A. Rift Zones
B. Sea-Floor Spreading Areas
C. Subducting Plate Boundaries
D. The Mid Ocean Ridges
(I think it's C, But I really don't know. I need a second opinion)
How come subduction plate boundaries produce stronger earthquakes when they are deeper? Surely in theory conservative boundaries should produce stronger earthquakes that deal more damage as they occur closer to the surface and also are caused from a release of extreme pressure.
I am near graduating with a B.S. in Geology and I enjoy playing dayZ SA on occasion (230hrs.) Over time, I have always been thinking about the geology of Chernarus. It wasn't until recently that I have decided to take a different approach to playing the game; one that involves less killing, looting, From now on, I will be travelling the map and studying the geology that I see. I will post my observations on here. Side note: Most of them will be me pointing out things that are geologically in-accurate, but that doesn't mean I'm complaining, they are just suggestions if anyone would care to change them.
Some first observations after playing for a bit today:
The water level in the wetlands near Rify(shipwreck) needs to be lowered to match sea level. (136,042;DayZDB)
Unless sea level has risen dramatically over recent geologic years, the shores of the whole continent need to exhibit some sort of a fining, and/or sorting gradient in a basinward (towards sea) direction. [Observed in every beach I have been to.]
Over the whole course of playing DayZ, my large-scale interpretation of the geology would be that Chernarus is positioned at a rather tectonically-inactive, continental margin. Although no observed subducting plate-boundary, the various batholiths/plutons throughout the area may have an unknown origin within the mantle. It is apparent that weathering/erosional processes have continued for a long time (enough soil to support plant growth, river valleys, etc.). Due to nature of DayZ being a game, the lithologies can only be assumed to be felsic metamorphic/igneous rocks.
These are just some observations right now. If anyone has any of their own, I would be very interested in seeing what they are. Cheers, and be careful of those zombies.
Obvs this will take millions of years but which country will be the first to leave its continent? India is pushing into Asia which is continuing to raise the Himalayas, it stands to reason somewhere else is doing the opposite and will one day cease to be in its original continent. I wonder where is moving fastest and if there are any predictions of what the globe will look like in the future.
Are the tectonic plates today the same ones we have always had? For example the Rocky Mountains and Appalachian Mountains are not on one of these fault lines, how did they emerge?
I have a BS in geology, so one of my friends asked me this when I was explaining the development of the San Andreas fault, and I didn't know what to tell him. Why, if the Pacific Plate is an oceanic plate, is part of California on it. Basically, why is part of Southern California's landmass on the western side of the fault and why doesn't it run closer to the coast?
After reading about how the cinder cone Paricutin rose out of a farmer's field in Mexico in 1943, this has got me thinking about a few questions:
I have done some searching into these questions, but I have found it difficult to find any answers
So, I’m trying to create a fantasy world that I plan to use for writing, and I want to get the world building right. So, I’m starting (literally) from the ground up and trying to drsign the tectonic plates before anything else; this makes more sense to me because if I can hammer out the terrain, climates, and biomes first, that’ll give me a better idea of where civilizations will pop up and what their cultures would grow into (as opposed to working backwards and retrofit the worldbuilding to the cultures).
But the thing is that I’m having a hard time coming up with a satisfactory plate map. I keep worrying about the number of plates, which boundaries are which types, etc. So, assuming that this planet will be relatively Earthlike, some questions I have include:
- Aside from perfect shapes, like squares/rectangles and circles, are there certain shapes that a plate wouldn’t naturally form into? And do round edges occur, or should I have “overall rounded, but jagged/terraced” edges?
- Does the overall shape inform the type of boundaries? Like, if a larger plate has a somewhat bowed boundary next to a relatively smaller plate, does that mean the boundary is convergant with the smaller plate exerting greater force on the larger?
- How many plates would be too many? Would, say 15-20 large plates be too many? Should I have fewer large plates interspersed with smaller ones here and there?
- Is there a general rule for what plates should be continental or oceanic (aside from density and composition)? Like, larger plates should be oceanic, or something like that?
Guidance in these areas would really help me out. Thanks!
Hey guys. So just to preface this, I am not a geologist. I have to background in geology or anything pertaining to it. However, I am developing a world for a story from the ground up, and I dont know anyone else with the knowledge to answer any question(s) I have. Now on with it then.
What determines how tectonic plates move in relation to one another? I know that we have convergent, divergent, and transform boundaries. However, after I've drawn out my tectonic plates in GPlates and identified my "Atlantic Fault" equivalent and its divergent boundaries, I am not certain how to plan out the movement of the other plates in a way that makes sense. Does the divergent boundary of my "AF" simply pushes into the next boundary and causes it to push up against the next one over??
Any help would be greatly appreciated. I'd need be I am willing to share what I have so far to perhaps provide a better view of what I'm working with. Thanks for you time!
I came across some animations by Chris Scotese which gave me quite some insight into plate tectonics and climate. Most of the animations are backed up by academic papers and use publically available data and tools like Gplates.
What I really got from this is that you can apply a time and location to most things. If you don't like how it looks in the present, look into the past or project into the future cos everything is always changing. This has really got me thinking about timelines and more dynamic worlds.
I realize I may be functioning under a misconception and would love clarity. Say I am looking at the African plate. It includes the oceanic crust on its western side (in the Atlantic) and the continental portion. However, there is no boundary where the two types of crust meet. Does the oceanic just "rise" out of the ocean to form land? Aren't there great density and thickness differences between oceanic and continental? Is there a technical difference between oceanic crust and oceanic plate that I have overlooked? I realize this question can apply to other major plates as well. Any help would be greatly appreciated.
I tried to search about this everywhere but I can't find an answer for it, so I hopped onto this subreddit hoping I can find one here. So, how are minor plates formed?
If this is the wrong sub, can someone please tell which would be the right sub?
It is often said that tectonic plates move somewhere between the speed of growth for fi gernails and hair, depending on where, but as far as I've understood this only refers to motion where the plate's surface moves along whereas the plate itself stays put.
Very few animations I've found show tectonic plate borders — most just show continents, some show seafloor — so my question is, how much do the borders between tectonic plates change?
Are there resources on more specifically how tectonic plates move in general? All I can find are videos of continents drifting around with no explanation.
So I'm looking at plate tectonics, and I'm wondering if it's possible for a plate to be bent at a transform boundary by another more massive plate, so that it curls into itself, possibly forming a subduction zone at its collision
I'm a worldbuilder and I'm trying to make my first some what realistic world, and I have a question on plate tectonics. If a plate was moving south could the one north of it also be moving south? If so what would be happening there like trenches for oceanic or mountains for continental or nothing at all? Also if one was moving south could the one to the east of it be moving east, and if so what would be happening?
Thanks in advance.
I'm a programmer, and I have a high level goal of writing a world generator that makes a world map which I will use later for a game. I want to do it with a rough simulation of plate tectonics. I wanted it to be somewhat consistent with reality where it makes sense, but its ultimately for fun so I don't need to get every little thing right. For example, I am not concerned with simulating the mantle for its own sake. But I do want boundaries to form in plausible places. I have occasionally gone on spurts where I scour google/reddit etc and learned a bit. I have a very basic mental model of how things work, but there are spots where I am unclear and I may be wrong in what I know.
The way I understand it is that tectonic plates are like conveyor belts that are moving from divergent boundaries towards convergent boundaries, following a cell pattern. Depending on the composition and thickness of the plate, its speed may very, and it can stretch or bunch up as it travels.
I realise that there are all sorts of different types of rock, but I am simplifying that part of it to continent and plate.
The thing I am most unclear about is the general motion of the plates. Looking at 2d projections makes it very hard to see what the motion of the plates really looks like as a whole. And I know there is rotation, and its not as simple as going from point a to point b over a long period of time. The general motion of an individual plate isn't something I get yet. Or how "fluid" they are.
The continents seem to make sense as much as I need them too. They just ride the conveyor belt, and bunch up or tear apart based on what they are riding. And there is some rate of creation, "destruction", and a constant rate of erosion. If there is a point I am missing here I don't know it. I think I know enough on this to do what i need to do.
The biggest question mark for me is the boundaries themselves, and how they move and change over time.
I can see stability in divergent boundaries. But convergent boundaries seem unstable. One plate is sinking, the other is not. Or can it switch? So does that mean that the subducting plate is slowly being covered by the other plate? Does that mean that a convergent boundary is moving towards one of the plate's divergent boundaries? That makes sense from a surface perspective, but less so when thinking of plates as the top of a convection cell.
Aside from the above I don't know what else might drive how these boundaries change over tim... keep reading on reddit ➡
Here we go with a new must-read paper from those elected by the Tectonics and Structural Geology Community (https://blogs.egu.eu/divisions/ts/2020/06/09/tectonics-and-structural-geology-must-read-papers-introduction/)!
This time we will read and discuss one of the papers that led to a paradigm shift in Earth Sciences and would become one of the basis of plate tectonics: Wilson (1965) introduction to the concept of the transform fault.
You can find it as: WILSON, J. A New Class of Faults and their Bearing on Continental Drift. Nature 207, 343–347 (1965). https://doi.org/10.1038/207343a0
What is your experience with this paper? Why is this paper still so relevant in tectonics and structural geology? How do you think this paper has influenced modern studies on tectonics and structural geology?
We are looking forward to your comments! r/geology r/EarthScience
Idk if this is the right place to put this because it is a goofy question but Is the earth just constantly producing rocks? Like I know there are volcanic rocks, sedimentary ETC. but does anything special have to happen or is the earth just kind of popping out rocks all the time. How are we not just overrun with rocks and big boulders. Any answers appreciated!
Hello, I have recently switched my major to Geology, and I am just trying to learn as much as possible. Right now we are learning about different plate boundaries.
I don’t understand why there are no trenches and Lithospheric subduction on say the coast of Africa. Why doesn’t every continent have a trench alongside it, like the Peru Chile trench for example. The crust created at mid ocean ridges has to be gotten rid of somehow, so why does it not sink into the mantle all the time (at ocean-continent convergence zones) I’ve heard that the Atlantic Ocean is growing while the Pacific is shrinking. I just can’t wrap my head around why exactly this is happening and the lithosphere is not subducted along all oceanic-continental margins.
I’ve heard that the crust formed in the Atlantic replaces all other oceanic crust, but why does this crust push against continents rather than subduct under them.
I hope this isn’t a very dumb question, it’s just confusing because to me it makes way more sense having the crust formed along the crests of the mid ocean ridge which is then eventually pushed to a continent in which the oceanic lithosphere subducts into the mantle in a continuous cycle and this seems to be how to book explained it.
I’m a beginner pretty much so forgive my stupidity if this is really obvious.
I've taken to doing more fantasy cartography, and I've started using GPlates for plate tectonics. Of course, I don't have real data to work with, so I'm doing some research into geology and plate tectonics to make a possible and even likely planet without turning it into an earth analog. This started out with some basic plate boundary sketches and has turned into a rather intricate network of plates and arrows indicating direction. The problem is, I'm not a geologist, so while I can do all the internet research I'd like, I don't have all the knowledge acquired that would make this as real as possible.
As such, I have a two-pronged, multi-part question to those geologists and more experienced world builders.
One: are these plate boundaries probable, or even possible? Some of them have no analogs on earth (that I'm aware of, at least), but work in my head.
The second prong to my question is this: is there a way to simulate the movement, deformation, and creation of hand-drawn tectonic plates that won't turn into a bunch of coding? I'm not the most adept at code, and I would only ask so much of my girlfriend.
I'll preface this by saying that I only want to point out something in from our real world that reminds me so much of Planetos' oily black stones: chromite and ophiolite deposits.
Chromite (wikipedia) — (Fe, Mg)Cr2O4 — is a chromium resource. Chromium is a critical compotent of modern steel (~13% Cr makes steel stainless. And harder as we found out in the 1800s). As to whether ASOIAF's steel contains it, therefore establishing knowledge and demand of it, I wouldn't know. (The maester links have steel and valyrian steel, but no mention of chromium. In which case, any chromite deposit would not be purposely mined out, leaving it where it sits).
So anyway, why I always think of chromite everytime I hear "oily black stone" is because of the mineral's diagnostic property of luster. That and its color and where it is usually found.
In my time at uni, we identified the mineral chromite by its iron-black or "pitch black" color, a metallic or "greasy" luster, and a brown streak (streak is a mineral's color in powdered form but won't be discussed in this post due to lack of info).
Looking at it now, mineralogy websites don't mention the "pitch black" color (only "black") but mindat.org includes "greasy" for chromite's luster. Moving on.
>The throne of the Greyjoys, carved into the shape of a kraken from an oily black stone.. (WOIAF)
>Born a bastard on the Iron Islands, [Maester] Theron noted a certain likeness between the black stone of the ancient fortress [of Oldtown] and that of the Seastone Chair.. (WOIAF)
Oily is just another word for greasy. That is even how the stones of Asshai are described in WOAIF:
>Some say as well that the stone of Asshai has a greasy, unpleasant feel to it, that it seems to drink the light, dimming tapers and torches and hearth fires alike. The nights are very black in Asshai, all agree, and even the brightest days of summer are somehow grey and gloomy. -Asshai-by-the-Shadow
Remembering chromite with pitch black color, and the notion of black stone that "seems to drink the light" (like the image of pitch as in viscous tar) is just so amusing to me everytime I read the line.
Chromite (SG= 4.5 to 5.1) is half as dense as silver or twice denser than Earth's average crustal density (2 to 2.6) but whether it's as dense as the oily stone blocks, it's hard to make sure:
>Maesters and other scholars alike... keep reading on reddit ➡
> 🌎 Earthquake! 6.3 Md, registered by NC, 2019-08-29 15:07:42 UTC (daytime) Off Coast Of Oregon (44.19, -129.53), ↓1 km likely felt 340 km away (service.ncedc.org)
what geologic formations form from convergent plate boundaries for the following type of subduction zones: oceanic crust- oceanic crust; oceanic crust – continental crust; and continental crust – continental crust?
After the third pony keg of beer was delivered, it was decided that the next few days would be spent in the conference room discussing what we thought was the best way forward.
We wanted dry-erase boards so we could start taking detailed notes, even though I was well ahead of the curve in that regard. We instead ended up with some mobile elementary-school blackboards and a pile of grainy, sooty chalk.
Leave it to Dr. Cliff to go into a discourse on the genesis of chalk and its economic importance.
Bloody carbonate geologists.
Bloody White Cliffs.
We geologists need to punctuate their conversations with pictures, so these would suffice quite well.
At 1700 hours, the official end to the workday was called; we’d meet here again tomorrow. I’m not certain by whom, but it was readily agreed upon. We were more or less on our own until 1000 the next day. I needed to spend some time in my room with my notes and update a number of dossiers, field notebooks, and other items I was using as a running chronicle.
Several folks decided to invade one of the hotel’s restaurants for dinner. Some wanted to head to the casino, a couple wanted to get a massage, and others wanted to do what tourists are normally wont to do on the second day of being a foreigner in a foreign land.
I declined invitations to dinner and other activities, as I had a long writing session in front of me. I wanted to get this all in its proper place while the memories and notes were still fresh.
30 minutes later, in my room after a 25-minute wait for the elevator; I’m updating dossiers, creating several new ones, and updating my field notebooks. Suddenly, after an hour’s work, I notice something is amiss.
“I don’t have a drink or a cigar,” I said to the four walls. “This. Will. Not. Do.”
I was used to Happy Hour in Russia. Happy hour is slightly different; there are no ice cubes or orange-peel twists in the vodka. Also, it lasts all day.
I remedy that situation by finding and clipping a nice, oily oscuro cigar and digging the bourbon out from under my boxer-briefs in my dresser drawer. I heft the bottle and feel that it’s significantly lighter than when I left it last night. I happen to look in the trash can and spy the wrapper for a box of my festively colored Sobranie cigarettes I obtained back in Dubai.
“Hmmm”, I think, “It would appear that we have some light-fingered Cho Louies or No Louises around here. I’d best guard my supplies a little more securely.”
I mo... keep reading on reddit ➡
That being handled, I leave a wakeup call for 0430 as I want a shower and a couple shower-sunrisers before we leave. It takes me about 10 minutes to pack. I call home to let Es know what’s going on. She’s not in, so I leave a message. Same for my friends Rack and Ruin of the Agency. They’re thrilled so far with my reports.
The security forces here are absolutely going to freak if they reverse-review my phone records once we leave.
Covert? Schmovert. I’m too old for playing such games.
The next morning, after a sudsy shower and a couple of vodka-infused shower-beers; I’m in the lobby with all my kit, checked-out, and waiting on the tour leader. My passport was stamp-stamp-stampity-stamped here at the hotel, which I thought was weird, but after spending time in this here country, not all that unusual.
At 0545 on the dime, the tour bus pulls into the lot. Without a word, bellhops grab near all my kit and escort it out to the waiting bus.
After tipping each extravagantly, I fire up a huge cigar, and wander around outside, loitering by the bus. I see members of my team at the front desk, checking out. Everything’s been paid for already, they just have to sign documents that they’re not secreting hotel towels or televisions or errant nationals in their luggage.
It’s a weird country.
I see them loading box breakfasts for us as well as box lunches on the bus.
Hell, they’re actually doing ‘field trip’ correctly.
If the bus us fueled up, we can go for days at this rate. There are several coolers bearing the hotel’s brand and I sidle over to see what they’re carrying.
Case after case of iced-down beer and a couple of cases of various high-octane potables; and over there? A couple of boxes of mixers…ah, soda…pop…carbonated citrusy goodness.
“OK”, I sigh, “All is as it should be. Now the field excursion may begin.”
My teammates filter outside as does their luggage. I suggest they get out and keep what is necessary for preliminary outcrop excursions; such as a backpack or knapsack, hammer, acid bottles, field notebooks, Brunton compass, lighters, cameras, personal tobacco products, and the like in the bus. That way, we don’t have to go tearing through all the luggage at every stop.
I pull out a bundle of 100 Hubco™ large geological dual-sample bags. That’s right: ‘dual’ sample…
I distribute these to everyone on the team... keep reading on reddit ➡
My understanding of tectonic plates is that they fit together like pieces of a jigsaw on the earth's surface. They have a little bit of wiggle room to move along the magma below, but not so much that they could move all over the earth without hitting into another plate.
How then could Pangea get split up so much? It's like two adjacent pieces of the jigsaw managed to move to opposite sides of the puzzle; did they slide over their neighbours to get away from each other?
I think that maybe some parts of the plates slid under their neighbours and were lost, while at other parts of the plate, magma was released and rebuilt forming new plate (like if a road was being extended at one end and destroyed at the other, it would look like the plate's 'moving'). I haven't seen explicitly said anywhere so either I'm wrong or I'm just not googling the right string of words!
“Yes, sir!”, and he’s gone, off down the hall, and out of sight.
I set up my portable office, kick off my boots and back brace, and realize that I’m tired.
I also need to make a few calls. Esme first.
“OK, let’s see. I’m 14 hours ahead.” I ponder, “Guess I’ll just send off some Emails, and let the calls go until I get to Taiwan.”
Right after doing so, there’s a knock at the door. It’s my redcap friends with a serving cart.
“Right over here, thanks”, I tell him as he unloads everything onto the bar.
I inspect what he’s found for me.
“Żubrówka Bison Grass Vodka”, I say, “Very nice. Bitter lemon, limes, ice…couldn’t be better.”
Then he tells me that there’s little change from the funds I had supplied him earlier.
“Prices expensive here. Even more so at the airport.” He explains.
“I can understand that”, I say, “Can I see a receipt? Not that I don’t trust you, I need to figure out a tip.”
He was right, it was damned expensive. Glad I’m not paying for it.
I fish around in my wallet and find another double sawbuck to hand over.
He thanks me and tells me that if I need anything else, just call.
“I’m good. Thanks.” I reply and shut and lock the door.
Realizing that I’m rather hungry, I order up a load of Dim Sum and “Crab Indulgence” from room service. The food, though pricey, was worth every shekel.
I leave a wakeup call with the front desk for 8 hours hence.
I spend time going over our itinerary and my field notebooks. Convinced they’re as far as I can take them at this point in our journey, I retire to the Jacuzzi with a couple of stiff drinks, cigars, and the latest copy of Science magazine.
I’m such an unrepentant hedonist.
I decide to leave Mr. Sin to his own devices. I need a bit of recuperation time, these 16-hour flights can really wear one down.
The phone rings what seems like 10 minutes later. Checking my Omega, I groggily realize it’s my wake up call. Time to fly again.
I quickly shower, dress, and head down to the front lobby. I settle up my bill and look around for Mr. Sin.
He’s nowhere to be found, and I don’t have any way to contact him…unless he’s still in his room.
I go to the front desk and ask them to ring his room.
After 20 or so rings, he groggily answers the phone. Luckily, the hotel staff relays my message that he needs to get his skinny ass down here as our flight is going to be leaving soon and we, oddly enough, need to be on it.
He replies in the affirmative. I tell him to mee... keep reading on reddit ➡
So there are 3 different types of tectonic boundaries. Divergent covergent and transform. Can they mix? for example can one tectonic plate go into another while the another plate is moving sidevays? and are different kind of mixes possible?
This is the Trilithon of Ha'amonga 'a Maui. It is located in Tonga, it is the only trilithon in the entire region, and the visible part of each upright stone is estimated to weigh 30-40 tons.
It is believed to have been built in the 13th century as an entryway to the reigning monarchs royal compound. Oh, wait, no it isn't.
According to wikipedia, it could have been built at that time, or it could have been built in the 6th century as 'an astronomical observatory.' These two accounts conflict wildly, differ by seven hundred years and distinctly show that we have no real idea where the trilithon came from at all.
This means that there is absolutely no set date for its construction, and I see no reason why the structure couldn't have been appropriated as both an astronomical observatory in the 6th century, then later as a gateway in the 13th. What we might be seeing is two uses of an already existing structure. No reason to believe either of these dates are when it was actually built.
Local legend says it was created by the god Maui, which ties into the supposed origins of a lot of different megaliths - that they were either created by or for various gods. Believers in ancient aliens and the like would probably say these tales are a primitive recollection of alien visitation, but I see no reason to come to this conclusion. Humans absolutely can and have lifted and cut stones of this size, its just a question of when and by whom.
The two standing stones in this trilithon are absolutely huge, and we have no idea how far they have sunk into the ground over the past (bare minimum) 700 years. For all we know they could be significantly bigger than people think - just like how the easter island 'heads' have bodies underground and so on.
There is a hell of a lot of speculation on websites like ancient origins and the like that claims all sorts of things about the astronomical uses of such a megalith, the purpose of the structure, and so on, but obviously there is no real way to know for sure what its purpose was. But I am not here to talk about its purpose.
What I believe to be the most significant aspect of this megalith is its uniqueness to the region.... keep reading on reddit ➡
I was looking at this map of seismic risk.
I noticed the highest risk areas on the Americas were all the west coast and that there are not a lot of major islands there.
I noticed that the highest risk areas on the Australasian side were all islands like Japan, Taiwan, Philippines New Guinea, New Zealand leaving the Mainland coasts of Asia and Australia relatively free of seismic risk.
Why is this?
I'm creating a map for a low to mid* fantasy world (exact details to be decided at a later date.) I've created some tectonic plates and continents, but am having some trouble placing down mountain and volcano ranges.
Here's my current best guess with volcano ranges in red and mountain ranges in brown.
Magenta is subduction, yellow is sliding, blue-purple is collision.
Using some stuff from my half-remembered Geology 100 class, I put volcanos on ocean/continent boundaries and hotspot locations, and mountains on continent/continent boundraries and the locations of earlier collisions.
I also have a version of the map where I guess at currently ongoing subduction/collision/sliding zones, but, seeing as I'm not an actual geologist, I have no clue how realistic this stuff really is. Any help would be appreciated, and if you notice anything else that seems unrealistic, just tell me.
Any other analysis for elevation/climate/whatever is also welcome.
*Meaning I can't use "a wizard did it" as an excuse for unrealistic geography
If you check a map of seismicity for Western North America, you might notice that besides the predictable seismic activity of the southern and central Cordillera, there is an anomalous region of relatively high seismicity associated with its northeastern limits, the Mackenzie Mountains, the Franklin Mountains, which represent the limit of the active Mackenzie fold and thrust system, and the Richardson Mountains to their Northwest, where the thrust sense of deformation gives way to transpressional, right-lateral strike slip movement at the far western edge of the region.
Besides being hundreds of kilometers from an active plate boundary, the active plate boundary itself is largely of the strike slip kind, and it’s in the wrong direction, representing relative movement northwest of the pacific plate along the Queen Charlotte and Fairweather faults. Convergence begins at the active collision of the Yakutat block and the rapidly rising St Elias mountains, and flat-slab subduction west of that, dipping towards the interior of Alaska and Denali, but again, the direction is to north/northwest, something close to 90 degrees west of the direction of shortening in the Mackenzie Mountains far to the Northeast.
Yet the earthquakes and geodetic data show that the Mackenzie mountains are actively undergoing shortening.
I have found only one paper that addresses this strange situation directly, and they implicate “strain transfer” due to collision of the Yakutat block as a continental (well, oceanic plateau) indentor as the tectonic driver in this situation.
Other complexities to consider are:
1.) Likely subduction or slab-edge flow driven active volcanism in the Wrangell Volcanic Belt, between the Yakutat block and the Mackenzies (but again the slab is to the west, dipping NW, there is no slab dipping under Canada towards the northeast.)
2.) Likely incipient continental rifting in the interior of Northern BC and southern YT, as evidenced from geochemical signatures associated with the large, active Northern Cordillera Volcanic Province, relatively thin crust, and total lack of seismicity in the region. So despite active subduction in Cascadia to the south, west-northwest movement of the North American plate, and apparent shortening to the Northeast in the Mackenzie mountains, the region in between is in active extension. Perhaps some kind of tectonic escape situation, where northern interior BC is being squeezed apart along strike slip faults (Queen Charlott... keep reading on reddit ➡
I'm sure we've all seen Inverted Earth maps before, such as this one. It's a cool concept, and the results can be intriguing.
That said, it's immediately obvious to anyone who knows even basic geography that simply inverting coastlines produces a pretty but profoundly unconvincing map. It just feels kind of wrong: the inlets and fjords are all peninsulae, the trailing edges become unconvincing lake chains, the volcanic islands provide a bizarre set of potholes in otherwise solid land. Even beyond that, it just doesn't look like authentic landmasses, as produced by actual tectonic motion.
So, what if you inverted the map on a more abstract level? What if you took a tectonic plate map, like this, and reversed the forces on the plates? Where we currently have divergent plate boundaries, there are now subduction zones, and visa versa. Then, take that new map and build all the way up. Oceanic and continental plate types, continents and mountain ranges, wind currents, rainforests and rivers and rainshadow deserts. A very different Inverted Earth.
Has anyone done this before? I'd really like to see it if they have, and if no one has then I'd certainly be very appreciative of anyone who gave it a go!
I'm a noob when it comes to tectonics but I have quite a bit of interest in physics so bear with me. Okay, imagine a hypothetical geological situation where tectonic plate motion is in full swing but the formation of mountains is absent is such a situation possible? If yes, then what would the consequences be to the geological make up of the earth. I visualise that it can only be Possible if the plates are extremely rigid in that case the phenomenon of folding doesn't occur (no mountains) but the immense impulse of the two rigid plates colliding with such high momentums would result in fractures which is due to lack of plate elasticity which would inturn result in extermely violent tectonic dynamics for a short period of time with immense fragmentation (or possibly even no fragmentation at all I dunno?) and eventually if the world is hot no plates at all or if it's cool in zero motion. Also what would happen if the plates on the earth were more rigid not to the point of not folding, just more rigid than they already are right now would that give rise to a more violent system or a more calm one. I feel if they are more rigid it would result in weaker shock absorbing capacity? and cause more stronger tremors and result in shorter mountains. am I right? Explain to me like I were 5 years old Focus the context more on fold mountains and large mountains and there formation
In short: does resisting plate deformation result in a more violent system with more tremors?
To my understanding there are around 18 tectonic plates of varying size. They consist of the Earth's crust and uppermost mantle, which is relatively cold and stiff. They in turn sit on the more plastic, flowing asthenosphere, and this is what moves them around. What I don't understand is:
Why are the crust divided into "parts" (plates), and not just one big mass of moving rock? Like, if the Earth is an egg and the crust is the white shell, why are there cracks in the shell - why does the Earth not have an intact shell? Does that make sense?
Looking at a map, it seems like the continents shape more or less conforms to that of the plate on which it sits. Is this a coincidence? How are continents and tectonic plates related?
Can two plates collide without continents colliding?
Sorry, my fault.
Recently I was mapping out the plate boundaries for my world and I noticed that I had some divergent land-ocean plate boundaries, and I’m not quite sure what to do with them. My current hypothesis are cliffs that drop onto the sea with volcanic activity. Any thoughts?