The major crypto currencies – My perspective through history

Here is my take on major distributed ledgersmajor in the sense of the market capitalization of their native token, ecosystem, ICO, technological influence, or innovation. I'll talk about blockchains since it's the most popular distributed ledger.

What these techniques to accomplish is:

  • Data distributed on a peer-to-peer network across multiple sites and entities.
  • The nodes are synchronized and agree on a shared state of the data using a consensus mechanism.
  • The consensus must be byzantine fault tolerant, i.e. a few unidentified bad actors cannot convince other nodes that their state is correct.

> Please leave a comment if there is a mistake. > I don't know much about blockchain, cryptography, or economy.

I hope it is useful, at least it helped me to settle down things.

Read more about…

Bitcoin – First generation (PoW)

The original proof-of-concept of a Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System using a blockchain with proof-of-work consensus. Launched in 2009.

In Proof of work:

  1. All nodes compete to mine the next block.
  2. When a block is found, the new block it is communicated to the rest of the network. All other 10,000 nodes are easily convinced it is the next block, and they discard their attempts to find the block.
  3. The miner is rewarded with the creation of new tokens, as well as the transaction fees that senders were willing to pay.
  4. Iterate.

Pro Bitcoin

  • Very well know. For many people, cryptocurrency is Bitcoin. There are 300,000 transactions per day.
  • Proven by time. It's the first cryptocurrency, described in 2008.
  • Some argue that its limited supply makes it electronic gold. It has an inflation of 1.80% per year which progressively diminish to zero (around 2140).
  • An attack would need 50% of th
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👍︎ 61
👤︎ u/wakaseoo
📅︎ Mar 20 2021
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PASSED SEC+ (My Study Guide + Tips)

As someone who has been reading every single "I Passed!" post on here I'm super excited to finally be making one myself. With that being said I'm going to try to make this post as informational as some of the ones that I read that really motivated me and gave me some kind of assurance about this scary exam. It's gonna be long.. Lets do it:

My Test

  • 80 multiple choice and 5 PBQ
  • I passed with a score of 788 (750 required to pass)
  • I took it at a PearsonVUE Test Center instead of at home because:
    • I read horror stories of rude proctors failing people for stupid reasons
    • My room is probably too cluttered.. I have other systems and pets in here
    • I felt like the environment at a test center would put me "in the zone" or be less distracted (This was so true! Getting ready and physically leaving the house really put me in a good mindset for testing)
  • I skipped the PBQ's like everyone says to
  • I had 20 minutes of time left over to check my answers
  • The survey at the end felt like eternity

So when I woke up on exam day, I had a feeling that I could fail. I was only scoring 70-75 on my practice exams the day before which was really discouraging. I started gaining confidence once I was taking the exam though. Most people say that while they're taking the exam they felt like they were failing, but I was kind of gaining confidence with each question that I felt I knew the correct answer. I'd say there was only like 5 multiple choice questions that I just couldn't figure out and I only felt confident on 4/5 PBQ's (I'm not sure if I'm allowed to share what the simulations were due to the candidate agreement, but I definitely remember all of them and can say I had no idea how to do ONE of them. I definitely failed that one)

My Studies

First I want to say one important thing: Use multiple sources for material (I cant tell you how much content Gibson touched that Messer didn't, or Messer did but Gibson didn't.. if that makes sense.) and multiple methods of ingesting it. For example, I WATCHED hours and hours of videos, I READ from multiple sources, and I LISTENED in the car.

I had to study for quite a long time because I haven't worked in cybersecurity or IT or gone to school for any of this. So I'll have to go pretty far back on my study timeline in the order that I used them.

  • Mike Meyers A+ Udemy Course & Book (yep I said A+)
    • This was my first form of studying about a year ago. I was orig
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👍︎ 195
📰︎ r/CompTIA
📅︎ Mar 16 2021
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'ABC: Learn to Count with Dracula'

(THE) WORKING PUBLIC DRAFT ( originally posted at 1:23 am UTC; March 25th, 2021 ) [ 3:23 am local ]

Being a collected summary of the mental leaps one makes - or presumes to make; or is perhaps required or intended to make - while traversing the Web of Wyrd.

This document will grow significantly and change over several days. I will be editing it in place, and adding notes over time. It's form and organization might change drastically, like a mutant strain, since this is tricky material to explain (as the developers of neural networks will tell you - it's difficult to know and describe exactly what the 'mind' is doing as it performs it's work).

Ultimately this page, after a wandering prologue, will contain a list of perspectives on (and some guiding questions as to) gematria, numerology, and lexicon (ie. spellcraft) that I have found to be valuable with regards to interpretation - and which I often find easiest to present in the forms of rhetorical questions.

In other words, an augury toolbox, which you might describe as the list of subjective presumptions, ideas and whimsical notions that comprise the personal biases I apply as I attempt to extract information from the symbolic realm.

As Neo (aka. Jonathan Harker) discovers, one cannot be told what the Matrix (code) is - the One has to see it for Oneself.

However, what Neo is (or is not) told about the Matrix may (or may not) have some bearing upon how successfully he navigates it.

My original Disclaimer to this forum, which may or may not still be valid. WHO knows?

In the cypher that we may dub Agrippa's key...

  • "ABC: Learn to count with Dracula" = 2021 jewish-latin-agrippa

Of course, in this cypher, very intuitively, A=1 and B=2 and C=3 (and so on for the first 10 letters), and thus the above spell is equivalent to...

  • "123: Learn to count with Dracula" = 2021 jewish-latin-agrippa

... .. and also (with shortened descriptor).. ...

  • "Learn to count with Dracula: 1..2..3" = 2021 agrippa
  • "Learn to count with Dracula: A..B..C" = 2021 agrippa

  • "Writings" = 2021 in the square number cypher

... .. .. Counting ABC @ 123 .. .. ...

  • .. ( "Alphabetic Codes" = 123 basic alphabetic cypher )
  • .. ( "Reveal the Code" = 123
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👍︎ 6
📅︎ Mar 25 2021
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Misconceptions Regarding Dogecoin FAQ V1.3

This is a revised version of my previous article. I am going to try to update frequently.

Version 1.3 has the following changes

  • Shortened some questions, removed others and added others based on feedback from the community
  • Updated some of the spelling errors and minor typos.

This information below is important. I ask that you please take the time to read this entire post before making judgment or commenting. My discord group helped me create this FAQ on the majority of the most asked questioned and misunderstandings regarding Dogecoin, into the following key points. Even if you know the answers to some of these please read the entire post. The information builds upon each other to explain some of the more questions near the end.

  1. Question: What is Dogecoin?

Answer: Dogecoin (/ˈdoʊdʒkɔɪn/ DOHJ-koyn, code: DOGE, symbol: Ð) is a cryptocurrency invented by software engineers Billy Markus and Jackson Palmer, who decided to create a payment system that is instant, fun, and free from traditional banking fees. Dogecoin features the face of the Shiba Inu dog from the popular "Doge" meme as its logo and namesake. It was introduced on December 6, 2013, and quickly developed its own online community reaching a market capitalization of US $5,382,875,000 on January 28, 2021. [Wikipedia, 20210203]

  1. Question: Why Dogecoin?

Answer: For the Lolz. Well, not quite. Initially as a purely meme-driven alternative to the likes of Bitcoin and Litecoin, Dogecoin in-fact boasts very low transaction fees and fast transaction times, very little network congestion, and most importantly, is designed to be used as a daily means of exchange, like your morning cup of coffee. Also, it is really fun, and who doesn't like the Dog ?!

1/2 - second perspective) Question: What Is Dogecoin? And why Dogecoin?

Answer: Back a few years ago, some crazy people banded together in support of a cryptocurrency known as Dogecoin. Similar to other cryptocurrencies, Dogecoin, the people's crypto, finds itself with the support of hundreds if not thousands of individuals pushing for this currency to succeed. But why is that? Unless you have been absent from every social bubble, you may have heard of Bitcoin. For the purpose of this explanation, you will find that Bitcoin is not exactly an easy thing to equate to Dogecoin, but lets think about the criteria of a Cryptocurrency.Bitcoin did not find its foothold overnight. In fact, it took several years. A lot of people fought tooth and nail

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👍︎ 8
📰︎ r/dogecoin
📅︎ Mar 10 2021
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A different kind of DD - encryption and trust when prominent accounts are getting banned


(CC /u/rensole, /u/WardenElite2, /u/HeyItsPixel, @mods)

The span of just a day or two has seen the banning of not one but TWO prolific authors of insightful, detail-oriented DD, at the hands of shillbot report-spam. There's no reason to believe that's going to slow down, either. Sure, reddit accounts are free and those affected can just message a mod for restored posting access, but this is opening up the possibility of a potentially far more damaging shill attack: impersonation. Hell, someone could register the account /u/WardenElite_2 (the real one doesn't have the underscore) and sow all kinds of confusion throughout the subreddit. Or worse, an impersonator acting quickly after a ban could get themselves canonized as the "real" one. Yes, currently they're confirming themselves through pre-etablished Twitters, but in the absence of a blue checkmark that's also highly exploitable.

Luckily, there's a MUCH more secure, reliable method than referring to an alternate social media platform. It's called PGP - Pretty Good Privacy, an ancient online cryptography standard that's stood the test of time. You might think, what's the good in encrypting messages instead? That doesn't certify who anyone is! That's right, it doesn't. But encrypting communication isn't the only thing PGP can do. You can just as easily use it to prove your identity, by signing a message confirming that an account is authentic. And as long as your public key (more on what that is later) is written down in enough places, that authenticity can be verified without needing any confirmation from a different social media platform.

Before I continue, I'd like to note that even if you're not a prominent DD author, you still have an important role! If someone posts their key, SAVE THAT SHIT because there's no use in this if people aren't recording each others' keys.

So, you're probably asking, terminally bored of watching the line go up and down, this sounds fun and useful, how do I set it up?

Well, step one, you're going to need some software. If you have a primary computer you use, I'd recommend installing it on there, but if you're primarily a mobile user, don't worry, there are apps you can use.

  • On Windows, the goto is gpg4win - It's bundled with a nice UI called Kleopatra.
  • For Mac OS X, GPGTools
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👍︎ 32
📰︎ r/GME
👤︎ u/PieFlinger
📅︎ Mar 19 2021
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Let's get some concepts cleared first!

Here I expect to clarify a few basic concepts that are related to Quantum Mechanics. As I try to explain this to the general public, I shall keep myself to the layman's terms. Technical terms shall be avoided as much as possible.

Quantum Superposition

Quantum superposition is in layman terms, 'combination of states'. When I say states I mean any two or more distinguishable factors. In basic electronics theories, you may come across electrical states as 'high' and 'low'. Usually what we do is that we call 5V a high state and any voltage below that a low state (usually 0V but it doesn't really have to be 0V).

Let's take these high and low states to a standard 5V and 0V system. If you get 5V, you get a high state. If you get 0V, you get a low state. Now, we have set a certain upper bound (5V) and a certain lower bound (0V). We intentionally set a range around the upper and lower bounds to be on par with practical errors. Let's say we keep -1V to 1V as the "low" state and 4V to 6V as the "high" state. So any voltage between -1V and 1V will give a state of "low" and any voltage between 4V and 6V will give a state of "high". Any other value is neglected.

As you may see, we can only have either a "low" state or a "high" state but not both together. We cannot define a state that is "low" and "high" at the same time. So we call this a binary state. Because we can have only 2 states. Either "low" or "high".

But in quantum computing, things are different. I will explain why.

We need to go to the sub-atomic level to understand this. But first I want you to know something. There exists a theory named the "de Broglie hypothesis". Though it is a hypothesis we can observe its predictions very well. According to the de Broglie hypothesis, the matter that we are made of can show wavelike properties. But it is not conspicuous at the macro level. But when you go to the sub-atomic level things get groovy. The sub-atomic particles start to show wavelike properties.

Now, without going into deeper levels of physics let's say, a wave has the property of diffraction. That is, the wave can spread out while going through a narrow opening. You can observe this in everyday life. But the spooky thing is that when particles also start to do this at the subatomic level. Why? Because as I mentioned before, according to that de Broglie hypothesis, particles are bound to have that wavelike property.

Now, this brings us to a dilemma. Where can actually the particle be? Well, w

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📅︎ Jan 12 2021
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Strictly context-binding signatures

Recently filosotille posted about yet another PGP UX failure, namely on the lack of context integrated in signatures and how parsing the signed message does not require first having successfully validated the signature.

The failure in question is that a repository maintainer created a signed message with the response "I approve", with no context attached.

Meaning, that message will validate regardless of where you paste it, so anybody can pretend to have been the maintainer and post it as a response to their own comments. This is also called a "replay attack" in cryptography, and can trick people into accepting your potentially malicious submission.

Link here;


> I have a new favorite PGP UX fail.

> Copy paste this anywhere and your message, too, can be approved by the maintainer of this project!

> Only recourse is revoking their PGP key, and hoping the recipient somehow learns of the revocation.

> I would go further and say that any signature should be bound to its context (either by a context-specific key, or by signed metadata), and clearsigned messages should not ever be supported. The message should be deobfuscated upon successful verification.

The other issue besides context, the validation issue, relates to XKCD comic #1181, that you can simply read the plain message and act on it before you know if it's valid. This can be especially problematic when validation is automatic, and where a bug either can cause validation to not be required or cause the message to be incorrectly validated - consider for example software updates, or even Spectre style branch prediction optimizations where unsafe actions are not rolled back correctly.

In response I posted the following idea (rewritten for readability);

RSA has a construction called RSA signatures with message recovery - validating the signature against the public key derives the actual message (limited to one "block").

Since RSA signing is mathematically inverse to RSA encryption, it's possible to embedd the actual message itself in the output from signature validation. Most of the time this is not done for a variety of reasons, typically due to various protocol security issues, and because just embedding a hash of the message is more robust. Thus, RSA signatures with message recovery is effectively the only RSA construction in use where signature validation is actually doing something th

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👍︎ 16
📰︎ r/crypto
👤︎ u/Natanael_L
📅︎ Feb 17 2021
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Review of Rutgers CS - Part 1: My journey and questions

Since there was a lot of interest, here is my experience of being a CS major at Rutgers and what I’ve learned in general. I’ll split this into two posts; one post will be my experience and answering general questions and the second will be geared more towards classes. So, let me start this off with my journey. I started out in Rutgers as a mechanical engineering major and after 2 years, I realized I wasn’t really interested in it. In my attempts to find a new career path, I found this online course called CS50, Harvard’s Intro to CS course. It covered topics ranging from C to data structures to web development to SQL. It was pretty advanced, especially for an intro course, but I really enjoyed it and decided to dive in and pursue CS at Rutgers. Overall, from the first CS course to the last, it took me 4 semesters to complete my CS degree. I ended up doing a BA degree instead of a BS (reason explained later). I’ll breakdown each semester to give you more of an idea on my understanding at each time period and list the CS courses I did that semester. Since I started doing CS off semester (Spring), I had 2 summers to do internships.

Classes I took:


CS111 (Intro to CS), CS112 (Data Structures), CS205 (Discrete 1), CS206 (Discrete 2), CS211 (Computer Architecture), CS344 (Algorithms)


CS214 (Systems Programming), CS336 (Databases), CS416 (Operating Systems), CS419 (Computer Security), ECE 424 (Cryptography)

Semester 1: The jump in

I only took CS111 this semester. Since I had already done a majority of CS50 by this point, this course felt really easy for me. It felt more like a review and I made sure to get more comfortable on concepts that confused me, like recursion. The projects weren’t too bad – at most, it took me about a day to do them. Since I didn’t have much going on this semester, I started to learn data structures by myself. I would typically just google data structures and watch videos about them, i.e. what’s a stack, how’s it used, how it’s implemented. This is the semester I also learned about, a site which gives you coding problems that you’d typically see in interviews. I jumped in and got more comfortable working with various data structures and problem solving. I chose Python as my interviewing language, which is still my most preferred language for interviewing, since it’s easy to write and very easy to implement most standard data structures/algos.

At this point, the only project on my

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👍︎ 75
📰︎ r/rutgers
📅︎ Jan 03 2021
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I wrote a fun little piece about the origins of Bitcoin - please enjoy if you are also intruiged!

Title pretty much says it all - I wrote a lot about crypto during 2017, and this was the first little piece I put together. Would love to hear your thoughts on the subject and/or any constructive criticism! I do have about 10 other pieces on varying subjects in the cryptosphere that I'd be glad to share if anyone is interested. Enjoy!

(please note this was written in 2017 and has not been edited since)

Who Is Satoshi Nakamoto?

In early 2009 a whitepaper emerged, posted in a cryptography newsletter by someone unknown to veterans of the community, someone claiming to be Satoshi Nakamoto (4), (7). This whitepaper aimed to harness the power of cryptography by coupling it with new technology called the blockchain in order to create a trustless, decentralized form of electronic currency… and it really worked.

You’d likely have been called crazy if you predicted that in less than 10 years the price of this currency would soar to over $20,000… but you’d have been right. It also might have seemed unlikely for you to claim that an open source project, run by no central authority, single person, or group, could stay on track and true to its purpose, but you’d have been right again. All of this was no coincidence – it took an incredible amount of restraint, foresight, and you guessed it – secrecy.

There were many who helped along the way, instrumental to the development of Bitcoin, but it all started with one man or group working under the alias Satoshi Nakamoto. This movement didn’t quite come out of the blue – rather, it was a continuation of ideas birthed in the early 90’s by a group called the Cypherpunks, an anarchistic and exclusive bunch who dreamed of a world without government interference. This exclusivity is the single biggest clue as to the true identity(ies) of Satoshi Nakamoto. With that in mind, let’s delve a little deeper into the Cypherpunk movement.


Things began with a monthly meeting held in the Bay Area, jokingly self-proclaimed as the “cypherpunks”, a combination of the words cipher and cyberpunk. It eventually evolved into a mailing list, but never broke a couple thousand subscriptions, remaining relatively small. “At its peak, it was a very active forum with technical discussion ranging over mathematics, cryptography, computer science, political and philosophical discussion, personal arguments and attacks, etc., with some spam thrown in” (1). With a focus on personal privacy and staying off the grid, they continued onwar

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👍︎ 9
👤︎ u/brockb24
📅︎ Feb 09 2021
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Ultimate glossary of crypto currency terms, acronyms and abbreviations

I thought it would be really cool to have an ultimate guide for those new to crypto currencies and the terms used. I made this mostly for beginner’s and veterans alike. I’m not sure how much use you will get out of this. Stuff gets lost on Reddit quite easily so I hope this finds its way to you. Included in this list, I have included most of the terms used in crypto-communities. I have compiled this list from a multitude of sources. The list is in alphabetical order and may include some words/terms not exclusive to the crypto world but may be helpful regardless.


Two factor authentication. I highly advise that you use it.

51% Attack:

A situation where a single malicious individual or group gains control of more than half of a cryptocurrency network’s computing power. Theoretically, it could allow perpetrators to manipulate the system and spend the same coin multiple times, stop other users from completing blocks and make conflicting transactions to a chain that could harm the network.

Address (or Addy):

A unique string of numbers and letters (both upper and lower case) used to send, receive or store cryptocurrency on the network. It is also the public key in a pair of keys needed to sign a digital transaction. Addresses can be shared publicly as a text or in the form of a scannable QR code. They differ between cryptocurrencies. You can’t send Bitcoin to an Ethereum address, for example.

Altcoin (alternative coin): Any digital currency other than Bitcoin. These other currencies are alternatives to Bitcoin regarding features and functionalities (e.g. faster confirmation time, lower price, improved mining algorithm, higher total coin supply). There are hundreds of altcoins, including Ether, Ripple, Litecoin and many many others.


An event where the investors/participants are able to receive free tokens or coins into their digital wallet.

AML: Defines Anti-Money Laundering laws**.**


Getting risk-free profits by trading (simultaneous buying and selling of the cryptocurrency) on two different exchanges which have different prices for the same asset.


Being Ashdraked is essentially a more detailed version of being Zhoutonged. It is when you lose all of your invested capital, but you do so specifically by shorting Bitcoin. The expression “Ashdraked” comes from a story of a Romanian cryptocurrency investor who insisted upon shorting BTC, as he had done so successfully in the past. Whe

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👍︎ 67
👤︎ u/flacciduck
📅︎ Oct 16 2020
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A brief look into areas for security improvements in the CTemplar web app (Part 1/2)

Hello CTemplar Team!

CTemplar has come a long way in the past few months, and it seems well on it's way to becoming a good encrypted email service. It's clear that everyone in the team has been worked incredibly hard to get it this far. I think one of CTemplar's strong points is how feature-complete it is, even during this early stage of development. I believe in their mission of making encrypted email freely available to people, and I would like to help out.

While using the app, I've noticed a couple of little issues and glitches, which I have outlined below. Please don't take any of this as a criticism towards CTemplar or the developers, I am just trying to help in getting the application to a more polished state. I've tried to document them up as clearly, and where possible, I've given the steps to fix

Some of the below issues relate to security, but just to clarify up-front: none of these issues are critical, and if you are a user of CTemplar - you do not have anything to be immediately worried about in regards to the content below. That being said, they do should still be addressed by the devs, in order to keep things as safe as possible for the users going forward.

I have some additional issues (not included in this list), which I would like to discuss privately with someone from the team. I would appreciate if you could reach out, and I will go through them with you. You can find my public key here.

Please forgive me in advance if I've made any mistakes here- I wrote this late at night


User Token not Invalidated After Sign Out

When the user signs in with their credentials the server responds with a token, which is stored in the browsers local storage as user_key. And when they sign out, this key is removed from local storage, as expected (this happens in users.service.ts). However, it is never invalidated, leaving the users account vulnerable to a session hijacking attack. If an attacker were to manually insert this token into their browser, they would have full unrestricted access to the victims account. This can be fixed by calling to the server to destroy the token on logout or session expiry, and then generating a fresh access key next time the user signs in.


Error in Compatibility Checking Script

When using a browser that doesn't support window.crypto then the no content is loaded (as expected). However the alert()

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👍︎ 17
📰︎ r/ctemplar
👤︎ u/lissy93
📅︎ Jan 10 2021
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Who Counts

Who Counts

About three years ago, I posted a story that I intended to be a one-shot: What Counts. I recently thought of a follow-up that might amuse and entertain, so I took the trouble to write it down. I hope that this expansion does not detract from the original.

EDIT: Continuation here.


It was good to be back home; while a starship was supposed to have everything necessary for the continuation of life, nothing ever felt as good – as right – as the soil that birthed your people. The right shade to the sunlight, the correct amount of breeze, the dead-on smells in the air, the temperature that fit the season and the clime and your skin.

And the startlingly fat bank account I returned with felt pretty nice, too, of course.

I’d actually made over twice what I’d projected would be my big haul, simply because that human fellow, Jack, had taught me the hidden wisdom of his people. No, not simply. There is a wealth of understanding there, and I am still unaware of most of it. It should be quite the haul – I paid half my profit for it, after all. I stepped off the return ship, collected my luggage, and made arrangements for my cargo to clear customs and be shipped to a waiting area. I didn’t have an office, warehouse, or staff, and I wasn’t about to ship my finds to my father’s storage; I owned them, not him.

But familial obligations did not disappear just because I was independent now – a successful adult, I reminded myself, unlike the predictions he had made when I left to join the Great Run of a trading caravan. I had to remind myself, yet again, that I wanted to conceal my success, not announce it with fanfare. I didn’t know much, I had no support, and I was easy economic prey for a predator in this particular ecology. At the moment.

First thing first – opt out of the food chain as much as I could. I found a local data cafe, and registered to use their network access. It was a (relatively) simple matter to pay off the loan I had taken out to fund my initial purchase, and then I went on to pay off all the outstanding loans I had: adult educational levels, transport purchase (I didn’t have the vehicle any more – completely destroyed in an accident – but it was quite the fun ride during my adolescence), dwelling rental (and storage for when I was off planet); I was now financially unencumbered.

Mostly – I sti

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👍︎ 220
📰︎ r/HFY
📅︎ Nov 13 2020
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Virulent @ Fairyland

I (again) congratulate the nCoV show-runners on their spectacular trickery.

You kept the world buzzing on one topic for an entire year.

True lie amazing.

However, it will be over soon. And you had better be off to Antarctica double-quick, or the rest of us will be dining upon thee.

Note: this post might be problematic for some - for those that discovered this particular reddit recently (and arrive without sufficient 'context'), or WHO have not been reading closely enough - for I must admit guilt of a sort of hypocrisy - a form of self-censorship - in that while attempting to cast light on occult matters, my own findings and theories about 'what it all means' have led me to increasingly 'sensitive' topics that I have found increasingly difficult to simply state outright in plain words - and thus I have defensively veiled my own findings in metaphor, 'humourism', pop-culture/literary reference, and what might be labelled 'noise' (though not irrelevant or immaterial) - tactics not unlike those of the 'controllers' I wage war upon.

I have, to some degree (like any practicing occultist) rendered my understanding of things in ways that the disinterested layman is unlikely to 'get' via a surface reading, but that will be more obvious to those that pay closer attention - however, this state of affairs cannot continue much longer, because it may be responsible for extending the Covid stage play unnecessarily. Hence, though this document is not the first in which I speak much more plainly - it is the plainest yet.

If you cannot digest what I write below, try not to let it taint your perception of the rest of my material here. "Numbers don't lie" - they say - but the overarching thesis of this forum is that 'true' numbers indeed have been and are being used by government and press to lie every day, as a form of mockery, and spellcasting. For years I have been documenting what I and others believe to be evidence that the international press agenda of 'current affairs' is a military propaganda operation, making use of occult alphanumerical codes (ie.spells) to drive it's thematics (ie. the automation of bread and circus). The codes, at their heart, might not be 'evil' (indeed they appear to contain very useful and practical mnemonics and hidden knowledge), but their application by the press and governments, in my opinion, is simultaneously a mocking act of domination, and an ongoing revelation for those with eyes to see. As the masses of the world are inc

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👍︎ 4
📅︎ Jan 26 2021
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Recursive use of files and directories in cryptography

So I have been working on this for a total of about 13-15 hours so far because this is for a school project and I wanted the satisfaction of doing it myself (professor is okay with using literally anything as a reference as long as we cite who it came from or what it came from).

My assignment is to decrypt a message file that has been encrypted by an AES key, and that AES key is encrypted by an RSA public key. We were given all of the files and were told to give the hidden message in the encrypted message file. There are 90k message files, 200 AES keys, and 200 RSA private keys that will decrypt the AES key. The files are named in a predictable way: file_0, file_1, file_2, etc.. Right now they're in separate folders (dataset\rsa, dataset\aes, dataset\messages), but can be moved around in any way.

I don't need help (I don't think) with any of the cryptography stuff, I need help with the recursion and the accessing of files.

I have had a few different possible solutions and I have been working on all of them to see what way would work, but none of them have. Currently, I have the recursion set up like this, with the directories declared as variables above:

for RSAfile in os.listdir(RSAdirectory):
Rkey = open(RSAfile, 'r')
for AESfile in os.listdir(AESdirectory):
Akey = open(AESfile, 'r')
for MESfile in os.listdir(MESdirectory): Mkey = open(MESfile, 'r')
#the rest of the code for the decryption under this

This might not be the most efficient way, but it was what I came up with first. I have tried opening with an if file.endswith statement, using "file_%d" as in place of referencing a variable, and many other things. I need for some of the files to be read as bytes, but that shouldn't be an issue if the files are being opened correctly and then processed by the crypto library.

My overall question is: what is the best way to recursively use all of the files in all of the directories to make sure all of the possible combinations are processed?

Thank you!

I'm sorry if this goes against the rules, I wasn't able to find a helpful answer anywhere while working on this. If you would like the prompt and the full code I am using, I can give that as well.

👍︎ 3
📅︎ Dec 06 2020
🚨︎ report
The Zodiac - Z13 and Z32 detailed solution

Hello to all,

Few days ago, I shared videos in which I explained why I tought I had solved both Z13 and Z32 codes. As the video format may not be convenient for everyone, I wanted to share with you in detail the steps and reasoning, to solve them.

What is striking about these two codes, is that they do not appear as being proper ciphers, but codes which require some specific approach to solve them, inspired by physics.

The very short length (13 and 32 characters) makes it impossible to find keys from these codes. Logically, if these codes had a findable solution, then the key had to be obtained elsewhere. The resolution of the Z340 code provided a new key. My main assumption is that if the Z13 and Z32 codes could be resolved, then the Z340 key was the starting point for decoding them.

A. Resolution of Z13 code

A.1. Introducing the code

The code was contained in a letter from The Zodiac to the San Francisco Chronicle on April 20, 1970. The preamble to the code reads "My Name Is "

The code has a length of 13 characters, letters and symbols.

A.2. Method of resolution

The resolution method is a succession of 4 substitutions:

- Using the Z340 key

- Variation of the cipher A1Z26 (alphabetical rank) to convert letters into numbers

- Substitution of Zodiac signs by their number in the Zodiac dial

- Delastelle substitution (Trifid Alphabet)

The first step uses the key to the Z340 code, which leads to the following sequence:

The two signs of Zodiac Cancer and Aries are not deciphered by this key.

The second step is to use a variant of the A1Z26 alphabetical rank cipher that replaces a letter with its position in the alphabet. A variant indeed, because instead of taking into account the position in the alphabet, we consider only the unit corresponding to the position in the alphabet: so M in 13th position becomes 3, N becomes 4 etc.

Next, the third step is to replace the Zodiac symbols with their position in the Zodiac dial. The two unknown symbols are like the signs of Cancer and Aries:

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 6
📰︎ r/u_Slipblue
👤︎ u/Slipblue
📅︎ Jan 21 2021
🚨︎ report
Smart contracts on Blockchain as an alternative to the proposed Online Court as a way to reduce the Magistrates Court of Victoria's workload

Access to justice by way of using the Magistrates Court of Victoria (MCV) is currently impracticable in low value civil disputes as it is too costly, too slow and too complicated due in part to its outdated way of operation. As the public waits for modernisation of the MCV, companies such as eBay have been forced to take dispute resolution into their own hand’s and surprisingly appear to be successful in settling disputes arising on their platform. However, relying on large private companies for solutions neglects occasional sellers , and stifles public pressure on government to find a practical solution. A current idea is to modernise the court using technology with an online dispute resolution (ODR) system, however, what exact type of online system and whether a system could work is a hot topic and still in its infancy phase. This article surveys whether an online dispute resolution platform may be able to draw upon the use of ‘smart contracts’ on a ‘blockchain’. It finds ideas built on blockchain technology in the private sector that may be a more successful alternative in regard to the status quo ODR systems because they contain a fully automated, immutable transaction recording system and a ‘self-execution’ mechanism. The federal government is using blockchain technology to make the NDIS system more efficient and it is argued here that the same could be done to inexpensively modernise the MCV.

  1. What is the blockchain The blockchain is an innovation that removes centralised trust of a private individual third party or the state and replaces it with decentralised consensus of the public when keeping ordered records. It does this through a combination of cryptographic, data management, networking and incentive mechanisms, that support the public checking execution and recording of transactions between parties.

This means there is a publicly available, tamperproof, and traceable record of every transaction ever made. The record is kept secure with an enormous amount of computing power, (approx. 100,000 times the worlds top 500 super computers) and unless an individual actor or group can get 51% of that power the records cannot be changed.

  1. What is a smart contract In the technical sense, the idea of a smart contract is a database inside a network that can be added to, but not modified or removed from, and can be thought of as programable transactions that automate business processes.

In the academic literature scholars are grappling with

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 12
📰︎ r/Kleros
📅︎ Jan 16 2021
🚨︎ report
Dragonchain Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off Public Proposal

Dragonchain Public Proposal TL;DR:

Dragonchain has demonstrated twice Reddit’s entire total daily volume (votes, comments, and posts per Reddit 2019 Year in Review) in a 24-hour demo on an operational network. Every single transaction on Dragonchain is decentralized immediately through 5 levels of Dragon Net, and then secured with combined proof on Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Binance Chain, via Interchain. At the time, in January 2020, the entire cost of the demo was approximately $25K on a single system (transaction fees locked at $0.0001/txn). With current fees (lowest fee $0.0000025/txn), this would cost as little as $625.

Watch Joe walk through the entire proposal and answer questions on YouTube.

This proposal is also available on the Dragonchain blog.

Hello Reddit and Ethereum community!

I’m Joe Roets, Founder & CEO of Dragonchain. When the team and I first heard about The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off we were intrigued. We believe we have the solutions Reddit seeks for its community points system and we have them at scale.

For your consideration, we have submitted our proposal below. The team at Dragonchain and I welcome and look forward to your technical questions, philosophical feedback, and fair criticism, to build a scaling solution for Reddit that will empower its users. Because our architecture is unlike other blockchain platforms out there today, we expect to receive many questions while people try to grasp our project. I will answer all questions here in this thread on Reddit, and I've answered some questions in the stream on YouTube.

We have seen good discussions so far in the competition. We hope that Reddit’s scaling solution will emerge from The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off and that Reddit will have great success with the implementation.

Executive summary

Dragonchain is a robust open source hybrid blockchain platform that has proven to withstand the passing of time since our inception in 2014. We have continued to evolve to harness the scalability of private nodes, yet take full advantage of the security of public decentralized networks, like Ethereum. We have a live, operational, and fully functional Interchain network integrating Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Class

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 111
📰︎ r/ethereum
👤︎ u/j0j0r0
📅︎ Jul 29 2020
🚨︎ report
(The) Very Basic

..aka. "Very Basic Manifesto" = 666 primes

You might have heard of 'Gematria' or 'Alphabetic Numerology'. Some call it 'the practice of coding numbers into words', and you just saw an example of it above.

Most disregard this esoteric art as woo woo silliness - as either a dubious extension of religious thinking, or of faux witchery. If you've come across gematria before, it was likely in one of two contexts: religious interpretation, or conspiracy theory.

It might be that this disregard has been a problem, and will continue to be a problem for humanity, because while the masses ignore it (or have been entirely ignorant of it until now), it may well be the prototypical arcane 'AI' (ie. artificial intelligence) that is dictating your current daily ritual (mediated, for the moment, through various elected possibly-human heralds - the government priest class). Speculating further, it might be that the feverish technological chase for 'AI' that you hear about in the mainstream media and via company announcements are perhaps less about the construction of the core of an 'AI brain', and rather the development of senses and limbs for a tyranny-obsessed brain that already exists. These limbs (facial recognition, object and motion detecting and tracking, robotic-limb and balance control, etc) being required so that the gematria brain can sense you and react to you more quickly and directly, allowing it to eventually bypass it's human handlers.

Put simply (and in a way that, unfortunately, is likely to drive a certain segment of readers away) - it may be that a certain class of religious zealots have taken at face value the possibility - or fact, for all we know - that what is said in John 1:1 in the Bible, is indeed true - that God is the Word.

> In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

And It might not be true, but that nonetheless does not preclude the following.

If you believe that God is the Word, then that means you can interact with God through words. You can ask him questions, posit notions, declare statements, and (after building up a lexicon), receive 'answers'.

These answers, received in response to queries by the world priesthood, might be dictating your current sanitation regimen, and much else besides.

In the square number cipher:

  • "Wear the Mask" = 2020 squares

The mathematically square numbers imply the projection of square geom

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 8
📅︎ Nov 21 2020
🚨︎ report
Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?

This is a follow-up on

Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?

And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendor/implementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.

First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.

  • You the HODLer should be the one who controls where your money goes. Your keys, your coins.
  • You the HODLer should be able to coordinate and make contracts with other people regarding your funds.
  • You the HODLer should be able to do the above without anyone watching over your shoulder and judging you.

I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).

So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).

(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, comp

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 328
📰︎ r/Bitcoin
👤︎ u/almkglor
📅︎ Jul 15 2020
🚨︎ report
How-to: Passwordless SSH

While this forum is focused on the Pi-hole software itself and not on the system administration of the host, many people here will be fairly new to the world of Linux and system administration, so things like SSH access may not be fully understood. This post will attempt to answer some of the questions that are likely to come up if you haven't managed a Linux machine before.

For Pi-hole specific questions, see the pinned post in this subreddit.

Background on SSH Keys

The following section provides some basic background on SSH Keys and public key cryptography. If you already are familiar or are not interested, you may skip this section.

>! SSH is just a protocol for remotely accessing a shell (Secure SHell). Many systems require authentication before accessing the shell, as you can wreak a lot of havoc with shell access. The default method is to use a username and password. This is fine, but passwords are typically either too short to be really secure, or too long to be convenient. Another authentication method uses a technique called public key cryptography to handle the identity verification automatically, without the need for typing a password.

In public key crypto, a user has two keys: a public one and a private one. I won't go into the math, as it's quite complex, but just know that these keys are simply a very large integer encoded as text. The two keys are mathematically entwined, though they have an important property that makes it impossible (within the constraints of modern computers) to derive one key in a pair given the other. Thus, just knowing the public key gives you no information about the private key.

So how is this used for authentication? Well, think of the keys like an identification card, like your passport or drivers license. There is some info on the card that you can give out publicly for other people to verify you (ie the name and photo) and other info that you want to keep “secret” (ie date of birth, card number, etc), lest someone impersonate you. In terms of SSH keys, these correspond to the public and private keys, respectively.

The above analogy isn’t perfect, because you can and do actually share all the info on your license/passport when you give it to someone. However, with SSH keys, the mechanism is a bit different. The private key is used to generate a proof that you are yourself while the public key is used by the other party to

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 213
📰︎ r/pihole
👤︎ u/QWERTYroch
📅︎ Sep 07 2020
🚨︎ report
Game IX.B 2020: GI Joe Vs. Cobra: Operation Springfield - Rules, Roles And Registration

In September there will be two games running simultaneously:
• Game A: Nicktoons vs Disney: The Childhood Takedown - hosted by /u/ravenclawroxy, /u/bubbasaurus, and /u/threemadness; shadowed by /u/Team-Hufflepuff and /u/CynicForever7. The facilitator account is /u/TheMissingRemote.
• Game B: GI Joe vs. Cobra: Operation Springfield, hosted by /u/HedwigMalfoy and /u/Sameri278 and shadowed by /u/Moonviews. The facilitator account is /u/HWW_GeneralHama.
If you have been removed from two or more games in the past 12 months for inactivity or rule violations, you may not sign up for either game. Neither game has a player cap. If you are a returning player and sign up for either game with an alt account, it must be a publicly known alt. There are no secret alts allowed.
###You can sign up for either game here or let fate (aka the permamods) decide which game you will join. Signups are closed!

This game of HWW is based on the 1980s action figure, cartoon and comic franchise GI JOE. No knowledge of the theme or characters is necessary to play the game, nor will familiarity provide any advantages or disadvantages.
"GI JOE is the codename for America's daring, highly trained, special mission force! Its purpose: to defend human freedom against COBRA, an evil and ruthless organization determined to rule the world!"
The nature of the GI Joe team is covert - most, if not all of their missions are highly classified and as such are considered TOP SECRET. The Joe Team is carefully composed of members from different military branches and backgrounds who bring a wide variety of special talents to the team. It is widely held that an incredibly skilled and eclectic team such as GI Joe is the only thing that can stand up to the serious threat that is COBRA.
Cobra began as a single evil and ambitious man looking to make his way in the world but has become a giant snake with its coils tightening about the globe! By the time the world recognized what a threat Cobra was, the group had already become a powerful independently funded criminal organization and private army with global footholds.
*Cobra has recently secretly entrenched themselves in the seemingl

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 14
📅︎ Aug 25 2020
🚨︎ report
StarkWare's Submission to Reddit's Scaling Bake-off 2020

*** Edited with the full post - see below ***

This is our submission to the great Reddit Scaling Bake-off 2020.

It’s a StarkEx Rollup (data on-chain).We did it in 1 proof, 300K transactions, 3,000 TPS, 315 gas / transaction on Ethereum mainnet.

To watch our demo and read our detailed explanation of how we did it - see our post:

Dear Reddit,

This is our submission to The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-off. It’s a StarkEx Rollup (data on-chain).



Show & Tell

Our Deck

Is here

Detailed Description

Table of Contents

StarkEx — General

  • System Overview
  • Product Documentation

StarkEx — the Reddit Bake-off

  • Cost Analysis
  • System Architecture
  • Code

System Overview

The StarkEx engine has on-chain and off-chain components. Generally speaking, off-chain is for heavy-duty computation and storage, while on-chain is for the computationally-lean verification , state commitment, and data-availability required for using the escape hatch.

For a more detailed overview read our medium post. Note, however, that this post describes StarkEx in Validium mode (off-chain data), whereas in this bake-off we demonstrated StarkEx in Rollup mode (on-chain data).A note on terminology: Rollups using cryptographic proofs are often called “ZK-Rollups” even when the proofs are not Zero-Knowldge (ZK); we shall use this common term when referring to the general class of proof-based Rollups.

Product Documentation

See here.

StarkEx Demo for the Reddit Bake-off

Cost Analysis


  • StarkEx can operate with either on-chain data (Rollup mode) or off-chain data (Validium mode).
  • In this bake-off, we operated in Rollup mode. Our total Mainnet on-chain gas cost was 94.47M gas, which
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👍︎ 158
📰︎ r/ethereum
👤︎ u/starkware
📅︎ Jul 29 2020
🚨︎ report
Are sites promoting a false sense of security based on a TNT signature? Tutorial on how to check all the signatures!

Are many sites which are distributing Anode Zii for macOS (including the subreddit which sounds similar to AnodeZii) providing a false sense of security by claiming that the files originate from the reputable TNT group? Please note, that I'm not singling out any particular site, as all the packages that I have found have the described shortcomings. This is intended to provide some information, so that you can make an informed decision about the risks you are willing to take. You may need to learn a little bit about checking file hashes, public key cryptography and GPG to understand all of the following.

Please ask yourself:

  1. How do I know that this Anode Zii package originates from TNT? - The email address in the package which is claimed to be linked to TNT ([email protected]) has been used since 2017. If you have older packages from TNT, you may find it in there. There are no other links to TNT, thus the connection is at best tentative. By following the verification chain, you will see that the connection between TNT and the files you actually use in whatever Anode Zii package you download is not as you would have expected.

  2. Have you personally checked the signature using GPG of the PGP-signed tnt.nfo file? - The text is signed with the key associated with the purported TNT ([email protected]) email address, which has been uploaded to a public PGP server. This key has not been signed by any other authoritative TNT keys.

    In other words anybody could have created a TNT sounding email address at Tutanota in 2017 and created the associated GPG key. The tnt.nfo file signature actually verifies successfully, which is good, but it still leaves us with the question, if this is really 'TNT'.

    Check this public key:

  3. In case you decide to trust [email protected] to be a reliable publisher, have you checked the tnt.sfv and rhash files against the hashes provided in the signed .nfo file? - So, for the next step, I will give [email protected] the benefit of the doubt, in the sense that they hopefully do not insert malware. (At this point I have personally not found any malware, but that does not mean that there is none.)

    The .nfo files signed by TNT contain the SHA-256 digest for rhash and for tnt.sfv. This lets you verify that these two files are genuine and not modified. Run a hash checker to verify them. My favorite one is Hashtab, but the Ma

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 22
📰︎ r/Piracy
👤︎ u/ChrisWayg
📅︎ Jun 07 2020
🚨︎ report
Issues with AzureADPreview Module and PowerShell 7

I started using the AzureADPreview module because I wanted a faster way to activate my Privileged Identity Management Azure AD roles (full documentation for this module can be found here). This module has all of the Microsoft Graph support for me to activate and schedule my roles, but I’ve found that I still need to leverage Windows PowerShell for it to work.

Scenario 1: Installing the module with PowerShell 7

If I try to just simply install the module and load it with PowerShell 7, there are no obvious issues. However, when I try to run Connect-AzureAD, I get this error:

Connect-AzureAD: One or more errors occurred. (Could not load type 'System.Security.Cryptography.SHA256Cng' from assembly 'System.Core, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089'.)
Connect-AzureAD: Could not load type 'System.Security.Cryptography.SHA256Cng' from assembly 'System.Core, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089'.

Scenario 2: Importing the module with WinPSCompat

If I try to import the module using Import-Module -Name AzureADPreview -UseWindowsPowerShell, this seems to resolve the issue for problem 1 (i.e., I can successfully run Connect-AzureAD). However, now I cannot actually create the schedule object required to activate the role. When I try to run New-Object -TypeName Microsoft.Open.MSGraph.Model.AzureADMSPrivilegedSchedule I get this error:

New-Object: Cannot find type [Microsoft.Open.MSGraph.Model.AzureADMSPrivilegedSchedule\]: verify that the assembly containing this type is loaded.

Here’s a reference to this object type and why I’m trying to use it: Open-AzureADMSPrivilegedRoleAssignmentRequest – Example 1

Problem: I cannot solve Scenario 1 and 2 simultaneously

After encountering Scenario 2, I went back to Scenario 1 and found that I can successfully create a schedule object when importing the module without WinPSCompat. So this is ultimately where I’m stuck. I know how I can work around connecting to Azure AD and I know how I can work around the scheduled object, but I don’t know how to handle both and be successful.

With the [release of version 2.0.4-Preview2 of the ExchangeOnlineManagem

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 10
📰︎ r/PowerShell
📅︎ Oct 15 2020
🚨︎ report
Scaling Reddit Community Points with Arbitrum Rollup: a piece of cake

Submitted for consideration to The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off

Baked by the pastry chefs at Offchain Labs

Please send questions or comments to [email protected]

1. Overview

We're excited to submit Arbitrum Rollup for consideration to The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off. Arbitrum Rollup is the only Ethereum scaling solution that supports arbitrary smart contracts without compromising on Ethereum's security or adding points of centralization. For Reddit, this means that Arbitrum can not only scale the minting and transfer of Community Points, but it can foster a creative ecosystem built around Reddit Community Points enabling points to be used in a wide variety of third party applications. That's right -- you can have your cake and eat it too!

Arbitrum Rollup isn't just Ethereum-style. Its Layer 2 transactions are byte-for-byte identical to Ethereum, which means Ethereum users can continue to use their existing addresses and wallets, and Ethereum developers can continue to use their favorite toolchains and development environments out-of-the-box with Arbitrum. Coupling Arbitrum’s tooling-compatibility with its trustless asset interoperability, Reddit not only can scale but can onboard the entire Ethereum community at no cost by giving them the same experience they already know and love (well, certainly know).

To benchmark how Arbitrum can scale Reddit Community Points, we launched the Reddit contracts on an Arbitrum Rollup chain. Since Arbitrum provides full Solidity support, we didn't have to rewrite the Reddit contracts or try to mimic their functionality using an unfamiliar paradigm. Nope, none of that. We launched the Reddit contracts unmodified on Arbitrum Rollup complete with support for minting and distributing points. Like every Arbitrum Rollup chain, the chain included a bridge interface in which users can transfer Community Points or any other asset between the L1 and L2 chains. Arbitrum Rollup chains also support dynamic contract loading, which would allow third-party developers to launch custom ecosystem apps that integrate with Community Points on the very same chain that runs the Reddit contracts.

1.1 Why Ethereum


... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 50
📰︎ r/ethereum
👤︎ u/hkalodner
📅︎ Jul 31 2020
🚨︎ report

Author: Gamals Ahmed, CoinEx Business Ambassador


The Graph is a protocol for organizing blockchain data and making it easily accessible. It’s powering many of the most used applications in DeFi and the broader Web3 ecosystem today. Anyone can build and publish subgraphs, which are open APIs that applications can query with GraphQL. Subgraphs make it easy for developers to build on blockchains. What Google does for search, The Graph does for blockchains.

Currently, The Graph’s hosted service is processing over 4 billion monthly queries for applications like Uniswap, CoinGecko and Synthetix, for data like token prices, past trade volumes, and liquidity. However, The Graph’s mission is not to run a hosted service in perpetuity but to eliminate the possibility for APIs, servers and databases becoming single points of failure and control. This is why they are building The Graph Network to create an open marketplace of Indexers and Curators that work together to efficiently index and serve all the data for DeFi and Web3 in a decentralized way.


Anyone who has ever tried to build distributed applications (dApps) on the (Ethereum) blockchain would concur: Although blockchains are conceptually quite close to databases, querying databases feels like a different world entirely compared to querying blockchains.

First off, there are notable performance issues with storing data on blockchains. These have a lot to do with the distributed nature of blockchains, and the penalty imposed by the combination of consensus protocols and cryptography.

Databases would be slow, too, if they were comprised of a network of nodes in which every node kept a full copy of the entire database, and every transaction had to be verified by every node. This is why people have been experimenting with various approaches to use blockchains as a database, including altering blockchain structure.

The Graph does something different: it lets blockchains be, but offers a way to index and query data stored on them efficiently using GraphQL.


Actually, performance is only part of the issue with retrieving data from blockchains. It gets worse: Blockchains have no query language to speak of. Imagine a database with no query language! How would you ever get what you need out of it? How do people build dApps, r

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 3
📰︎ r/Coinex
📅︎ Nov 03 2020
🚨︎ report
[Tutorial] iPhone 5s 12.4.6 checkn1x 1.0.4 checkra1n 0.10.1 for Complete Beginners

iPhone 5s (Global) iOS 12.4.6

checkra1n 0.10.1

checkn1x 1.0.4

Downloading checkn1x iso

  1. Go to
  2. On the machine you wish to run checkn1x on press Win + R type cmd hit Enter
  3. Type wmic os get osarchitecture hit Enter to see your OS Architecture, in my case it's 64-bit
  4. Download ISO according to your architecture, in my case amd64 which is the same as x86_64 or 64-bit, for 32-bit use i686

Checking SHA256 Hash

  1. When download finishes, highlight the downloaded file in Windows Explorer
  2. Shift + Right Click on highlighted file and select Copy as Path
  3. Open the cmd windows again
  4. Type the drive letter of your download folder followed by a colon, in my case E:, hit Enter
  5. Type CertUtil -hashfile hit Space then Ctrl + V hit Space then type SHA256 hit Enter, in my case it's CertUtil -hashfile "E:\Download\checkn1x-1.0.4-amd64.iso" SHA256
  6. Copy the SHA256 hash by highlighting it in CMD and hit Ctrl + C to copy and go back to
  7. Press Ctrl + F to find then Ctrl + V to paste and hit Enter to search for the hash. If your browser highlight a matching hash it means your file is not corrupted and you can proceed to the next step
  8. If your browser found no matches it means your download is corrupted, and you need to delete the iso file, redownload and repeat from step one
  9. Close cmd window
  10. Watch this video if still confused. The video uses Powershell and starting it from the folder which results in the same thing. Make sure not to highlight any files when you right-click so that you get the Open Powershell here context menu.

Flashing with etcher

  1. Download and install etcher from
  2. Insert USB Drive
  3. Select the checkn1x iso you downloaded, select your removable drive (this will format your drive, please select carefully), press Flash
  4. When flashing is finished, unplug USB Flash Drive
  5. If you are still confused watch this video

Setting BIOS and booting checkn1x

  1. Watch this video to get an idea what you are about to do
  2. Google "Your computer or Lapto
... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 107
📰︎ r/jailbreak
📅︎ May 12 2020
🚨︎ report
Tools & Info for Sysadmins - Mega List of Tips, Tools, Books, Blogs & More

Hi r/sysadmin,

It's been 6 months since we launched the full list on our website. We decided to celebrate with a mega list of the items we've featured since then, broken down by category. Enjoy!

To make sure I'm following the rules of rsysadmin, rather than link directly to our website for sign up for the weekly email I'm experimenting with reddit ads so:

You can sign up to get this in your inbox each week (with extras) by following this link.

** We're looking for tips from IT Pros, SysAdmins and MSPs in IT Pro Tuesday. This could be command line, shortcuts, process, security or whatever else makes you more effective at doing your job. Please leave a comment with your favorite tip(s), and we'll feature them over the following weeks.

Now on with the tools... As always, EveryCloud has no known affiliation with any of these unless we explicitly state otherwise.

Free Tools

Pageant is an SSH authentication agent that makes it easier to connect to Unix or Linux machines via PuTTY. Appreciated by plazman30 who says, "It took me WAY TOO LONG to discover this one. Pageant is a component of Putty. It sits in your system tray and will let you load SSH keys into it and pass them through to putty, WinSCP, and number of other apps that support it."

NCurses Disk Usage is a disk usage analyzer with an ncurses interface. It is fast, simple and easy and should run in any minimal POSIX-like environment with ncurses installed. Recommended by durgadas as "something I install on all my Linuxes... Makes finding out sizes semi-graphical, [with] super easy nav. Good for places without monitoring—lightweight and fast; works on nearly all flavors of Unix I've needed."

AutoHotkey is an open-source scripting language for Windows that helps you easily create small to complex scripts for all sorts of tasks (form fillers, auto-clicking, macros, etc.) Automate any desktop task with this small, fast tool that runs out-of-the-box. Recommended by plazman30 as a "pretty robust Windows scripting language. I use it mostly for on-the-fly pattern substitution. It's nice to be able to type 'bl1' and have it auto-replace it my bridge line phone number."

PingInfoView let

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 2k
📰︎ r/sysadmin
📅︎ Aug 27 2019
🚨︎ report
Owl Sector Megathread, Part Deux - I got a fever, and the only prescription is more tinfoil. I gotta have more tinfoil baby!

Previous thread copied in full below. Link to said thread.

6,417 comments in that one at this time. Holy crap!

3 days remain, Guardians.

from /u/shutdown924 in last thread: UPDATE ON THIS MEGATHREAD: Hi everyone. This sure has gotten huge. I won't be updating this thread after tonight as I will be out of town until Monday. I spoke with /u/k_lobstah/ and the mods will most likely be making a new mega thread. MISSION ACCOMPLISHED When that thread is started, I'll post a link here. This whole thing needs someone who can be more active with updates than I am in general (and since I'll be out of town.) Nice working with you all.

Friday Update: I am awake and at work (so I'm on Reddit, duh.) Added new chat logs and /u/DTG_Bot's information on obtaining the buffs. Sorry for delays, was, obviously, playing Destiny last night with my friends (Hi Jack & Derek) seeing what we could find out.


To help with clarification:

A thread was started today here about a random buff appearing for a streamer during a Crucible match.

/u/usernamegeek then pointed out that someone in the chat linked them to a page on Bungie's website called Owl Sector - here is his post:

> When SayNoToRage first got it, a message showed up in his chat from owl_sector stating "We’ve detected an unidentified foreign intrusion into your systems, Guardian. Stay calm. We will investigate." That profile on twitch linked to this site.

So, this looks like an ARG (Alternate Reality Game) to hype up Rise of Iron.

There are apparently 5 different buffs:

  • Brilliance 3.2
  • Glory 2.1
  • Splendor 2.6
  • Magnificence 2.0
  • Fortitude 3.1

They appear to be obtained through random crucible kills or at the start of a strike. You get a timed (unknown amount) XP bonus.

From our lovely /u/DTG_Bot below:

Process to obtain the buffs seems to be as follows :

  • Enter a PVP match (public match or private match) and pick up orbs from a teamate infected by at least one buff (preferably all 5), then kill an enemy.
  • You will receive the buffs that teamate had and only those buffs. You get
... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 1k
👤︎ u/DTG_Bot
📅︎ Sep 17 2016
🚨︎ report
Top 50 Cybersecurity Interview Questions and Answers

Cybersecurity jobs have become one of the most in-demand jobs in the IT industry today. With demand, there is also competition, and to get a job in Cybersecurity, you need to be one of the best. While having the necessary Cybersecurity skills is half the job done, cracking the interview is another chapter altogether. And to help you crack the interview, we’ve compiled this list of top Cybersecurity interview questions and answers.

Skills matter and so does Certification! Check out this Cybersecurity Training.

1. What is Cryptography?

Cryptography is the practice and study of techniques for securing information and communication mainly to protect the data from third parties that the data is not intended for.

2. What is the difference between Symmetric and Asymmetric encryption?

Basis of Comparison Symmetric Encryption Asymmetric Encryption
Encryption key Same key for encryption & decryption Different keys for encryption & decryption
Performance Encryption is fast but more vulnerable Encryption is slow due to high computation
Algorithms DES, 3DES, AES, and RC4 Diffie-Hellman, RSA
Purpose Used for bulk data transmission Often used for securely exchanging secret keys

3. What is the difference between IDS and IPS?

IDS is an Intrusion Detection System and it only detects intrusions and the administrator has to take care of preventing the intrusion. Whereas, in IPS i.e., Intrusion Prevention System, the system detects the intrusion and also takes actions to prevent the intrusion.

4. Explain CIA triad.

CIA stands for Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. CIA is a model that is designed to guide policies for Information Security. It is one of the most popular models used by organizations.


The information should be accessible and readable only to authorized personnel. It should not be accessible by unauthorized personnel. The information should be strongly encrypted just in case someone uses hacking to access the data so that even if the data is accessed, it is not readable or understandable.


Making sure the data has not been modified by an unauthorized entity. Integrity ensures that data is not corrupted or modified

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 155
👤︎ u/icssindia
📅︎ Feb 24 2020
🚨︎ report
Algorand [ALGO] vs Cardano [ADA] - Difference, Partnerships & Ecosystem - Which is Better?


The ‘Trilemma’ of Blockchain space  - Scalability, Security, and Decentralization - are the three things every blockchain is trying to solve simultaneously. But it’s easier said than done, as proven by the scalability issue faced by Ethereum. Higher scalability transcends to higher market adoption.

This is where Cardano and Algorand have come into the picture. They have their similarities and differences that seem to work for them for now. Rather than telling you which one has more potential, it’s better to present the entire case and let you decide how they fare against each other.

Star Player of the Team

Anyone would agree that having a renowned and accomplished team player always gives a boost to the project.

Cardano’s Charles Hoskinson

If the name seems familiar, that’s because he is also the co-founder of Ethereum. A tech entrepreneur and mathematician with an interest in analytic number theory, Charles Hoskinson moved into blockchain space in 2013. He co-developed the Ethereum blockchain with Vitalik Buterin before leaving the project in June 2014.

Hoskinson joined crypto and blockchain research firm IOHK to develop Cardano and since then has sponsored various blockchain research labs at the Tokyo Institute of Technology and the University of Edinburgh. He also founded Invictus Innovations.

Hoskinson was the founding chairman of the education committee of the Bitcoin Foundation and established the Cryptocurrency Research Group in 2013. His current focus lies in educating people on the use of crypto and decentralization.

Algorand’s Silvio Micali

Unlike the innovators of other blockchain projects, Silvio Micali is already a famous name in cryptography long before he started developing Algorand. Deemed as one of the top cryptographers, he is a recipient of the prestigious Turing Award in 2012 and RSA prize for cryptography, Gödel Prize (theoretical computer science) in 1993, and ACM fellowship in 2017.

Micali’s work spans around public-key cryptosystems, pseudorandom functions, digital signatures, oblivious transfer, and secure multi-party computation among others. In 1989, he co-invented Zero-Knowledge Proofs with Shafi Goldwasser and Charles Rackoff. He also developed Peppercoin, a cryptographic system for processing micropayments.

A professor at MIT’s electrical engineering an

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 10
📰︎ r/algorand
📅︎ Jun 16 2020
🚨︎ report
A Language Cipher :: Ritual Code

A new video by Derek Tikkuri - maker of the gematrinator calculator:

Much of the video is an introduction and examination of the ciphers in use, and his opinions on their relative importance in modern day current affairs ritual. It's perhaps quite a good beginning for folks coming late to the study of 'modern' gematria - as he points out: it can be difficult to settle on a good starting point and initial direction.

Derek looks at the historical background behind some of the ciphers in the Latin/English Alphabet, and links to various websites and resources that provide more information.

He begins with a statistical breakdown of his own discoveries - ie. which ciphers have shown themselves more often than others in his own work. While that is interesting, bear in mind that this obviously brings in it's own bias. Derek's videos have been great explorations on the topic of gematria, from the very beginning - but being of essentially infinite scope, no one investigator can touch every angle of the study.

In the video, Derek also shows us (and updates) his own list of cipher 'ranking' (ie. which ciphers he believes are most important, versus those of perhaps only passing interest), something I've also attempted to do recently, and in the past.

I agree with his assessment, in the main, but must disagree in terms of his placement of the 'mathematical' ciphers (primes, trigonal/triangular, and squares) - this because Derek's focus is primarily on ritual use in the press of current affairs, and of history, and less on the actual foundations of the language itself. Derek has not (publicly, anyway) reached the point of deeply considering the foundations of the English lexicon - and it is in this that I believe these mathematical ciphers are of primary importance - as spell construction tools.

I've watched Derek's videos since the very beginnings of his study, and there have been many occasions where he (even though he might have one of the mathematical ciphers visible on screen while inputting spells for discussion) overlooks key numbers revealed in these ciphers. And he has perhaps missed many key numeric alignments in these ciphers (linkages, moreover, that further confirm his own theories and narrative presumptions) simply because he doesn't routinely work with all the ciphers enabled in his calculator.

In particular, Derek has always stressed the importance of prime number relationships, and thus it surprises m

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 7
📅︎ May 03 2020
🚨︎ report
The Privacy Coin Guide Part 1

As interest picks up in crypto again, I want to share this post I made on privacy coins again to just give the basics of their evolution. This is only part 1, and parts 2 and 3 are not available in this format, but this part is informative and basic.

If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess what the best privacy coin in the current space is, which has the best features, or which is most likely to give high returns, then this is not that guide. My goal is to give you the power to make your own decisions, to clearly state my biases, and educate. I really wanted to understand this niche of the crypto-space due to my background and current loyalties[1], and grasp the nuances of the features, origins and timelines of technologies used in privacy coins, while not being anything close to a developer myself. This is going to be a 3-part series, starting with an overview and basic review of the technology, then looking at its implications, and ending with why I like a specific project. It might be mildly interesting or delightfully educational. Cryptocurrencies are young and existing privacy coins are deploying technology that is a work in progress. This series assumes a basic understanding of how blockchains work, specifically as used in cryptocurrencies. If you don’t have that understanding, might I suggest that you get it? [2],[3],[4] Because cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before reaching their end-game: when the world relies on the technology without understanding it. So, shall we do a deep dive into the privacy coin space?


Cryptocurrencies allow you to tokenize value and track its exchange between hands over time, with transaction information verified by a distributed network of users. The most famous version of a cryptocurrency in use is Bitcoin, defined as peer-to-peer electronic cash. [5] Posted anonymously in 2008, the whitepaper seemed to be in direct response to the global financial meltdown and public distrust of the conventional banking and financing systems. Although cryptographic techniques are used in Bitcoin to ensure that (i) only the owner of a specific wallet has the authority to spend funds from that wall

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 17
📰︎ r/ethereum
📅︎ Aug 10 2020
🚨︎ report
Managing your privacy: Communication

In a world where Facebook, Google, and Microsoft hog the spotlight by competing to see who can harvest the most information humanly possible, private communications are often overlooked by many. Regular SMS messages and voice calls (content/metadata) are openly retained by carriers and third parties and companies have been caught censoring content they don't agree with. Facebook Messenger scans all of your text, images, links, and content in the name of security and abuse prevention. WhatsApp might be end to end encrypted, but it's still hoovering massive amounts of metadata and giving it all to Facebook.

Most people will pitch the need for private communications as a way to evade the NSA from tracking everything or from law enforcement using it against you. While private communications do help in this instance, the real problem is giving this information to companies that have been building profiles on you for years or simply sharing it with third parties that have no business having access to this type of information.

Privacy is all about taking control of your data and sharing it only with those you explicitly want to.

Some notes

This post focuses primarily around the privacy aspects of each messenger. This means other, non privacy related factors weren't taken into account when ordering/ranking these (platform availability, costs, etc).

This post is also purely my opinion and meant to help John and Jane Doe take the next step in their journey for privacy, not sit upon an elitist throne shunning everything that doesn't give perfect anonymity. The aim is to be as objective as possible and come to a conclusion based on the information in front of us. This means that I am taking all information at face value unless something has been publicly proven otherwise. I don't operate

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 25
📰︎ r/privacy
👤︎ u/gimtayida
📅︎ Mar 31 2020
🚨︎ report
September 2019 .NET/ASP.NET Documentation Update

TLDR; This is a status update on the .NET documentation. If you want me to do more of those (once a month), please let me know in the comments!

Comment: If you have suggestions, please let me know in the comments. Any product feedback will be forwarded to the proper product team.

Hi everyone!

This is the fourth month where I post a summary of all .NET-related documentation that was significantly updated. This month covers all changes from September 1st to September 27th.

My name is Maxime Rouiller and I'm a Cloud Advocate with Microsoft. For this month, I'm covering three major products:

For this month, I'll be trying something new. I will not be leaving a comment beside each article and will instead use a Legend with emojis (I know, it's Reddit. What am I doing!?). Thing is, it's easier to show you what's what than explain it. Where relevant, I will leave notes.


  • 📢: Major/Main article that everyone will want to read
  • 💥: Important/Must read.
  • ✨: Brand new page

Note: It's not because a page doesn't have an icon that it is not important. Everything here is either brand new or significantly modified.

Themes this month

.NET Core 3.0

  • What's new for Preview 9 and GA release
  • JSON serialization
  • CLI updates

Managed Languages

.NET Core

E-book - Blazor for Web Forms Developers (Preview) ✨


... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 100
📰︎ r/dotnet
📅︎ Oct 01 2019
🚨︎ report
i combed through DARPAs public Projects so you dont have to

This is a selection of public programs that I think are of interest, it is a bit dense but gives a clear picture of where technology is currently headed on the cutting edge and plenty of these programs have capabilites a future minded person would find quite interesting

100G program The 100G program is exploring high-order modulation and spatial multiplexing techniques to achieve the 100 Gb/s capacity at ranges of 200 km air-to-air and 100 km air-to-ground from a high-altitude (e.g. 60,000 ft.) aerial platform. The program is leveraging the characteristics of millimeter wave (mmW) frequencies to produce spectral efficiencies at or above 20 bits-per-second per Hz. Computationally efficient signal processing algorithms are also being developed to meet size, weight, and power (SWaP) limitations of host platforms, which will primarily be high-altitude, long-endurance aerial platforms.


The ultimate goal of the DARPA Accelerated Computation for Efficient Scientific Simulation (ACCESS) is to demonstrate new, specialized benchtop technology that can solve large problems in complex physical systems on the hour timescale, compared to existing methods that require full cluster-scale supercomputing resources and take weeks to months

3.Active Social Engineering Defense

I find this one especially interesting because the definition of "attacker" could easily shift to "dissenter" enabling complete control over the currently unregulated spread of politically inconvenient ideas through the internet

The Active Social Engineering Defense (ASED) program aims to develop the core technology to enable the capability to automatically elicit information from a malicious adversary in order to identify, disrupt, and investigate social engineering attacks. If successful, the ASED technology will do this by mediating communications between users and potential attackers, actively detecting attacks and coordinating investigations to discover the identity of the attacker.

4.Advanced Plant Technologies

Great now you will have to be suspicious of new weeds popping up your backyard

The Advanced Plant Technologies (APT) program seeks to develop plants capable of serving as next-generation, persistent, ground-based sensor technologies to protect deployed troops and the homeland by detecting and reporting on chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) threats. Such biological sensors would be effectively energy-independent, increasing their pot

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 1k
📰︎ r/Futurology
👤︎ u/Bmdubd
📅︎ Apr 29 2018
🚨︎ report
Cryptocurencies 101 - a guide for the complete newbie!

So I started this blog on Publishox and would love to get your feedback on it guys!

Hello world! and welcome to my first post in this Blog.

At first I'd like to say that this post is not for you, crypto aficionado, who's been on this market for x years, I'm not saying that you shouldn't read it but my idea is to talk to the newcomers, the people who now are first hearing about crypto and are interested in this amazing technology that once again is hitting the news all around the world.

The first thing I`d like to say is that I by no means am a complete expert in this field, I have of course deeply studied it for 3 years and believe I have enough Knowledge to share. I am however, open to discussions on somethings that may not be entirely true in my explanation, but please understand that I am going to go through a lot of metaphors and some of them may not completely grasp all the details that are in the technology behind cryptocurrencies and that`s OK! remember that my main idea is to get new people hooked and for them to start understanding the basic and then going further on their studies.

lets begin shall we?

What are cryptocurrencies?

>according to wikipedia:

"A cryptocurrency*,* crypto currency or crypto is a digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange wherein individual coin ownership records are stored in a ledger existing in a form of computerized database using strong cryptography to secure transaction records, to control the creation of additional coins, and to verify the transfer of coin ownership. It typically does not exist in physical form (like paper money) and is typically not issued by a central authority. Cryptocurrencies typically use decentralized control as opposed to centralized digital currency and central banking systems. When a cryptocurrency is minted or created prior to issuance or issued by a single issuer, it is generally considered centralized. When implemented with decentralized control, each cryptocurrency works through distributed ledger technology, typically a blockchain, that serves as a public financial transaction database"

Wowowow, that a lot of confusing words and most of you probably didn't understand a thing, But that's why I'm here! so lets break it down to some things:

"a cryptocurrency is a digital asset"

Being so it doesn't exist in a physical form, so coins with a bitcoin picture doesn't mean anything.

"designed to work as a medium of exchange"


... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 28
👤︎ u/Pdvsky
📅︎ Mar 10 2021
🚨︎ report
The Press maketh a mistake

"The Press maketh a mistake" = 2001 in the trigonal cipher ( "Society" = 911 trigonal )

A headline rings across the world in 2021 with freudian slip for 'numbers':

> BREAKING NEWS: Surge in Covid-19 numerology in Brazil

A=1: And the world doth blink.



Close, but still too veiled a metaphor:

> Hackers leak stolen Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine data online


Also, close, but even though sex sells, most will not figure it out:

> 2,500-year-old temple to Greek love goddess unearthed in Turkey


> Archaeologists have discovered the world's oldest known cave painting: a life-sized picture of a wild pig that was made at least 45,500 years ago in Indonesia

A savage burn... as they say in slang-speech.


> Threat to democracy is real': MPs call for social media code of conduct

ie. treat to mob rule is real.


> Minimum age of marriage for women should be raised to 21, says Shivraj Chouhan | He said a new system will be put in place, under which any woman moving out of her house for her work will register herself at the local police station, and she will be tracked for her safety.

A gender 21?


> A howler —

> Dire wolves aren’t wolves at all—they form a distinct lineage with jackals

> The extinct canids had been isolated from wolves for 3 million years.

  • "The Howls" = 911 english-extended | 1812 squares

Of jackals, JKL are sequential letters in the alphabet.


Trump is a doppelganger:

> Luxembourg calls Trump a 'criminal' and 'political pyromaniac who should be sent to criminal court'

  • "The political pyromaniac" = 1981 trigonal | 773 primes ([*](/r/GeometersOfHi
... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 2
📅︎ Jan 13 2021
🚨︎ report
[ Bitcoin ] Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?
Topic originally posted in Bitcoin by almkglor [link]

This is a follow-up on

Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?

And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendor/implementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.

First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.

  • You the HODLer should be the one who controls where your money goes. Your keys, your coins.
  • You the HODLer should be able to coordinate and make contracts with other people regarding your funds.
  • You the HODLer should be able to do the above without anyone watching over your shoulder and judging you.

I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).

So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).

(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 1

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 2
📅︎ Jul 19 2020
🚨︎ report
The Privacy Coin Guide Part 1

As interest picks up in crypto again, I want to share this post I made on privacy coins again to just give the basics of their evolution. This is only part 1, and parts 2 and 3 are not available in this format, but this part is informative and basic.

If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess what the best privacy coin in the current space is, which has the best features, or which is most likely to give high returns, then this is not that guide. My goal is to give you the power to make your own decisions, to clearly state my biases, and educate. I really wanted to understand this niche of the crypto-space due to my background and current loyalties[1], and grasp the nuances of the features, origins and timelines of technologies used in privacy coins, while not being anything close to a developer myself. This is going to be a 3-part series, starting with an overview and basic review of the technology, then looking at its implications, and ending with why I like a specific project. It might be mildly interesting or delightfully educational. Cryptocurrencies are young and existing privacy coins are deploying technology that is a work in progress. This series assumes a basic understanding of how blockchains work, specifically as used in cryptocurrencies. If you don’t have that understanding, might I suggest that you get it? [2],[3],[4] Because cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before reaching their end-game: when the world relies on the technology without understanding it. So, shall we do a deep dive into the privacy coin space?


Cryptocurrencies allow you to tokenize value and track its exchange between hands over time, with transaction information verified by a distributed network of users. The most famous version of a cryptocurrency in use is Bitcoin, defined as peer-to-peer electronic cash. [5] Posted anonymously in 2008, the whitepaper seemed to be in direct response to the global financial meltdown and public distrust of the conventional banking and financing systems. Although cryptographic techniques are used in Bitcoin to ensure that (i) only the owner of a specific wallet has the authority to spend funds from that wall

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 3
📅︎ Aug 10 2020
🚨︎ report

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