 of the Small Scale Geoengineering Milestone]

Geoengineering:

Progress Report: Large scale reforestation, cloud seeding and mass desalination has resulted in significant increases in rainfall in northern and western China. While these initiatives will continue to be expanded in order to reclaim additional arable land, the Ministry of Environmental Protection believes that current rainfall levels are sufficient for maintaining sustainable groundwater and surface water levels in existing arable lands for the foreseeable future.

Increases in precipitation in the Tibetan Plateau due to glacial preservation measures have had an especially large impact on Chinese agricultural productivity, with significant increases in water levels observabl

... keep reading on reddit ➡

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👤︎ u/yixinli88
📅︎ Jun 12 2021
🚨︎ report
An Open Letter about Needed UFO Disclosure Advocacy

With the June 25th release of the Preliminary Assessment: Unidentified Aerial Phenomena (Report) by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), the defense and intelligence establishment (D & I Est) has revealed more about itself than about the aerial phenomenon it studies. Faced with a fundamental change in the dynamics of this issue, it has relied on many of its past methods to slow down and possibly stop the momentum towards true disclosure of the source of these mysterious objects. However, there is a small window of opportunity before the next update promised to Congress on September 23, 2021. With two summer congressional recess periods, there is a chance to inform Congress of ways to accelerate the trajectory of D & I Est efforts on this vital issue. Thereafter, other political/policy issues and the upcoming 2022 midterms will make it more difficult for the public to affect change.

The seven page Report, excluding Appendix A & B, was a mere 2,253 words. Its data set covered 144 incidents occurring from November 2004 (Nimitz Carrier Group) to March 2021. 143 of these incidents are still unidentified. The classified appendix is likely to contain information about these sighting reports, but little other details. In other words, the four congressional committees have the same conclusions as the public version, a mystery without an identified source.

It is assumed almost all of the data came from the Navy. The Air Force did not contribute until it established a six month pilot program in November 2020. Unless renewed, the Air Force pilot program for UAP reports is no longer operating. A similar Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) reporting program is yet to begin.

On its current trajectory, the ODNI will produce periodic updates based only on new data going forward. The focus will be on visual sightings by pilots, most with confirming electronic data. The likely result will be a continuation of the mystery with no firm answers. Visual sightings of strange objects, doing strange things will not give us any more answers unless the objects have picture windows showing the occupants or insignias with terrestrial identities. This will allow the ODNI to essentially “rinse and repeat” this process until Congress loses interest. This is not a process that began with the December 16, 2017, New York Times **article. It is a minimum 75 year process in which the D & I Est has been able

... keep reading on reddit ➡

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📰︎ r/UFOs
💬︎
👤︎ u/jplufo
📅︎ Jul 01 2021
🚨︎ report
Pretty thorough article on Seeking Alpha. Sorry about the formatting, had to copy /paste.

Globalstar: Charting Out An Investment Case

Jun. 29, 2021 3:25 PM ETGlobalstar, Inc. (GSAT)IRDM, NOK, ORBC...1 Comment

Chetan Woodun

3.84K Followers

Bio

Follow

Medium-Term Horizon, Multi ( Info+Fin+Bio) Tech, Telco, Value Contributor Since 2018

Investment Research and Analytics at Keylogin Information and Technologies Co. Ltd.

Initially a systems implementer in virtualization and cloud. Also, worked as a supervisory position and later as a team leader and project lead. Spent a long time working in Telcos. Initially with Tech stocks and now going Multi Tech : InfoTech, + Fintech and Biotech. Preference for small tech stocks. I have been investing since the last 25 years, initially in mutual funds where the "learned economists" would always advise you to "think long term". Learnt not to trust them in 2008/2009 downturn when I lost a lot. Since, then I do my own research and fell in love with Seekingalpha because of the unique perspectives it provides to someone investing hard-earned money. We live only once but can have many "investment lives" especially when investing in individual stocks.

Summary

Compared to peers, Globalstar is struggling to return to pre-COVID sales levels.

As a result, shares dipped, but have recovered as from mid-June after a customer made a large advance payment and some favorable expectations about monetization of assets.

A dissection of the sales figures reveals a mixed picture, with the IoT segment looking strong, but others are still recovering, amid some managerial actions to bring improvements,all in a competitive environment.

As per the balance sheet, finances look adequate, in view of the incoming cash and efforts to lower operating expenses.

Balancing out, the satellite services play still makes for a calculated investment, but wait for a dip.

imaginima/E+ via Getty Images Globalstar (NYSE:GSAT) fell 8% following the release of Q1 results where its revenues declined by 16.3% to $26.93 million. Also, a comparison with peers Iridium (NASDAQ:IRDM) and Orbcomm (NASDAQ:ORBC) reveals that it is the only one whose revenues has plunged as it struggles to return to pre-COVID sales levels. Data by YCharts

Adopting a more positive instance, the stock was up 5.2% after disclosing that it received an advance payment of $37.5 million from a customer tied to a Terms Agreement, with the proceeds to be used to repay part of the amount outstanding under its first-lien credit facility. Also, some analysts were upbeat about

... keep reading on reddit ➡

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📰︎ r/GSAT
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👤︎ u/hearthstan
📅︎ Jun 30 2021
🚨︎ report
Hopeful and maybe just a tad insane PSA/Request - if your flowers died in the freeze and you have the available funds to do so, buy/plant/grow new flowers for pollinators ASAP!

Hello dearest and cherished fellow neighbors, Austinites new and old, citizens, non-citizens, and humans:

I first off want to say my heart goes out to you no matter what your circumstances this past week. The freeze hit us damn hard - in our gardens, our homes, our neighborhoods, our wallets, our sense of hope.

I saw two bumblebees today, perhaps the same one twice, on my balcony. I had an Oleander (var. "Non-stop") and a Hummingbird Bush planted in 20 gallon tubs, both of which didn't make it fully. The Oleander will be salvagable but the Hummingbird Bush basically bit the dust due to me cutting it back a week before the storm like an idiot. I live alone with cats or I would bring them inside; Oleander is poisonous let alone the fact both tubs weigh 50+ pounds and are impossible for me to lift alone and no closed space indoors to protect them from the cats. I specifically purchased these flowering bushes in the summer of 2020 for being long-lasting bloomers with an attractive red color that birds and insects think is just dandy. I quickly realized those visiting bees were hungry!! They do their dances and communication in the hive and these bees knew I was a good place to go for food. And there was nothing for them.

Sometimes I feel like the Lorax, you know: "I speak for the trees!!" In my case, I want to speak for the bees, and I hope you might listen to our story. In no way do I want this post to come off as suggesting you go outside of your financial means or emotional capacity to take on yet another task after what we've collectively gone through since March, let alone the recent trauma of the storm. I only ask that you integrate the plight of the insects into your lives where it is feasible to do so.

"I am dying by inches, from not having any body to talk to about insects." - Charles Darwin in a letter to his second cousin in 1828. You may have noticed your outdoor spaces with less and less insects each year. You may remember cleaning bug guts off of your windshield after a long drive, or love-bugs swarming during the summer, or moths and other insects of the night gathering around your lamps. There is no one thing we can yet point at to best explain this decline but it's plain as day when you literally just go outside your home. You can truly tell there's less bugs than before and personally, it puts a fear into me quite a bit. I'm not trying to scare you, it is simply scary. Reject fear. We can only control what we can control and that's cer

... keep reading on reddit ➡

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👤︎ u/lyric22
📅︎ Feb 25 2021
🚨︎ report
VHF propagation from aircraft at 130 MHz

First, I want to state for the record that I have been working with high power R.F. transmitters and countermeasures sets, radar, communications, deception repeaters and jammers since 1973, and am quite experienced with in-flight dynamics of VHF signal propagation from both low altitude and high altitude aircraft, both civilian and military.

Now, the average person is not too familiar with voltage standing wave ratios, or effective radiated power, insertion or line losses, reflected power, antenna gain factors or for that matter antenna radiation patterns on aircraft, as I am. I have extensive experience in these matters and have the actual aviation experience in a wide variety of aircraft, with regard to everything from H.F. long haul communications to millimeter wave jamming or ECM systems, radar, and navigation equipment.

For this discussion we are going to talk strictly about 130 MHz, not 2 MHz, not 17 GHz, and the beam pattern and directionality and effective ranges of these systems on both commercial, military and commercial aircraft both below and above the 12,500 pound weight category.

For those of you who are unfamiliar with path loss nomographs for 130 MHz, I would like you to make it a point to study the diagram below. Notice that no assumption is made for effective radiated power, or system gain factors, and there is a reason for this.

This diagram is shown to illustrate the fact that, contrary to assertions by JREF and Unexplained Mysteries bloggers, radio waves do not just "keep on propagating" outwards at their original radiated power levels, without being attenuated over distance. When the path losses and other factors exceed the transmitter power and effective radiated power, as well as minimum discernible signal sensitivity of the receiver system, on any radial from the aircraft, and any angle of incidence, there is no possible communication then. Does this mean that the signals just stop moving thru space? Absolutely not.

But what this does mean is that as the distance increases to a point whereupon the signal power level decays below any possibility of detection by even triple conversion receivers with very selective front end circuitry that have incredibly high (-148 dBm or thereabouts) minimum discernible signal capture capability (which ACARS does not, nominally have, at it’s fairly robust –107 dBm), then beyond that range, detection and demodulation by any terrestrial, hig

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 4
📰︎ r/aviation
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👤︎ u/T34Truth
📅︎ Jun 23 2021
🚨︎ report
$ASTS - The SpaceX for Mobile Phones - $6MM YOLO with Real DD

Author: u/thekookreport(Karma: 2074, Created: Feb-2021).

$ASTS - The SpaceX for Mobile Phones - $6MM YOLO with Real DD on r/WallStreetBets


PICTURES DETECTED: this DD post is better viewed in it's original post

Let me start by saying I've invested nearly $6MM in what I believe to be a generational investment opportunity brought about by significant cost disruption in satellite launch costs, innovations in marrying satellite technology to low-earth orbit ("LEO") applications, and advances in LTE network architecture. We are early in the commercialization of LEO and $ASTS is at the vanguard.

Inside of SpaceX, most investors rest their hat on the value of Starlink, which will provide FIXED-POINT broadband to customers, albeit at very high costs and with unclear quality. They value is at $40bn+. This equates to $200 per share for $ASTS, by way of comparison. So there "is a there, there" in terms of what we are playing for here.

Just like Facebook found out after it's IPO, the real market is and always will be in MOBILE. Starlink cannot translate to mobile unless you intend to haul a trailer behind you with a satellite dish. See below for an artist rendition of Starlink's mobile solution vs. ASTS' actual mobile solution - your existing handset

Haha - let's get back to business...read on

$ASTS AST Spacemobile has re-imagined what's possible after the significant cost disruption in satellite launch, which has allowed it to marry two key innovations to provide satellite connectivity to A REGULAR MOBILE DEVICE:

  1. Because launch costs are just a fraction of what they used to be, $ASTS is launching satellites 10x as large as those of traditional satellite phone satellites. This allows the satellite to do the work, not the phone
  2. By innovating with software, $ASTS can make the satellite connection work with existing LTE networks by only working with the carriers' ground terminals to compensate for the Doppler effect; importantly, ASTS works with any normal phone without requiring any modifications

Here is the overview of the FACTS

PRODUCT:

• ASTS is building the first-of-a kind and only space-based cellular broadband network that is **

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 17
💬︎
📅︎ Jun 16 2021
🚨︎ report
VHF propagation from aircraft at 130 MHz

First, I want to state for the record that I have been working with high power R.F. transmitters and countermeasures sets, radar, communications, deception repeaters and jammers since 1973, and am quite experienced with in-flight dynamics of VHF signal propagation from both low altitude and high altitude aircraft, both civilian and military.

Now, the average person is not too familiar with voltage standing wave ratios, or effective radiated power, insertion or line losses, reflected power, antenna gain factors or for that matter antenna radiation patterns on aircraft, as I am. I have extensive experience in these matters and have the actual aviation experience in a wide variety of aircraft, with regard to everything from H.F. long haul communications to millimeter wave jamming or ECM systems, radar, and navigation equipment.

For this discussion we are going to talk strictly about 130 MHz, not 2 MHz, not 17 GHz, and the beam pattern and directionality and effective ranges of these systems on both military and commercial aircraft both below and above the 12,500 pound weight category.

For those of you who are unfamiliar with path loss nomographs for 130 MHz, I would like you to make it a point to study the diagram below. Notice that no assumption is made for effective radiated power, or system gain factors, and there is a reason for this.

This diagram is shown to illustrate the fact that, contrary to assertions by JREF and Unexplained Mysteries bloggers, radio waves do not just "keep on propagating" outwards at their original radiated power levels, without being attenuated over distance. When the path losses and other factors exceed the transmitter power and effective radiated power, as well as minimum discernible signal sensitivity of the receiver system, on any radial from the aircraft, and any angle of incidence, there is no possible communication then. Does this mean that the signals just stop moving thru space? Absolutely not.

But what this does mean is that as the distance increases to a point whereupon the signal power level decays below any possibility of detection by even triple conversion receivers with very selective front end circuitry that have incredibly high (-148 dBm or thereabouts) minimum discernible signal capture capability (which ACARS does not, nominally have, at it’s fairly robust –107 dBm), then beyond that range, detection and demodulation by any terrestrial, high gain, very

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 4
📰︎ r/copypasta
💬︎
👤︎ u/T34Truth
📅︎ Jun 29 2021
🚨︎ report

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