Why is the medieval era Roman Empire usually referred to as the Byzantine Empire in historical texts?

I realize the obvious answers to this are that they did not hold the city of Rome for most of that era and that their capital during that era was the city formerly known as Byzantium. However, they always referred to themselves as the Roman Empire (Empire of Romans if you want to literally translate), while outsiders tended to as well with the exception of some nations in the West as far as I know.

So building on my question, how is it that "Byzantine Empire" came to be the dominant term? Is this common across most languages, or is it something particular to English? Finally, will this ever change? I have noticed a few historians starting to refer to it as the Roman Empire instead.

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Conflicts between the Germanic Tribes and the Romans existed for centuries, spanning from before the time of Caesar, to when the Western Roman Empire fell which would mean that these conflicts lasted for at least 400 years. What made the Germanic tribes so difficult to defeat for Romans?

EDIT - Sorry, my bad. I did not realise that Gauls, Celts, and Germanic tribes were not the same thing.

From the history that I gathered of the Classical Roman Empire, the Germanic tribes have been a persistent problem for the Romans.

Even when people like Caesar managed to conquer some lands that were owned by the Gauls (who were one of the many Germanic tribes that existed) or when Germanic tribes even fought for the Roman empire like Caesar's elite Germanic cavalry, the Germanic tribes, which were of many different kinds and had different names and sub-cultures like the Franks and the Celts, they kept on being a persistent problem for the Roman empire.

Sometimes, there were constant battles within the borders of the empire where no side managed to advance or conquer tiny bits of lands so they were in a constant stalemate.

So what made the Germanic tribes a persistent issue for the Roman empire? Was it because there were more tribes than the Roman empire thought or because the Germanic tribes continued to band together against the Roman empire or managed to involve in their technologies and strategies the same way the empire did?

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What were the relations like between the western and eastern Roman empire?

Did they view themselves as a single roman state under 2 rulers, or 2 separated allied states? When the western empire was besieged by the goths and huns in the 5th century, why didnt the eastern legions come to their aid? Also - did the western empire and eastern empire ever come under direct conflict with one another?

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