Removing Formaldehyde‐Induced Peptidyl Crosslinks Enables Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Peptide Hormone Distributions from Formalin‐Fixed Paraffin‐Embedded Tissues

The preservation of biological samples in formaldehyde induces intra‐ and inter‐crosslinking of peptides, which hampers the mass spectrometric detection of those analytes. Chemical reversal of formaldehyde‐induced peptidyl crosslinking permits mass spectrometry imaging of intact peptides, while protecting the spatiochemical characteristics of analytes in formalin‐fixed paraffin‐embedded tissues.

Abstract

Linking molecular and chemical changes to human disease states depends on the availability of appropriate clinical samples, mostly preserved as formalin‐fixed paraffin‐embedded (FFPE) specimens stored in tissue banks. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enables the visualization of the spatiotemporal distribution of molecules in biological samples. However, MSI is not effective for imaging FFPE tissues because of the chemical modifications of analytes, including complex crosslinking between nucleophilic moieties. Here we used an MS‐compatible inorganic nucleophile, hydroxylamine hydrochloride, to chemically reverse inter‐ and intra‐crosslinks from endogenous molecules. The analyte restoration appears specific for formaldehyde‐reactive amino acids. This approach enabled the MSI‐assisted localization of pancreatic peptides expressed in the alpha, beta, and gamma cells. Pancreatic islet‐like distributions of islet hormones were observed in human FFPE tissues preserved for more than five years, demonstrating that samples from biobanks can effectively be investigated with MSI.

https://ift.tt/30DfvEN

👍︎ 2
📰︎ r/ACIE
💬︎
📅︎ Oct 01 2020
🚨︎ report
[Compounds] GHRPs aka Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides

Because their are a few of them and a thread for each one wouldn’t have a lot of traction, I decided to combine them into one thread to make info gathering easier.

For those unaware, each week we have a specific steroid or PED up for discussion. This week we are discussing GHRPs. The goal of these threads is to generate discussion about the posted compound and get a wide variety of user experiences and feedback about it. These threads are extremely useful as an archive for new users, and for experienced users researching a new compound. This is all anecdotal, of course, and you should take these reviews with a grain of salt.

Stuff to discuss could include:

  • Benefits/gains you experienced
  • Side effects you experienced, physically or mentally (good or bad)
  • Details of the cycle you included the compound in
  • Whether you liked the compound or not and whether you’d use it again

What this thread ISN'T for:

  • General questions about the compound that are answered by the wiki, or would be better suited for the Ask Anything thread
  • Spitballing your next cycle
  • Non-constructive criticism of other users cycles
  • General questions about compounds that aren't directed at a user who has shared their experiences

Note: Comments violating these few simple guidelines will be removed

As always, read the entry in the wiki (if applicable) and follow the rules. Please, discuss away.

Wiki Compound Profile

👍︎ 42
📰︎ r/steroids
💬︎
👤︎ u/iSkeezy
📅︎ Mar 14 2020
🚨︎ report
A link between peptide hormone secretion and the EDS/MCAS/POTS triad

I've been doing some research into EDS over the past few years as I think it may run in my family; I have a theory I am working on I thought I would like to discuss with you guys.

As vasopressin antagonists cause mast cell degranulation study here my running theory is that some of the symptoms of the EDS, MCAS and POTS triad are as a result of improper peptide hormone secretion. Low vasopressin not only causes a lowered threshold for mast cell degranulation, but would account for many of the symptoms of POTS - low blood volume, orthostatic intolerance, etc.

The ACLP (aortic carboxypeptidase like protein) discovery which was posted on the sub earlier this month may be an insight as to why this is the case. If there is carboxypeptidase activity in cells when there should not be, this may interact with the secretion of vasopressin, oxytocin and many other peptide hormones involved with wound healing, growth and blood clotting. This would eloquently explain a vast amount of conditions which are linked to Ehlers Danlos; diabetes (insulin is a peptide hormone so release is linked to carboxypeptidases), autism spectrum disorders and inattentive form ADHD (linked to low oxytocin activity), problems with slow wound healing or clotting disorders, maybe even skeletal malformations such as scoliosis and lordosis (low growth hormone release causes weak supporting muscles in the back, allowing for improper curvature).

I'm going to do some more research to come to more solid conclusions, but I think I'm going in the right direction here - does anyone have anything to add?

👍︎ 2
💬︎
📅︎ Jun 21 2020
🚨︎ report
from AAMC OG questions: amino acid precursors to peptide hormones??

there was a question where you needed to know that tryptophan is the precursor to serotonin. are there any other peptide hormone precursors we should know about? I had no idea we even needed to know this.....

👍︎ 2
📰︎ r/Mcat
💬︎
📅︎ May 28 2020
🚨︎ report
[Fiensand] Red Sox pitcher Steven Wright has received an 80-game suspension without pay after testing positive for Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide 2 (GHRP-2), a performance-enhancing substance, in violation of MLB's Joint Drug Prevention and Treatment Program. twitter.com/feinsand/stat…
👍︎ 1k
📰︎ r/baseball
💬︎
👤︎ u/TPoitras25
📅︎ Mar 06 2019
🚨︎ report
CB Dollaway Accepts Sanction for anastrozole, growth hormone releasing peptide 2 (GHRP-2 or pralmorelin), a metabolite of GHRP-2, and GHRP-6 ufc.usada.org/cb-dollaway…
👍︎ 190
📰︎ r/MMA
💬︎
👤︎ u/Leaf_CrAzY
📅︎ Aug 26 2019
🚨︎ report
[Spencer] John Collins' 25-game suspension will begin tonight vs. the Spurs. According to the league, he violated the terms of the NBA/NBPA Anti-Drug Program by testing positive for Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2 (GHRP-2). twitter.com/sarah_k_spenc…
👍︎ 29
💬︎
📅︎ Nov 05 2019
🚨︎ report
Why are second messenger cascades (and thus peptide hormone) effects short-lived?

The main example Kaplan gives of a peptide hormone's signal cascade is cAMP causing changes in transcription/gene expression via the phosphorylation of CREB protein.

From what I understand, hormone effects that influence gene transcription are slow because it takes a while for the transcription, translation, and then the new protein to do its thing. This explains slow - I also thought the effects were long-lived/not transient, but I actually don't know why.

However Kaplan says that peptide hormones (and thus cAMP) effects are usually rapid and short-lived/transient. From what I understand, hormone effects are rapid when they turn on/off already-existing proteins in the cytoplasm. However the main example they give, where cAMP causes CREB to change gene transcription, is literally the opposite of that.

So I had a couple questions:

  1. Why are peptide hormone effects usually rapid and short-lived? Does cAMP just phosphorylate already-existing proteins more often than it phosphorylates transcription factors?

  2. What makes an effect short-lived or long-lived? Do the second messengers get degraded quickly or something? Thanks.

👍︎ 3
📰︎ r/Mcat
💬︎
📅︎ Feb 23 2020
🚨︎ report
Steven Wright suspended for 80 games for Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide 2 (GHRP-2), a performance-enhancing substance. twitter.com/PeteAbe/statu…
👍︎ 125
📰︎ r/redsox
💬︎
👤︎ u/wickedjak
📅︎ Mar 06 2019
🚨︎ report
Of the hormones we have to know, which are peptide/steroid/amino-acid derived hormones?

I just encountered a question on the question bank which required that I know FSH was a peptide hormone. I wasn't aware of this and was wondering if there's some chart or pneumonic or something that breaks down what we have to know in regards to this.

👍︎ 2
📰︎ r/Mcat
💬︎
📅︎ Jan 05 2020
🚨︎ report
The Chronicles of Chad Steroid Hormones Dominance over Virgin Peptide Hormones
👍︎ 329
📰︎ r/Mcat
💬︎
📅︎ Jan 03 2019
🚨︎ report
Somatropin & (HGH) Human Growth Hormone Injection|peptide hormones -USVIndia usvindia.com/somatropin.p…
👍︎ 2
💬︎
👤︎ u/navisri024
📅︎ Nov 25 2019
🚨︎ report
BHRT and Human Growth Hormone peptides - anyone have any experience they can share

My doc just tested my hormones and found I'm very low in testosterone so I got testosterone pellets placed, I'm also on biest cream and progesterone and have started HGH peptide injections. Does anyone have any experience with this cocktail they can share - specifically with body composition changes? The past year I have still been working out like crazy but have gained a LOT of body fat and have been dealing with insane sugar cravings.

👍︎ 8
📰︎ r/Menopause
💬︎
📅︎ Jul 25 2019
🚨︎ report
Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides (GHRP-6) Explained! youtube.com/watch?v=Clvqf…
👍︎ 10
📰︎ r/Peptides
💬︎
👤︎ u/Sgmetal
📅︎ Sep 24 2019
🚨︎ report
Growth Hormone peptides gains?

Looking solely as a means for muscle growth. Been lifting for 8 months now. Can anyone chime in with the gains and results youve gotten from a simple GHRP-6/GHRH stack?

And do you think its a good idea when size/strength is my main goal? I've recently had to quit marijuana due to probation and I'm really keen on the appetite effects of GHRP.

Should I try this out for a while or should I go back to r/steroids and do the yourfirstcycle?

👍︎ 3
📰︎ r/Peptides
💬︎
📅︎ May 07 2019
🚨︎ report
Hormone removes the pleasure of smoking: A peptide prevents the brain of a smoker from registering satisfaction from a cigarette. sciencenordic.com/hormone…
👍︎ 3k
📰︎ r/science
💬︎
👤︎ u/Libertatea
📅︎ Oct 19 2013
🚨︎ report
Metals such as iron, chromium, copper and zinc influence secondary structure and uptake of C-peptide hormone. Study is part of a new field of metalloendocrinology. ucdavis.edu/news/metals-i…
👍︎ 25
📰︎ r/science
💬︎
👤︎ u/andyhfell
📅︎ May 17 2019
🚨︎ report
whhere can you get the cheapest and best Melanotan-2, CJC-1295, PT-141, GHRP-6, HGH Fragment 176-191, Follistatin, BPC 157, IGF-1 peptides [email protected]

[email protected]

skype: cotanjames

whatsapp:+86-13802264524

+86-13175204014

telegram/wickr: steroid825

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Growth hormone peptides:

MGF

PEG-MGF

CJC-1295 With DAC

CJC-1295 Without DAC

PT-141

Melanotan-1

Melanotan-2

GHRP-2/6

Follistatin 344/315

TB500

HGH Fragment 176-191

IGF-1 LR3

GDF-8

ACE 031

Ipamorelin

Hexarelin

Sermorelin

Oxytocin

BPC 157

Triptorelin

Tesamorelin

Gonadorelin

DSIP

Selank

AOD-9604

Epitalon

Argireline Acetate

SNAP-8

Thymosin α1 Acetate

dermorphin

Deslorelin

How to proceed

  1. Pinpoint what you need, specification, assay, grade.

  2. Ensure the discreet parcel and offer the suitable shipping method for reference.

  3. The payment that you available for.

  4. Shipped out until you paid 100% in advance.

  5. Arrange the shipment according to your requirements.

  6. Tracked the code when it is online.

https://preview.redd.it/kqza8t4377y21.jpg?width=664&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=280a6bc742752ee0324030a60ea7ef76f38537d8

https://preview.redd.it/hsaogr43

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 2
💬︎
📅︎ May 14 2019
🚨︎ report
Anterior pituitary hormones are all derived from peptides?

Are FLAT PEG hormones all peptide hormones?

👍︎ 8
📰︎ r/Mcat
💬︎
📅︎ Jan 08 2019
🚨︎ report
Why are some hormones peptides (Insulin, HGH), while others are non-peptides (dopamine, testosterone)?

Some hormones are peptides/proteins, like insulin and HGH, and they bear a more complex structure than simple organic molecule non-peptide hormones such as dopamine and testosterone.

Why do some hormones need an amino acid chain, while others are not? Peptides are fragile since very little energy is required to break the peptide bonds between the amino acids. Non-peptide molecules are much more stable.

Wouldn't it make more sense, then, that all hormones will be non-peptides? Why is there that distinction?

👍︎ 31
📰︎ r/biology
💬︎
📅︎ Feb 25 2017
🚨︎ report
Men lose weight easier, study: A class of hormones known as POMC peptides, which regulate body weight, acts differently in female mice than in male mice, according to a collaboration of researchers across four continents. The difference appears to make it harder for female mice to lose weight. washingtonpost.com/news/t…
👍︎ 89
📰︎ r/science
💬︎
👤︎ u/Libertatea
📅︎ Feb 10 2016
🚨︎ report
The muscle-secreted, exercise-induced peptide hormone apelin decreases with aging and sarcopenia. Restoring it in aged mice with recombinant protein improves muscle mass and function.
👍︎ 6
📰︎ r/sciences
💬︎
👤︎ u/SirT6
📅︎ Aug 01 2018
🚨︎ report
The muscle-secreted, exercise-induced peptide hormone apelin decreases with aging and sarcopenia. Restoring it in aged mice with recombinant protein improves muscle mass and function.
👍︎ 15
📰︎ r/Futurology
💬︎
👤︎ u/SirT6
📅︎ Aug 01 2018
🚨︎ report
Cocaine and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) peptides are recognized as major Neurotransmitters and Hormones. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti…
👍︎ 4
📰︎ r/Nootropics
💬︎
👤︎ u/Lokzo55
📅︎ Sep 20 2018
🚨︎ report
Shi Davidi: "BlueJays minor-league outfielder David Harris suspended 76 games for use of a PED (Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide 2 or GHRP-2)." twitter.com/shidavidi/sta…
👍︎ 25
💬︎
👤︎ u/sigbox
📅︎ May 20 2016
🚨︎ report
Discussion: AAS, peptides, or growth hormone causing any type of muscle hyperplasia?

Okay guys I have heard the claims quite a few times that supplementing with HGH or igf-1 can result in muscle cell hyperplasia(growth of new muscle cells) or even the splitting of muscle cells, however, I have yet to see any study or academic journal showing this in any way. I was wondering if anyone here has done research regarding this topic and has any type of study showing this? Just to be clear I am not talking about cell hypertrophy but cell hyperplasia.

👍︎ 22
📰︎ r/steroids
💬︎
📅︎ Mar 09 2016
🚨︎ report
Cognitive effects of peptides affecting growth hormone

So, I'm sure I'm not the only one who's gone peptide mad and has tried out the GHRH and GHRP peptides (mod-grf1/cjc-1295 no dac/cjc-1293 + ipamorelin 100mcg each TID)... So far the main cognitive effect I've noticed is that I'm much more clear-headed in the morning from improved sleep quality but it does feel like there is some slight psychoactivity at times. There are also studies like http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22869065/ but I don't know if that would be expected to apply to GHRH analogs. Anyone with some experiences here or who has researched this at all?

👍︎ 23
📰︎ r/Nootropics
💬︎
📅︎ Apr 18 2014
🚨︎ report
One-year intranasal application of growth hormone releasing peptide-2 improves body weight and hypoglycemia in a severely emaciated anorexia nervosa patient onlinelibrary.wiley.com/d…
👍︎ 17
💬︎
📅︎ May 26 2015
🚨︎ report
A preliminary study might hold the key to why over-80s are prone to losing weight. The research by Mary Hickson, Professor of Dietetics at Plymouth University, found that after eating, elderly people produced a greater amount of peptide YY (PYY) – the hormone that tells humans when they’re full. psypost.org/2016/08/great…
👍︎ 17
📰︎ r/science
💬︎
📅︎ Aug 08 2016
🚨︎ report
Born today : November 30th - Andrew Schally, Endocrinologist, Nobel Laureate, "for discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain", "developed a whole new realm of knowledge concerning the brain's control over the body chemistry" en.wikipedia.org/wiki/And…
👍︎ 4
📰︎ r/borntoday
💬︎
👤︎ u/spike77wbs
📅︎ Nov 30 2016
🚨︎ report
One-year intranasal application of growth hormone releasing peptide-2 improves body weight and hypoglycemia in a severely emaciated anorexia nervosa patient onlinelibrary.wiley.com/d…
👍︎ 3
💬︎
📅︎ May 26 2015
🚨︎ report
Sublingual or DSMO Based Administration of Ipamorelin (A Selective Growth Hormone Secretagogue) and Other Peptide Drugs. Is it possible?

Hey everyone, I'm wondering if anyone has tried sublingual administration of peptides either with water, alcohol (probably not a good idea I would think), propylene glycol, glycerin, etc. Anyone have any experience or insights? Thanks!

👍︎ 3
📰︎ r/Drugs
💬︎
👤︎ u/Treedit
📅︎ Oct 13 2015
🚨︎ report
One-year intranasal application of growth hormone releasing peptide-2 improves body weight and hypoglycemia in a severely emaciated anorexia nervosa patient onlinelibrary.wiley.com/d…
👍︎ 34
📰︎ r/science
💬︎
📅︎ May 26 2015
🚨︎ report
Born today : May 18th - Vincent du Vigneaud, Biochemist, Nobel Laureate, "for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone", "for the isolation, structural identification, and total synthesis of the cyclic peptide, oxytocin" en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vin…
👍︎ 2
📰︎ r/borntoday
💬︎
👤︎ u/spike77wbs
📅︎ May 18 2016
🚨︎ report
Discovery of a low affinity thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-like peptide that exhibits potent inhibition of scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice (2015) ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2…
👍︎ 6
📰︎ r/Nootropics
💬︎
👤︎ u/FW900
📅︎ Aug 13 2015
🚨︎ report
Angiotensin II, an endogenously produced vasoactive peptide hormone, has been found to enhance breast cancer cell migration and metastasis plosone.org/article/info%…
👍︎ 12
📰︎ r/science
💬︎
📅︎ Apr 21 2012
🚨︎ report
Hormone removes the pleasure of smoking: A peptide prevents the brain of a smoker from registering satisfaction from a cigarette. sciencenordic.com/hormone…
👍︎ 2
💬︎
📅︎ Oct 19 2013
🚨︎ report
Removing Formaldehyde‐Induced Peptidyl Crosslinks Enables Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Peptide Hormone Distributions from Formalin‐Fixed Paraffin‐Embedded Tissues

Linking molecular and chemical changes to human disease states depends on the availability of appropriate clinical samples, mostly preserved as formalin‐fixed paraffin‐embedded (FFPE) specimens stored in tissue banks. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is an established technique that enables visualization of the spatiotemporal distribution of molecules in biological samples. However, MSI is not effective for imaging FFPE tissues because of the chemical modifications of analytes, including complex crosslinking between nucleophilic moieties. Here we used an MS‐compatible inorganic nucleophile, hydroxylamine hydrochloride, to chemically reverse inter‐ and intra‐crosslinks from endogenous molecules. The analyte restoration appears specific for formaldehyde‐reactive amino acid residues. This approach enabled the MSI‐assisted localization of pancreatic peptides expressed in the alpha, beta, and gamma cells. Pancreatic islet‐like distributions of islet hormones were observed in human FFPE tissues preserved for more than five years, demonstrating that the rich repertoire of samples from biobanks can effectively be investigated with MSI.

https://ift.tt/30DfvEN

👍︎ 2
📰︎ r/ACIE
💬︎
📅︎ Aug 07 2020
🚨︎ report
[Compound Experience Saturday] Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides (GHRP) & Growth Hormone Releasing Hormones (GHRH)

For those unaware, each week we have a specific steroid or PED up for discussion. The goal of these threads is to generate discussion about the posted compound and get a wide variety of user experiences and feedback about it. This is all anecdotal, of course, and you should take these reviews with a grain of salt.

Stuff to discuss could include:

  • Benefits/gains you experienced
  • Side effects you experienced, physically or mentally (good or bad)
  • Details of the cycle you included the drug in
  • Whether you liked the compound or not and whether you’d use it again
  • Each ester you have used and if your experience varied (if applicable)

This week’s Compounds/PEDs is:

  • Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides (GHRP)
    &
  • Growth Hormone Releasing Hormones (GHRH)

Wiki's Growth Hormone Peptides Section: Here

As always, read the entry in the wiki (if applicable) and follow the rules. Please, discuss away.

👍︎ 57
📰︎ r/steroids
💬︎
👤︎ u/SwoleTide
📅︎ Mar 18 2017
🚨︎ report
Sublingual or DSMO Based Administration of Ipamorelin (A Selective Growth Hormone Secretagogue) and Other Peptide Drugs. Is it possible?

Hey everyone, I'm wondering if anyone has tried sublingual administration of peptides either with water, alcohol (probably not a good idea I would think), propylene glycol, glycerin, etc. Anyone have any experience or insights? Thanks!

👍︎ 5
📰︎ r/askdrugs
💬︎
👤︎ u/Treedit
📅︎ Oct 13 2015
🚨︎ report
Sublingual or DSMO Based Administration of Ipamorelin (A Selective Growth Hormone Secretagogue) and Other Peptide Drugs. Is it possible?

Hey everyone,

I'm wondering if anyone has tried sublingual administration of peptides either with water, alcohol (probably not a good idea I would think), propylene glycol, glycerin, etc.

Anyone have any experience or insights?

Thanks!

👍︎ 3
💬︎
👤︎ u/Treedit
📅︎ Oct 10 2015
🚨︎ report

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