Google is using Deep Learning to Predict the Olfactory Properties of Molecules

Wonder what this would mean for the future of fragrance? Could it end the debate if a perfume smells woody or not? Could it kill some of the art in making perfume as you could just come up with the molecules needed to make a certain smell, no need for trial and error

👍︎ 20
📰︎ r/fragrance
👤︎ u/zsiddique
📅︎ Oct 25 2019
🚨︎ report
Using Deep Learning to Predict the Olfactory Properties of Molecules…
👍︎ 2
📰︎ r/hackernews
👤︎ u/qznc_bot2
📅︎ Oct 26 2019
🚨︎ report
Using Deep Learning to Predict the Olfactory Properties of Molecules…
👍︎ 2
📅︎ Oct 25 2019
🚨︎ report
Olfactory ensheathing cells from the nasal mucosa and olfactory bulb have distinct membrane properties…
👍︎ 2
👤︎ u/sburgess86
📅︎ May 21 2019
🚨︎ report
Crema: good, bad, ugly, indifferent

Nespresso published their own take on the subject in 2012, before the Vertuo system was introduced:

There re numerous scientific and scholarly papers that explain the chemistry, physics, and olfactory properties of crema that differentiate it from more simple, less noble foams. Just put the term into google and get ready for an hour or two of fascinating reading. You should also find treatises and video lectures by James Hoffmann and other coffee experts.

The question of how the Vertuo system delivers its crema, or foam, if you prefer, is open for debate. Is it real crema? Is it just dumb foam created artificially by injection of air? I do not know exactly how the Vertuo system functions but pressure is pressure, whether it generated by a pump or is a reaction to centrifigul forces in a spinning container. Coffee granules contain lots of CO2 that is trapped in the plant's cellular material. You can release the CO2 in a pour-over and see how the hot water produces a layer of foam.

👍︎ 9
📰︎ r/nespresso
👤︎ u/bogiesan
📅︎ Oct 16 2020
🚨︎ report
Tincturing & ethanol choices


I'd like to tincture cistus resin. I live in a country where pure ethanol and anything above 40% ethanol beverages are very hard to come by. I understand however, that nearly pure ethanol is needed for the resins not to rot/decompose in solution.

I can find denaturated ethanol in stores and I've been considering to order perfumer's alcohol. Can I use either of these to make tinctures? Will the denaturants in ethanol alter the olfactory properties of the final product? Will the added solvents in perfumer's alcohol? Are there any good alternatives, that you know of?

Thanks a lot!

👍︎ 4
👤︎ u/Okkeh
📅︎ Sep 16 2018
🚨︎ report
A WARNING To Those Thinking They Need A Quarantine Puppy

Are you having a conversation with your significant other about getting a puppy during quarantine? I didn't actually know why I was resistant to the idea. But I was.

The reason I'm writing is that my suggestion is that if you have any hesitation to becoming a pet owner, any at all, hold off. If I knew then what I knew now, I would have put my foot down and said, "Unequivocally, no. Not until quarantine lifts."

So, a few things you might need to know (or, things I definitely did not know):

1.) Baby Dogs Cannot Go Outside. At All. - if you don't have your own yard, like we don't. There is a virus called parvo. Your dog needs to be vaccinated for this, and cannot go outside for 12-16 weeks, until the multiple vaccinations are complete. The actual amount of time is dependent on which vet you talk to. But let me reiterate: for a full quarter of the year, your dog cannot go outside. You will have poop and pee smell in your house because you cannot take the dog on walks. We are training our guy to go to the bathroom in the garage, and he does absolutely excellently 90% of the time. It's the hidden poops that he likes to leave, say, mashed into the pedals under the piano. Or in the front hallway where little tootsie-roll poops are harder to see for a variety of reasons. Those leave a mark on the olfactory environment you inhabit. And sufficiently exercising a puppy inside the house takes a lot of time and dedication. It's a responsibility that we accept. But man it can be tough. And time-consuming.

2.) PETRIFIED PENISES, AND YOU. - Our dog is comforted by Bully Sticks when he gets overwhelmed. They are all that works. My wife was holding one for him, and commented, "These work well. I just wish they didn't get so slimy." I mistakenly told her, "You know you're holding a dried out bull penis in your hand, right?" She did not know. While the Bully Sticks comfort the dog, they do not now comfort my wife.

3.) Puppies Friggin' BITE. - All the books I read talked about nipping and mouthing as social behaviors in young dogs...somehow, this language was too gentle, and I didn't really get it. What the books mean is, "Your dog's mostly not trying to hurt you. He's testing you. He's trying to play with you, the same way he plays with other dogs. Don't get mad at him. This behavior will go away with repetitive training." Our dude does not bite me (hard) anymore. But I'm the biggest presence in the house. In the beginning though? He broke

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 50
📰︎ r/puppy101
📅︎ Jan 25 2021
🚨︎ report

Audio Version

Gmbinder Version

"WHAT!? BWHAHAHAHAHAHAA! You ACTUALLY thought you would come into MY guild and steal my most precious treasure!? Oh, that's too funny! I'm afraid, not funny enough though, you are beginning to bore me. All right, pull the lever, to the Grick Pitt with you... Oh my, I forgot how hungry they were..." - The last words heard by the intrepid "heroes."


As I tirelessly work to recover the lost knowledge since our library fire, we had lost nearly all information on the creatures known as the Gricks. While not an uncommon creature, in fact, they are quite common in even this city; not many take the time to study the "mundane" beasts of the world sometimes. Studying specimens both close to home, in captivity, in the wild, and in the far reaches of the Prime Material Plane has resulted in some exciting finds.


There are not many records of, tales, or stories involving Gricks as they have just been a fact of humanoid life since the start. We do see rudimentary Grick traps, gates, and even pits from as far back as we know, archeologically suggesting even then, as of now, they were always a small nuisance. However, on where the Gricks come from, we have no knowledge.

There is 1, it's overly friendly to say culture, but more of a cult that attributes Gricks with being the watchers of civilization for their "Masters in the Sky." I'm sorry if you subscribe to this thought; summarily, no, this is not their origins. This line of thought popularized enough to, at one point, having Gricks classified as aliens or as aberrations.

We do know from careful study that they are indeed advanced Annelida like the more researched Purple Worm. They are advanced in many ways for catching small prey or as groups taking down larger meals. Unlike their massive purple kin, they do not burrow as well and rely mostly on predation and ambush for catching food.

Physiological Aspects

Identifying a Grick

Gricks are common in many realms but sometimes miss-recognized as worms. Usually earthy tones browns, dark greens, and even black at times, their long segmented bodies appear as en

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 441
👤︎ u/Fortuan
📅︎ Dec 23 2020
🚨︎ report
Errata 2 but it's just the new stuff (that I could see)

So the new round of errata for the PF2 CRB is out, but unfortunately they kind of put it in a mixing bowl with the first round of errata and it's a bit hard to tell which is which. Given how much there is, that kind of makes things difficult, so I decided to sort through the new and the old and make a list.

Odds are I've accidentally included or excluded something I shouldn't have, or someone else has already done this and I couldn't find it, or it won't matter because Paizo will do it themselves in a few hours. Nevertheless:

· Page 52 and 59: Halfling and Orc Weapon Familiarity has the wrong language for how to treat weapons with the halfling or orc trait; all ancestries with Weapon Familiarity should only treat the weapons as a different category for the purpose of determining proficiency. Change the final sentence to "For the purpose of determining your proficiency, martial halfling/orc weapons are simple weapons and advanced halfling/orc weapons are martial weapons."

· Page 85: In the barbarian's greater juggernaut class feature, change the last sentence to read “When you roll a failure on a Fortitude save against an effect that deals damage, you halve the damage you take.” This removes confusion about how to handle critical failures on saves against damaging effects.

· Page 103: Remove the Requirement in the bard's Effortless Concentration to match all the other Effortless Concentration feats.

· Page 112: Add tenets of good to the Prerequisites of Smite Evil. We accidentally omitted it.

· Page 113: Blade of Justice should not be limited to paladins only. Remove the paladin prerequisite from Blade of Justice, and the last sentence becomes "Whether or not the target is evil, you can convert all the physical damage from the attack into good damage, and if you are a paladin, the Strike applies all effects that normally apply on a Retributive Strike (such as divine smite)."

· Page 121: Deadly Simplicity had a benefit for unarmed attack favored weapons, but such clerics did not actually qualify. Change the prerequisites to add unarmed attacks.

· Several classes were accidentally missing an important limitation for 10th level spells. In the following class features, add “You can’t use this spell slot for abilities that let you cast spells without expending spell slots or that give you more spell slots.”

Page 121: Miraculous Spell

Page 133: Primal Hierophant

Page 207: Archwizard's Spellcraft

· Page 125: Emblazon Antimagic has the wrong counterac

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 227
📅︎ Nov 10 2020
🚨︎ report
Has The Mandalorian Succumbed to the Dark Side? - Vulture

Anita tweets:

>How about I do myself a favour and end this already terrible year by expressing no more opinions about the Mandalorian [HomerBackingIntoBush.gif]

3 days later Anita tweets:

>Just leaving this very good and thoughtful article here:

Mando Season 2 Spoiler Warning

>The second-season finale of The Mandalorian was the best of Star Wars and the worst of Star Wars, a momentarily thrilling and moving episode that, once you stepped back and took a hard look at it, felt more like a victory for the dark side.
>Created by Jon Favreau — Disney’s speed-dial answer to David O. Selznick, a producer-director-writer who has worked on Marvel, Star Wars, and Disney Animation projects simultaneously — The Mandalorian is earnest and lovingly crafted, easily the freshest thing Lucasfilm has given viewers since Genndy Tartakovsky’s 2003 Cartoon Network classic, Clone Wars. For two seasons, it has tapped into the light side of the franchise, represented by the humor, action, world-building details, and friendship narratives that have defined George Lucas’s science-fiction fantasies since 1977. But in the final moments of “Chapter 16: The Rescue,” the series succumbs to the dark side of parent company Disney’s quarterly-earnings statements, which keeps dragging Star Wars back toward nostalgia-sploitation and knee-jerk intellectual-property maintenance.


>...was really onscreen to reclaim The Mandalorian for that sector of the Star Wars fan base that refuses to accept anything that feels like a revision, subversion, or expansion of what they already know they like — particularly when the new iteration asks them to look beyond all the lovely, shiny things onscreen and think about whether their own relationship with the tried-and-true elements of Star Wars is healthy.
>Speaking as a card-carrying OG Star Wars nerd — literally: I bought the first set of trading cards at my neighborhood comic shop in Kansas City

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 2
👤︎ u/suchapain
📅︎ Dec 29 2020
🚨︎ report
Analyzing the "Senses" Power

The Senses power, as described in the rulebook, is a tangled mess. Some of the features listed are senses, some are modifications to existing senses, some are just weird and none of it is clearly documented.

I've put together what I think might be an understanding of how this is intended to work and I wanted to run it by the folks here to get second (and third) opinions and see if I have misunderstood anything.

First of all, it seems that there are "Sense Types", and within each "Sense Type" you may have multiple senses. I'm pretty sure this is the model because there are lots of places where it specifies different costs for buying a property for just one sense or buying it for an entire "sense type".

The list of sense types appears to be:

  • Visual
  • Auditory
  • Olfactory
  • Tactile
  • Mental
  • Radio (not listed, but called out as being its own sense type)

There are also listed a bunch of modifiers for senses. These can sometimes be applied to an individual sense, sometimes to a whole sense type (probably with a different cost). Here is the list of modifiers that I believe can be applied to senses:

  • Accurate
  • Acute
  • Analytical
  • Counters Concealment
  • Counters Illusion
  • Extended
  • Low Light (vision sense type only)
  • Penetrates Concealment
  • Radius
  • Ranged
  • Rapid
  • Tracking

Then many of the things listed under Senses are actually senses. Characters get certain senses "for free" (I'll label these "Normal" as in "Normal Sight"), and some of the items listed are new senses. Many of these default to a certain sense type (although I suppose one could change that?) and a few can easily be assigned to any sense type one wants. Here is what I think the senses are, grouped by default sense type:

  • Visual
    • Normal Sight
    • Infravision
    • Ultravision
    • NOT Darkvision -- that's just "Penetrates Concealment"
  • Auditory
    • Normal Hearing
    • Ultra-Hearing
  • Olfactory
    • Normal Smell/Taste
  • Tactile
    • Normal Touch
    • Detect
  • Mental
    • Normal Mental Awareness
  • Radio
    • The "Radio" sense
  • Pick Any Sense Type
    • Awareness
    • Communication Link
    • Danger Sense
    • Microscopic

There are also a few things that I think are senses, but don't seem to fall into any sense type nor do they NEED a sense type really. They're just weird one-off abilities:

  • Direction Sense
  • Distance Sense
  • Time Sense

And finally, there seem to be a couple of things listed that affect ALL of your senses if purchased. At least I think MAYBE that's how

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 13
👤︎ u/mcherm
📅︎ Dec 04 2020
🚨︎ report
[DEPUTY SHERIFF] Introduction to Cat Lady


If you've read any of my prior stories in various subreddits, you'd know I was a Firefighter/EMT for 15 years and a Deputy Sheriff for 12 years, so for those who weren't aware, there you go. When I transferred over to the Court Division of the Sheriff's Office, I was assigned to work the security screening checkpoint at the main entrance. By this point (somewhere during 2005), I had worked out in the field, in Emergency Services as a FF/EMT and LEO for around 17 years. I've been to so many scenes of death, I wouldn't even be able to hazard a guesstimate. You name it, if it can be done to the human body, I've seen it many times over, and I've seen just about every stage of decomposition of the human body, as well as the odor produced by the process. You would probably think someone would just get used to the smells, and not have any issues. This is actually true, as long as it's the same smell, and while you are there. At first, your sense of smell will be overwhelmed by the pungent odor of death, and as you go on at the scene, you'll eventually became less sensitive to it, if you are there long enough. This does not mean you will stay desensitized for your next encounter.

Along with being blessed by God with the gift of healing hands (as in being a very good EMT), I was also blessed blessed with hypersensitive hearing and olfactory receptors. Both were equally sensitive, so I could hear the faintest of sounds, and smell the faintest of odors. On one cold January morning, while manning the post, a woman entered the court house through our revolving door, and I was suddenly struck by an odor, the likes of which I had never been exposed to before. It was also dialed up to 11 on the Stankometer, meaning she was not only putting off an extremely foul scent, it was also as if a perfume she'd doused herself with from head to tow a few times just before entering the building. This was not body odor. It was the combined odor of ammonia, fecal material and musk I immediately could guess was from some sort of feline. I knew it wasn't human or canine, but to me it was worse than getting sprayed by a skunk.

Not only did I have the unfortunate pleasure of guiding her through the standing metal detector, I also had to search her purse. If I thought her odor was the

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 16
👤︎ u/DCaplinger
📅︎ Nov 29 2020
🚨︎ report
I hired a locksmith to let me back inside my house. Unfortunately, I hadn't thought to read his online reviews.

A few days ago, I accidentally locked myself out of my house after having gone out for groceries. When I returned to my home and found the doors locked, I quickly Googled and contacted a local locksmith. I had groceries which required freezing, and a dog inside—two things which prevented me from “shopping around” for a reputable locksmith. I merely selected and dialed the first decent-looking one I came across.

I was given a reasonable quote over the phone, and also a time at which to expect the locksmith. However, nearly two hours passed before he showed up. His truck was unmarked and presumably his personal vehicle, and his clothing was similarly plain; there was nothing to associate him with any service or company. He was nice enough, though, and even apologized for his lateness—although an explanation wasn’t offered.

He fiddled with the door for a moment, retrieved some tools, and went to work. A few minutes and a change of tools later, he opened the door. It was fairly hot outside, so I went in and grabbed a water bottle for him. He graciously thanked me, and then we began the payment process. I’d been somewhat annoyed at his lateness, but the quickness of the actual unlocking of the door and his politeness had made my bad temper simmer down. But then he told me the job total, and I again became annoyed—it was well beyond the amounted quoted over the phone. But having little time to waste, I accepted and confirmed the payment, then went inside.

The total had been two-hundred dollars. I had had plans that day, so I put the incident in the back of my mind and went about my business. The following day, while relaxing and browsing stuff on the internet, I remembered the cost of the locksmith job which had all but drained my wallet. I Googled locksmith services in my area, even contacted a few of them, and came to the conclusion that I had been ripped-off, considerably. The job had been during regular operational hours, the locksmith had been late, the method he’d used was amateur—likely to cause damage to the door, a risk I was not forewarned about—and he wore nothing which identified his company. In hindsight, everything about the experience was unprofessional.

Luckily—or so I thought at the time—the third-party payment service they used gave the option to dispute the charge in the link provided by the text receipt. I selected it, and after briefly explaining my situation I was contacted by a customer service representative. But despite

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 7k
📰︎ r/nosleep
📅︎ Jul 16 2020
🚨︎ report
On the purpose and function of the 24th-Century Space Shovel

We've seen shovels a few times on Star Trek. TNG: "Captain's Holiday" and DS9: "Shadows and Symbols" come to mind. These, however, were very ordinary-looking. Not much different from what you might find in a hardware store today. Not a big surprise. Even with 300 years of technological progress, there's only so much you can do to improve on something as basic as a shovel, right?

Wrong! For at last, we have seen a true Space Shovel in LDS: "Second Contact". A gift from Ensign Mariner to a couple of Galardonian farmers to ease their subsistence struggles. These are not ordinary tools, as we can clearly see a computerized readout attached to the beam of each as seen here. This also explains why Ensign Boimler considers them advanced enough to be in violation of regulations regarding unauthorized transfer of technology. As demonstrated when Kira was describing the type 3 phaser rifle to Ziyal, the Federation loves putting bells and whistles on things.

Now, just because a civilization is warp-capable doesn't mean there isn't poverty, but I find it hard to believe that this planet (Galar Prime?) is so impoverished that tools as basic and vocationally-critical as a shovel and hoe would be beyond the bartering power of this farming couple. Mariner went out of her way specifically to provide them with Federation-grade equipment, believing they may well starve without them. This could be touch exaggerated, but the point is, it's not just the tools they need, but the technology that comes with them. What makes them so special that they could mean the difference between life and death? What kind of futuristic magic are these ordinary-looking farming implements imbued with?

I'm not an expert on hoes, but I am an expert on shovels (disclaimer: I'm not), so I present to you the in-depth theoretical analysis on the Federation's Standard Humanoid-Operable Vertical Ergonomic Lifter (S.H.O.V.E.L.) that nobody asked for.

Active Features

  • Antigravity field: A miniaturized antigraviton generator can be activated to reduce the apparent mass of the shovel and its payload. AI heuristics automatically fine-tune the magnitude of the field based on local gravity and user strength for optimal comfort and consistency.

  • Annular containment field: Enables an annular force field, enveloping the edge of the blade end to contain the payload and increase carrying capacity beyond what the payload's angle of repose would normally allow.

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 319
👤︎ u/Xenics
📅︎ Aug 20 2020
🚨︎ report
Resolution of the hard problem

A brief essay explaining the essentials of how qualitative experience emerges from matter:

The Nature and Human Impact of Qualia

Qualia have captured the imagination of philosophy of mind for generations, with a substantial body of scholarly literature devoted to analysis of this subject.  What are these phenomena both internal and external to mind, which create the appearance of our world while simultaneously informed by environments, both inside and outside of matter?  Why do qualia differ between species and human individuals, even when surroundings are identical, and looking at the opposite side of the coin, why are qualia similar enough that many billions of organisms can perceive, conceive, predict each other’s behaviors, intentions, even overall mental states despite the differing conditions of their biochemistries and physiologies?  Some phenomenon basic to the structure of mind as such must exist, embodied in all these variant lifeforms as a foundational dynamic of cognition, yet at the same time so diverse and intricate that no two moments of experience are ever exactly the same, even for the intense self-observance of our human psyches.

Certainty regarding the nature of qualia pends further research, but we can make some preliminary speculations based on current science.  In particular, the application of quantum physics to biology sheds light on intriguing phenomena.  Scientists have identified entanglement in photosynthetic reaction centers within which light-activated electrons of multiple chlorophyll molecules are more like a single perturbing quanta field than a particle transport chain, with energization transmitted to centrally located reaction center complexes responsible for initiating biochemical pathways that drive much of cellular metabolism in plants, stimulation that can take place from any direction and while diffuse electron wavicle structure is in any orientation.  We can liken this quanta phenomenon to a subatomic body of water, where translation of light into kinetic energy at any point in the electron field generates a holistic ripple effect that never fails to evince statistical signs of reaction center activation in direct proportion to UV exposure, total energy yield from any quantity or orientation of ultraviolet photons.

Though experimental proof is still lacking, the key functional role of ‘entanglement systems’ or hybrid electron waves spanning multiple molecules to a biological process as basic as photosynth

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 2
📅︎ Dec 25 2020
🚨︎ report
Can anyone dumb down this sentence about insufflation for me?

I saw this on a page discussing insufflating noopept. It seems to be suggesting that intranasal administration allows certain chemicals to pass the BBB easier. But I thought that had to do with the compound's chemical properties, not route of administration.

"The nose enables certain drugs and other molecules to bypass the blood brain barrier via diffusion through the olfactory epithelium and the perineural sheath or via retrograde axonal transport along olfactory and trigeminal nerves."

So can anyone tell me what the above quote is really saying? And is it true?

👍︎ 8
📰︎ r/Drugs
📅︎ Oct 15 2020
🚨︎ report
[Tales From the Terran Republic] Sheloran the Loan Shark and Caw Makes a Phone Call

The colors of the past and future rush together with ever increasing speed.

Do you like Jackson Pollock?

And Caw has the most interesting friends, doesn't he?

The rest of this series can be found here


“You had better get your pathetic little notes ready, you malformed gelatin!” Caw said cheerfully to Karashel as they walked back into the Xx embassy.

“Oh I will, you blue-crested peckerhead!” Karashel said with a laugh. “Prepare to get knowledged!”

Laughing they entered the lobby.

“So did you stop them?” one of the guards asked with a flick of his crest.

“You better fucking believe it!” Caw crowed as he walked past. “The humans were going to blow it up, you know.”

“What?!?” the guard screeched. “What did you do?”

“Not a progenitor-cursed thing!” Caw replied over his shoulder as he and Karashel, still laughing, walked off.

“Wait!” the guard screeched, abandoning his post as it sprinted after them.


“Saving the archives sure works up a thirst,” Karashel said as they turned towards their offices. “Want to hit the canteen? There is a juice box calling my name! I just love the purple ones!”

“I would love to,” Caw replied, “but I gotta… um… take care of something first.”

“One of those ‘um’ things?”

“Yeah... I gotta do an ‘um’.”

“Well I guess I could call my mom first,” Karashel replied. “She is probably sliming the floor by now.”

“You are a disgusting species, you know?”

“You’re one to talk,” Karashel laughed.

“What do you mean? We are the height of beauty and grace.”

“Oh you’re pretty,” Karashel replied. “I’m talking about your smell.”

“Are you saying we stink?!?”

“I have olfactory pits and taste buds all over my foot,” Karashel grinned. “I thought my mother’s organic gardening phase was bad! Do you guys ever wash your feet?”

“You taste wherever you walk? That’s disgusting!”

“You don’t know the half of it,” Karashel laughed.

“Just when I thought my opinion of the baleel couldn’t drop any further...” Caw snickered. “Well I gotta… um… do stuff.”

“Have fun with the ‘um’. I gotta go calm down my mom,” Karashel smiled. “For some reason she thinks my life is dangerous or something… Maybe I’ll skip where we spent the afternoon.”

“Good idea,” Caw chuckled. “I’ll come get you when the ‘um’ is over.”

“Cool.” Karashel said as she undulated into her office.


Caw chuckled as he entered his office.

“Blue-crested peckerhead,” he snickered. “I like that one.”

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 406
📰︎ r/HFY
📅︎ Jun 25 2020
🚨︎ report
The Middle Kingdom of Urodel

NAME: The Middle Kingdom of Urodel (more commonly just called the ‘The Middle Kingdom’ or ‘The Kingdom of Urodel’)

FLAG: link


GEOGRAPHY: The Kingdom of Urodel is situated in the subtropics in the warm, humid climate the Urodelans are adapted to. Most of the land is covered in forests and wetlands, and is home to a large quantity of lakes, rivers and other bodies of freshwater. The most notable of these is Lake Caudat, situated in the centre of the Kingdom’s capital, Urodel, due to the magical properties of its water.

BIOLOGY/ETHNICITY: The Urodelans are a race of humanoid salamanders consisting of a number of different ethnic groups relating to more specific species. They typically live to around 55 years and their average height ranges from around 4 to 4 and a half feet tall, 1.2 - 1.4m, but can look shorter due to their spines naturally curving when at rest. Most possess a long, smooth body ending in a maneuverable tail and have shout, stout limbs. The number of digits a Urodelan has as well as their patterning varies greatly across ethnic groups, but they typically possess between 2 and 5 and are brightly coloured. Their skin offers little in the way of natural defence, being thin and soft, however glands distributed beneath give a mucus coating which when paired with their flexible spines makes them remarkably agile. Some groups of Urodelans glands' are able to secrete a toxic coating, and as a race they possess a near unrivalled ability to heal and regenerate.

Urodelans are a predominately amphibious race, being purely aquatic in their infancy before undergoing a metamorphosis towards the end of their second year. During a period of no more than a few days they transition to a form able to live on land, where the majority of Urodelan society is located, while still retaining the ability to exist underwater from anywhere of a few hours to indefinitely depending on the Urodelan. However, this is not true for all Urodelans, with some groups such as Xlotls being neotenic, meaning they never undergo metamorphosis and remain aquatic creatures for the entirety of their lives.

Male and female Urodelans are near identical to outside observers, with most the the signifying distinctions being olfactory as opposed to visual in all but a few ethnic groups. Olfactory cues play a large role in Urodelan communication where facial expressions might for other races,

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 16
👤︎ u/JFritz2308
📅︎ Oct 04 2020
🚨︎ report
A thorough DD on $VTGM (Vistagen)

EDIT: Title is wrong, ticker should be $VTGN

What is $VTGN?

  • Vistagen is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing new generation medications for anxiety, depression and other central nervous system, or “CNS,” diseases and disorders where current treatments are inadequate to address high unmet need.
  • Link

What are their Pipelines?

  • Their CNS pipeline includes three differentiated clinical-stage drug candidates with potential for convenient, at-home use, rapid-onset therapeutic benefits, and exceptional safety in multiple large and growing mental health and neurology markets where current treatments fall short of patient needs.
  • Their pipelines are:
    • PH94B neuroactive nasal spray
    • PH10 neuroactive nasal spray
    • AV-101

What is PH94B?

  • It is a neuroactive nasal spray
  • In development for social anxiety disorder (SAD)
  • is a synthetic investigational neurosteroid with a novel, rapid-onset mechanism of action that is fundamentally different from all current drug treatments for SAD
  • Developed from proprietary compounds called pherines and administered at non-systemic microgram doses as an odorless nasal spray, PH94B binds to nasal chemosensory receptors which activate neural circuits in the brain that suppress fear and anxiety.
  • Specifically, PH94B engages nasal chemosensory receptors that trigger a subset of neurons in the main olfactory bulbs (OB). OB neurons then stimulate inhibitory GABAergic neurons in the limbic amygdala, decreasing release of norepinephrine, and facilitating fear extinction activity of the limbic-hypothalamic parasympathetic system.

What is PH10?

  • a synthetic investigational neurosteroid with a novel, rapid-onset mechanism of action that is fundamentally different from all current treatments for MDD (Major Depressive Disorder)
  • PH10 binds to nasal chemosensory receptors which activate neural circuits in the brain that produce antidepressant effects.
  • PH10 binds to nasal chemosensory receptors that trigger a subset of neurons in the main olfactory bulb (OB). OB neurons then stimulate neurons in the limbic amygdala that release norepinephrine and increase activity of the limbic-hypothalamic sympathetic nervous system.

What is AV-101?

  • AV-101 belongs to a new generation of investigational medicines in neuropsychiatry and neurology known as NMDA glutamate receptor modulators.
... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 88
👤︎ u/PradoMV96
📅︎ Jul 31 2020
🚨︎ report
Psych classes towards BCPM GPA?

Would these psych classes count towards my BCPM GPA?

PSY 444 - Biological Rhythms in Behavior

Course Description: This course will examine the importance of timing in behavior as well as the internal timekeeping systems that regulate this timing. We will cover a diverse array of biological rhythms with an emphasis on daily and seasonal rhythms to gain an in-depth understanding of their formal properties, underlying physiological mechanisms, importance for animal behavior, and impact on human health.

PSY 443 - The Neurobiology of Communication in Animals

Course Description: Focuses on the evolution, function, design, and diversity of animal communication systems such as song and visual signaling in birds, calls and echolocation in dolphins, echolocation and olfactory signaling in bats, olfactory signaling in insects, and electrical signaling in fish.

👍︎ 3
📰︎ r/premed
📅︎ Oct 30 2020
🚨︎ report
The Science of the Defenders

The Defenders was a one-time street-level vigilante group that differed from its larger Avengers counterpart in that its members eschewed the larger-than-life personas (beyond the urban legend reputations they gained from their activities), mainly concerned themselves with organized crime or personal vendettas, and showed (with one exception) a distinct lack of interest in pursuing future partnerships. Its membership only ever consisted of four metahumans: the Devil of Hell’s Kitchen, the Alias Investigator, the Hero of Harlem, and the Living Weapon.

Daredevil - Matt Murdock is an ordinary person with extraordinary training. Under the tutelage of Stick, he learned meditative biofeedback techniques that rewired his brain, specifically the pulvinar nuclei of the thalamus, which lessened the sensory gating that filters out environmental stimuli.

The pulvinar nuclei in the thalamus function as the gatekeeper, deciding which information should be inhibited, and which should be sent to further cortical areas. The Central Nervous System, after the pulvinar nuclei deems the information to be irrelevant, acts as an essential inhibitory mechanism that prevents the information from flowing into higher cortical centers. Sensory gating is mediated by a network in the brain which involves the auditory cortex, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, as well as the olfactory cortex, which plays a part in sensory gating phenomenon.

This on top of his extensive training, gave him unparalleled situation awareness. Martial arts can be learned and mastered by blind people, such as the DisFiSen and Blindfolded Chi Sao, because there are only so many directions. However, Matt went a step further by crafting a style that mixes Boxing, Wing Chun, Trapping, Silat, and Kali.

Jessica Jones - At a very young age, Jessica Jones was the victim of a car accident and was subjected to a radical and illegal genetic experiment to save her life. The gene editing techniques were very advanced for its time, but not well understood and prone to unforeseen side-effects, such as severe behavioral instability. The company responsible for her life-saving procedure was IGH, which itself was a front for secret division of the US Special Forces. While the program was ostensibly meant for purely medical gene editing cellular regeneration techniques, its true goal was to create combat enhancers for soldiers (most likely an effort to recreate the famous Super-Soldier Serum).

Contractile proteins

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 20
👤︎ u/88y53
📅︎ Sep 23 2020
🚨︎ report
Nisa's Wicked Perversions 2.2.0n

*If you were already using the beta in the folder this is the same version just declared stable now

***there's a document in the folder titled Occult Form Tutorial and Changelog that further explains this update

Time to get Succ-Succing!

When I started on Wicked Perversions 2 years ago, I had my sights set on this release. Back then, it was more of a distant dream than anything else. I didn’t think there would be much interest in my mod but then there was. During the first year, it was tempting to give in and release some watered-down version of succubi which functioned similar to caged birds. I even had some patrons begging me to do just that, a simple motive which refilled during sex. I wouldn’t have been happy with succubi in such a state. So, for 2 years I played with concepts, drafted plans, remade plans, and worked to better myself until I felt like I could deliver on a unique interpretation on these often-neglected sex demons of mythological origin. I’ve even released a few features I wanted for succubi as part of other features of the mod for test runs (I’m glad I did!). I’ve poured my everything into succubi. With a 30 percent increase in the number of scripts for my mod (70+ brand new scripts) in this single release, Succubi make use of just about everything I’ve learned over the last two years in one way or another and after more hours of planning, debugging, and developing then I care to admit not just over the last few months but over the course of two years while working on other projects, I’m happy to share with you the first look at their foundation through the Wicked Succubi Beta!


It pains me to admit that our public education has failed us in such a way that most people can do simple math but not everyone knows of the tale of the succ-succs. Succubi and their male counterpart Incubi, are sex demons. They are creatures who feed off sex. In the most classic of stories they harvest energy by giving people lewd dreams while they sleep, but there is a lot of deviation when it comes to defining a succubus. Instead of going on tangent about succubi representation by various cultures, in various stories, I’ll tell you about my succubi, my wicked succubi.

Wicked Succubi allows your sim to become the sex demon of legend, the succubus. It’s my first true occult state. While Son’s/Daughter’s of the Easter Hare would practically qualify as an occult state, it’s still a trait-based state. My su

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 15
📰︎ r/TS4_Rebels
👤︎ u/nandesss
📅︎ Oct 13 2020
🚨︎ report
[SHARE] Fulfilled Textbook Request Megathread #5

Download any of these for free at

DM me if you have any requests for anything not on the list.

If you want solution manuals/testbanks, you can also request them

Almost all the books are in their latest editions and some of them are available in multiple editions too.

Please subscribe the sub to find all the latest textbook releases.


1 [Book] (JSTOR) Mishima, Aesthetic Terrorist: An Intellectual Portrait by Andrew Rankin(self) 1 [Article] The Cancho i Ferrer - Solé model does not explain Zipf's Law(self) 1 [BOOK] The Skills Training Manual for Radically Open Dialectical Behavior Therapy: A Clinician’s Guide for Treating Disorders of Overcontrol By Thomas R. Lynch(self) 3 [BOOK] Quantum Mechanics, Volume 3: Fermions, Bosons, Photons, Correlations, and Entanglement by Claude Cohen Tannoudji, Bernard Diu, Frank Laloe(self) 1 [Article] Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of an Urdu-version of the summary of Diabetes self-care Activities Measure (U-sDsCA)(self) 1 [Book] Advanced Asset Pricing Theory, by Chenghu Ma(self) 4 [Article] How open is OpenGLAM? Identifying barriers to commercial and non-commercial reuse of digitised art images(self) 2 [Article] RandomForest4Life: A Random Forest for predicting ALS disease progression(self) 1 [BOOK] Training in Interpersonal Skills: TIPS for Managing People at Work by SP Robbins and PL Hunsaker(self) 2 [Article] A Technological Review on Multilevel Matrix Converter for Wind Power Generation System(self) 1 [Book]Speaking of Writing: A Brief Rhetoric by Allegra Goodman; Michael Prince(self) 2 [Article] Human Rights and Tear Gas: The Question of Carter Administration Officials Opposed to the Shah -- Javier Gil Guerreo, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 43(3): 2016.(self) 2 [BOOK] Commercial Law Concentrate (Law Revision and Study Guide) by Eric Baskind (5th edition, Oxford University Press, 2019)(self) 1 [BOOK] Road Map for Revolutionaries: Resistance, Activism, and Advocacy for All(self) 5 [ARTICLE] Developing Symptoms: Noncommunicable Diseases Go Global(self) 4 [Book] Varieties of Secularism in Asia (Routledge) by Nils Bubandt, Martijn Van Beek(self) 2 7 [Book] Quantitative Modeling of Derivative Securities, by Peter Laurence(self) 2 [Book] 20 Years of Censored News by Carl Jensen and Project Censored(self) 2 [Book] Histoire de la rhétorique dans l'europe moderne (1450-1950), ed. Marc Fuma

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 7
👤︎ u/jaylenholt
📅︎ Jul 23 2020
🚨︎ report
Transcription of many of Chabon's Instagram Q&A questions for Picard 1x08, "Broken Pieces" [spoilers]

As you know, Chabon's Instagram Q&A requires Instagram to view, and is a bit awkward to access, especially through a web browser. So for this week at least, I decided to take some free time I had to transcribe many of the questions he was asked along with the answers he gave. Also, note that there was a character limit for the questions, so some are heavily abbreviated or lacking spaces.

I did not transcribe every question and answer, I'd estimate at least half, but probably less than 2/3, usually making the decision based on what would be of interest here. Notably, there were many questions that would have been very spoilery to answer, which he generally replied to with a magic 8 ball, crystal ball, or something similar, though other questions were omitted as well. The questions and answers are mostly in the order they appeared, but the order may have broken down towards the end some.

Questions from people on instagram will be in bold, while Chabon's answers will immediately follow in normal text.

Finally, I will point out that Chabon's answers occasionally had what I'd personally consider light spoilers, such as occasionally seemingly deconfirming theories, so be aware of this if you are particularly spoiler-averse.

What aspect of this script were u most pleased with, and what aspect would you re-do? Thx! The script's no really there for me to be pleased with. It's just a blueprint for the work of the immensely talented actors, directors, director of photography, production designer, costume designer, properties master, etc., all of whom collaborated to make something we all loved. As for changing things, changing is kind of all you do when you're writing a production script like this. It changed, and changed, and changed, then it was time to shoot it, so we shot it.

So is Starfleet on Picard's side again officially? It sure seems that way to me!

Did Frakes actualy make the pizza? And was it any good? There waas a professional pizzaiolo who schooled him and prepared many practice and candidate pizzas, but when you see Frakes on camera prepping a pizza, that is actually Frakes prepping a pizza. He put one on the oven, too. And, yes, they were quite delicious.

Who was the fine actor who portrayed Captain Vandermeer? His name is Vincent Teixeira.

Is the Ibn Majid a Emmet Till type? No, it was a *Curiosity*-class cruiser.

So we have Emmet, Ian, & Enoch. What are the EMH and EHH's names? Emil, and Mr. Hospit

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 164
📰︎ r/startrek
👤︎ u/PaperSpock
📅︎ Mar 13 2020
🚨︎ report
An Ultimate, Rational, and Coherent guide of the ketamine experience

The basic workshop and guide

You must integrate Dr. John C Lilly's "The deep self" as a manual to study yourself with the highest quality software of navigating inner space that I've ever encountered. I can email you the PDF version of this book.

I consider myself a ketamine connoisseur, and the most prominent aspect to the idiosyncratic chemical is its lack in efficacy and consistency from synthesis to synthesis within batch to batch (brands). This means that there is a large array of effects of ketamine and instead of it being primarily dose dependant, it is more important to know which brand/batch/synth produces consistent psychedelic material in a vertical manor.

In my experience the two brands that have maintained an integral consistency over many years is Ketalar by Pzifer, (where as Parke Davis pharmacy was the original ketamine provider until 1999) and the brand called Ketaset. Any other brand that I've encountered was either inconsistent in its own efficacy on a long-term basis, or the company eventually disappeared because of law enforcement or because of lack of overall financial funding.

Now let's start with that as our control. The next step in exploring this chemical is to use the subcutaneous or intramuscular injection route of administration. IV is not necessary, as it truly only increases the speed of the onset of effects and not the absorbtion rate in any noticeable regards. (IM has a 93% absorbtion rate) Using IM is ideal because the onset is delayed for up to 5min, which gives you time to clean up your gear and to settle in for the trip. Intranasal use through Insufflation will never produce the proper onset and absorbtion rate to use the chemical as a scientist would, and it will also destroy the functionality of your olfactory system.

Once you have obtained the proper synthesis in a sealed vial, and you are using sterile 25gauge hypodermic needles and 3ml syringes to inject the product into a muscle of your choice, then you can truly begin this exploration. Now of course external stimulation like light, sound, gravitational forces (centrifugal force) and tactical stimulation (hot or cold) should be attenuated to the furthest degree in our current science using the sensory deprivation tank if possible (the centrifugal force can only be eliminated if you are in orbit around our planet, but you do free up computational space and activity in the cerebellum). Otherwise you can attenuate the E.R. as much as you can and realize that

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 110
📅︎ Feb 27 2020
🚨︎ report



关于图中各曲线,下列说法中正确的是(         )















突尼斯是首批支持“一带一路”倡议的国家之一,突尼斯驻华大使迪亚哈立德表示,2017年5月,在突尼斯举办了第一个“中国高等教育展”。很多突尼斯学生期待着在中国学习,中国被认为是他们准备硕士和博士学位的首选目的地之一,以上材料表明(      )(从A~E中选择)在到达北京的第二天,突尼斯驻华大驻迪亚哈立德就拥有了自己的微信账户,因为他听说,在中国如果没有微信就无法工作生活。而事实上也确实如此,如今“微信”“支付宝”已经融入我们生活,这也是很多外国朋友希望带回自己国家的“礼物”,以手机支付为例,你觉得它的优势是(      )(从F~I中选择)











________ were brought back to China during the Silk Roadtime.




□Precious spices


□Coloured glazes








下列哪些不是从西域传入中原的植物(              )(从A~F中选择)

新疆地区首次纳入中国版图的标志性事件(              )(从G~K 中选择)











This Silk Road could be dated back to morethan ____years ago. (从A~D中选择)

the Silk Road time, Chinese tea was brought abroad which was called ____.(从E~J中选择)



□E.Chinese green tea

□F.Chinese brown tea

□G.Oriental leaves

□H.Eastern  leaves

□I.Chinese leaves

□J.Chinese drink


The Belt and Road Initiative, proposed by____. (A. China or B. the U.S.)in ____(C. 2013 or D. 2014), aims at building atrade and infrastructure network connecting Asia with ____(E. America or F.Europe or G. Africa) along the ancient Silk Road trade routes.

□A.China□B.The U.S.


□E.America □F.Europe




... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 8
📰︎ r/Chinaedu
📅︎ Aug 04 2020
🚨︎ report
Human Rights Chapter 2

Hello again! I was so amazed by all the positive feedback for my first post, so I decided to try to continue with the story! I got ideas from some of the comments on ways to expand this further as well, but I wanted to write this scene first. Any criticism is welcome!

Edit: Wow!! Two golds!! Thanks so much kind strangers! The reception my nonsense has received is really incredible, it's so cool to be able to do this!



Thus far, only one of my missions goes well.

My first night in camp, I had decided my duty was twofold: one, get every single last one of the sorry idiots under my nominal command out of this goddamn camp, and two, gather intelligence on Z’lask culture. Our first full day (our watches were still set to GMT, so we figured days here lasted 27 Earth hours, 17 of which were daylight), we’d taken stock of who was here, done recon, generally got ourselves settled in. The second day we broke ground of the first of three tunnels we had going from Barracks #3, 6, and 7. It was nowhere near as difficult as we’d expected it to be; there’s no listening devices to detect digging, as far as well can tell, and the prefab barracks rest right on the ground, all we had to do was pry up the floor tiles and start shoveling. In UN POW camps, procedure is to elevate all barracks at least two feet off the ground on cement pilings to prevent this. The fourth day, I’d had to have my second conversation with the commandant. Human and Z’lask biology differed in more than just appearances, and that meant while we didn’t need the provided antibiotic powder to prevent scale rot, we really did require soap, among other things. He was particularly baffled by the notion of toothpaste. I’d learned the Z’lask don’t really have proper teeth, more blunt little nubs that their bodies take care of just fine on their own.

Which is totally unfair.

Red Cross boxes showed up two days later, to everyone’s great relief, as apparently Z’lask and humans have comparable olfactory senses.

Now it was lunchtime on day seven, the commandant having taken Article 26 to heart, and permitted us to cook our own rations and eat them when we pleased, so long as we were orderly about it. There are eighty-five prisoners total in the camp, almost all of them my crewmates from the USS Houston. It hurt to think about her, and to thin

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 1k
📰︎ r/HFY
📅︎ Jan 26 2020
🚨︎ report
SCP-4031, "The Amnesiac Redemption"

Item #: SCP-4031

Author: Lt Flops

Hello SCPDeclassified, Brewsterion here. Today, I wanted to tackle SCP-4031. This one's much weirder than what we normally do on the sub, so just a heads up that the disclaimer will probably apply more than usual, and this thing may not make a lot of sense.

As always, I need to put this disclaimer out there. This declassification is my personal interpretation of this piece and the mechanics involved in it. Your interpretations of this piece may differ from my own, as well as the author's interpretation. This is also just a standard, straightforward breakdown of the plot of this piece. No thematic analysis in my house. With that out of the way, let's dive into this brainbuster of a piece.

And in our first line we have something to unpack:

> The following file was discovered in Site-82's Research Wing.

So not only is this a paper file, the Foundation didn't know this thing existed. This was the first trace of the 4031 file they found, and evidently they found it valid enough to scan it into the database. Both of those aspects will be important a bit later in the story, so just keep that in the back of your mind as we continue through the article.

Now I know I usually skip the conprocs, but these ones are especially important:

>Special Containment Procedures: N/A

Absolutely astounding, aren't they? The sheer depth the Foundation is willing to go to for keeping this thing secure...

Joking aside, this is important. They don't have containment procedures for this thing. Not as in "We don't lock this thing up," it's more like "We legitimately do not know if we even tried to contain this thing or if we even wrote something." Why don't they know? We'll find that out by the end of the article, don't worry. There's a lot of things that are just missing in this piece that we'll know why they're missing later.

>Description: SCP-4031 is a powerful, fast-acting amnesiac of unknown makeup, quantity, and origin.
>Subjects in visual, olfactory, gustatory, auditory, tactile, and memetic range sustain short-term memory loss, disassociation, and an acidic aftertaste. Application of the amnesiac leads to a male vocalization of human origin. Exposed subjects cannot corroborate the vocalization's existence upon interrogation.

Well that's odd. Memory-erasing compounds on the wiki are usually called "amnestics", not "amnesiacs", since that's the same wor

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 488
📅︎ Apr 08 2020
🚨︎ report
Does consciousness conform to mathematical structure?

If you make a list of all conscious experiences, you get quite a lot of diversity: sight, smell, emotion, thought, conceptual understanding, etc. But since they are all "conscious experiences" they must have some fundamental properties in common. I'm wondering if mathematical structure might be one of those properties. Vision, for example, is very mathematical: we have a space (the visual field), and inside that space exist quantities (coloured geometrical shapes). We can also characterize other conscious experiences as spaces containing different types of experiential information. But whereas vision information consists of points, lines, and colours, etc, non-visual conscious spaces obviously contain information that is less "mathematical" (what, for example, is the emotional or olfactory equivalent of a point or a line?). So my question is whether, on some level, even very qualitative conscious experiences like emotions, sensations, smells, etc, can be fundamentally reduced to something like structured, pixelated, and/or geometrical experiential information existing in space-like coordinate systems that evolve through the time dimension? Is there much scholarship on this type of question? Is there any consensus? Thanks.

👍︎ 2
👤︎ u/bricknaked
📅︎ Sep 07 2020
🚨︎ report
Classic Aftershave Review: Stetson

Part 10 of my Classic Commercial Aftershave Splash Review series. All products purchased by me. Prices based on average grocery / pharmacy pricing for largest bottle available under 8 ounces. Fragrances will be reviewed in order of cheapest to most expensive.

Previous Reviews: Part 1 - Part 2 - Part 3 - Part 4 - Part 5 - Part 6 - Part 7 - Part 8 - Part 9

#Stetson by Coty

Cost per ounce: $7.75 CAD (almost 3x as much as the next most expensive product and more expensive than most artisan-made splashes)

Ingredients (abridged): Alcohol, water, parfum (including a lot of IFRA limited-use ingredients), propylene glycol (humectant), diisopropyl adipate and C12-15 alkyl lactate (emollients), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and benzophenone (UV blockers), preservatives, coloring agents

Product History

John B Stetson was born in 1830 and learned hat-making from his father. While on a gold-panning expedition in Colorado as a young man, he made himself an oversized novelty hat from beaver felt for the lulz and was later surprised when a cowboy offered him $5 for it ($80 in today's currency).

He returned to the east and set up shop as a hatter in Pennsylvania, making and selling "Boss of the Plains" felt hats based on his gold-expedition hat. High quality and expensive, the hats became a huge success all across America and within twenty years Stetson was the largest hat company in the world. Sales remained strong until WW2 destroyed

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 31
📰︎ r/Wetshaving
📅︎ Apr 20 2020
🚨︎ report
You Can Not Deny Mind Control Exists. Read Excerpts From a Patent Invention For Brain Control and Sound Wave Communication.


Other transcranial ultrasound based techniques use a combination of parameters to disrupt, damage, destroy, or otherwise affect neuronal cell populations so that they do not function properly and/or cause heating to damage or ablate tissue. Transcranial ultrasound techniques that cause these effects may include high intensities (greater than about 1 W/cm 2 at the target tissue) and/or high acoustic frequencies (greater than about 1 MHz) bioTU employs a combination of parameters that transmits mechanical energy through the skull to its target in the brain without causing significant thermal or mechanical damage and induces neuromodulation primarily through mechanical means.

  In specific examples, the acoustic energy can be directed at/or to a target region in the brain to cause a selected cognitive effect. Particular examples of target regions and cognitive effects may be found in the following list:


Cognitive effect Target region

Perception of touch Somatosensory cortex

Auditory perception Auditory cortex

Vestibular perception Temporal-parietal junction, central sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, and insular cortex

Visual perception Primary and extrastriate visual cortex

Olfactory perception Piriform cortex

Language comprehension Wernicke's area

Language production Broca's area

Long-term memory Hippocampus and parahippocampal formation (and connected portions of cortex, e.g. entorhinal cortex and perirhinal cortex)

Modulation of pain Rostral anterior cingulate cortex processing

Emotion Limbic system (e.g. amygdala)

Motor control and Primary and supplementary motor cortex; movements thalamus; cerebellum; basal ganglia; substantia nigra

Attention Gamma rhythms

Relaxation Alpha rhythms

Empathy, social Brainstem nuclei, hypothalamus, amygdala, interaction anterior cingulated cortex, prefrontal cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and other brain regions involved in oxytocin and arginine vasopressin function

Mirth and laughter Inferior temporal gyrus, cingulated gyrus, subthalamic nucleus

Fear Amygdala, insular cortex, internal capsule, nucleus accumbens, and anterior temporal gyrus

Physiological arousal, Various brainstem nuclei sleep state

Modulation of risk taking Dorsolateral prefronta

In addition to these methods, the prese

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 3
📅︎ Jun 29 2020
🚨︎ report
Consuming a western diet for as little as 1 week can subtly impair brain function & encourage slim & otherwise healthy young people to overeat, & makes it harder for people to regulate their appetite. After a week on a high fat, high added sugar diet, volunteers scored worse on memory tests.

Hippocampal-dependent appetitive control is impaired by experimental exposure to a Western-style diet


Animals fed a Western-style diet (WS-diet) demonstrate rapid impairments in hippocampal function and poorer appetitive control. We examined if this also occurs in humans. One-hundred and ten healthy lean adults were randomized to either a one-week WS-diet intervention or a habitual-diet control group. Measures of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory (HDLM) and of appetitive control were obtained pre- and post-intervention. HDLM was retested at three-week follow-up. Relative to controls, HDLM performance declined in the WS-diet group (d = 0.43), but was not different at follow-up. Appetitive control also declined in the WS-diet group (d = 0.47) and this was strongly correlated with HDLM decline (d = 1.01). These findings demonstrate that a WS-diet can rapidly impair appetitive control in humans—an effect that could promote overeating in consumers of a WS-diet. The study also suggests a functional role for the hippocampus in appetitive control and provides new evidence for the adverse neurocognitive effects of a WS-diet.

4. Discussion

One week's exposure to a WS-diet caused a measurable weakening of appetitive control, as measured by the two key ratings on the wanting and liking test. Prior to the intervention, participants viewed palatable breakfast foods and judged how much they wanted to eat them, and then how much they liked their actual taste. This test was repeated after participants had eaten to satiety. Across these pre- and post-meal tests, wanting ratings declined far more than ratings of taste liking. This manifestation of appetitive control—that is the expectation that food is less desirable than it actually tastes—changed in participants following the Western-style dietary intervention. When sated, the WS-diet group reported an equivalent decline in wanting and taste liking. This finding parallels cross-sectional data, with performance on the wanting and liking test in the WS-diet group here coming to resemble that of the habitual WS-diet consumers in Attuquayefio et al.'s [15] study. We also found that a WS-diet induced a decline in HDLM performance in the WS-diet group. This replicates a previous demonstrat

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 248
📅︎ Feb 19 2020
🚨︎ report
The senses of touch, taste and smell are really in essence the one and the same sense, they just operate on different scales, or levels of physical resolution, from macro to micro

All three senses of touch, taste and smell are about analyzing the physical properties of foreign substances external to our bodies by placing the substances in direct contact with our bodies, letting our sensing organs experience their presence.

The sense of touch is on the most macro level, where we sense the properties of macro-sized objects or substances using physical pressure on our skin.

In the sense of taste, we sense the properties of structures of the external substances on a chemical level with our taste buds on our tongue.

The sense of smell is on the most micro level, where we sense the properties of micro-sized individual airborne molecules of matter using the olfactory mucus membrane in our noses.

The three sensing organs simply experience the foreign substances on different levels of physical resolution, resulting in three different sensory experiences.

The feeling, taste and smell of a copper rod will be different experiences even though in all cases it's the same physical substance (copper atoms) that we are subjected to.

(In contrast, when seeing copper we are subjected to light (electromagnetic waves) and when hearing copper we are subjected to pressure waves in the air, so the senses of sight and hearing cannot be grouped together here in the same way that touch, taste and smell can that require physical contact with the substance being sensed.)

👍︎ 5
👤︎ u/tsvk
📅︎ Jul 31 2020
🚨︎ report
The landscape of nature, Yamadamatsu (Repost)



Yamadamatsu is established during the Edo period in Japan. the store is located west of Kyoto's Imperial Palace.

in the early years, Yamadamatsu traded various herbs and spices for traditional medicine. then they started focusing on making incense in the late 1700s and has been making incense till today. Today, they are considered to be one of the finest Japanese incense makers in the world among incense connoisseurs.

Yamadamatsu takes the traditional approach when making incense and these incenses have naturalistic tendencies that remind you of nature such as clouds, wind, and sun.

Yamadamatsu captured this nature’s landscape in their incense. each incense has a unique story in it and you can hear it when you carefully listen.

Among Yamadamatsu's various products, I'd like to introduce you to their high-grade incense today.

Yamadamatsu High-grade incense

The package comes with a letter of thanks, it adds feels like being greeted personally. the high-grade line comes in a traditional, hand-made feeling package. each color on packages reflects the scent and classic pattern decorated paper wrap protects the contents from damage.

Package - Kagetsu

Package - Suifu Extra

Package - Kayo


  1. The English translation name of each product is not the official product name of Yamadamatsu, but I arbitrarily translated it.
  2. The scents and materials in the review are my subjective opinions and may not be accurate.
  3. In 2018, Yamadatamtsu changed the diameter of all incense. (thinner) so old batch and new batch might smell different.

※ Orders in ascending by price

Obai, 鴬梅

Translated name: Bush Warbler, and plum blossom

Price: ¥500


... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 16
📰︎ r/Incense
👤︎ u/GlossyBean
📅︎ Mar 29 2020
🚨︎ report
I'm a PI. Something Weird's Been Happening In My Hometown (Finale)

(Part 1)

(Part 2)

(Part 3)

(Part 4)

(Part 5)

(Part 6)

(Part 7)

(Part 8)

(Part 9)

(Part 10)

(Part 11)

Anger, fear, guilt and pride. Those feelings coursed through my veins, radiated through my core, and seized my heart as I heaved Trix’s body over the broken pillars and piles of rubble that littered the ruins of the manor. A coughing fit overcame me as soot blew up into my face and spilled down my lungs. I gripped Trix tighter, fearful that I’d drop her on to the ground and finish what the beast couldn’t.

My muscles were tight with anger, contracting in anticipation for a fight that was delayed. I was ready to die, ready to risk it all on some vague hope that I could end it all, that I could rid the world of either the monster or myself. It was an act of pride, an act brought forth by a promise to a friend. A promise to myself and a promise I’d indirectly made to my father.

His purple face flooded my vision as I took the few remaining steps to the car, the familiar feeling of bile arose in my throat and I struggled to choke it back down. There was no running from my past, not now, not ever again. I looked down to Trix, who lay unconscious in my arms, her fragile figure limp against my body. I would end this all, that much I had to do, but first, I had to save this girl.

I carefully opened the rear door of my car, and placed her gently on the seat. She groaned lightly as her

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 207
📰︎ r/nosleep
👤︎ u/Ipatusaur
📅︎ Oct 25 2019
🚨︎ report
Jon-Chan and the Summit of Mount Dewnali: Fellowship of the Dew

Hey Moonhorse, Sango, and the Celestial herd.

I brought a tale, a fanfiction of many words.

I have cometh and I delivereth a tale of neckbeardia. A tale of Jon-Chan and his fellowship of the Dew.

Brace thyselves, i have wrote a long story, who knew.

So grab some popcorn, some water and wine.

Get comfortable and enjoy a tale of mine.

"Do you really think he is the one?" A squeaky rat-like voice snarled

"Ah yes! Most certainly" replied a deeper toned man. "Whilst the young man has never unsheathed his blade, I believe this gentleman's determination in the battle sims is a testament to his unwavering strength!

The two men-children were observing a a pudgy young man in his mid 20's, sitting on a wooden chair playing an online match of Halo on his Alien-ware laptop, dying repeatedly to a highly skilled player with a sniper rifle. The mans neck is draped with a brown, Cheetos stained beard that stretches down to his collar bone and is equipped with a red baseball cap with white letters saying 'Make Hentai Hot Again'. After being domed in the head for the 6th time in a row, he throws a hissy fit and lets out a mighty REEE.

All of his features and actions are being observed by the two gentlesirs behind a one way sheet of glass.

"After, all he is CWC-born."

"The last CWC-born couldn't even defend our nations against Chad!"

"Perhaps, but if it wasn't for her actions, you and I wouldn't be standing here discussing her as we speak"

There was a moment of considering what the deeper voiced man said "Fine, point taken" snarled the rat-like fellow begrudgingly. "But even if the council does continue with this notion, he is just one man and an undisciplined gentleman with the dexterity of a slug drunk off of Moonshine at that. "

The young man is fortunate enough to finally kill the sniper, after dying to his hands at least twelve times. He then proceeds to have a heated, but insulting gamer moment and spews a few racial slurs.

"Thats why he will not go alone, for you shall accompany him..."

"Jonathon Easton Chandler!!" bellowed a squeaky bony beta boy clad in silver samurai armor that is a tad too big for him. "The supreme wisdom and nobility of the Dewrito council has summoned you"

"About time those cucks requested me" groaned Jon-Chan "I've been mopping the floor with this loser for the past tens minutes on Sandtrap."

"Uh so does mopping the floor mean getting your stupid ass schwacked every ten seconds!" The boy replied sullenly.

"What the fuck!?

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 6
📅︎ Jul 03 2020
🚨︎ report
[OC] The Great Sin

[AN: This is my first piece for this subreddit, created primarily by beating my forehead on the keyboard until it came out. I apologize in advance for any grammatical errors. It spun out of considering Star Trek's Prime Directive... and what would happen should such a directive be violated on Modern Day Earth. Probably not the most original premise, but I hope you enjoy anyway.]


The Galactic Scouting and First Contact Division was a prestigious organization. They risked life and extremity to go out into the unexplored, if at least somewhat scanned, wilderness of the galaxy and to be the first point of contact for emerging sentience. Of course, such a weighty and hazardous occupation required extensive training beyond Basic, indeed requiring no less than three Advanced prerequisites before one could even apply to the Academy.

As a branch which is funded by and answers to the Council, it has many foibles and no few security checks to ensure that only well-adjusted beings are selected for these often very long journeys within relatively compact vessels and no real contact with civilization for the tour period. There are also some courses which are security-flagged for other reasons. One which is most often remarked upon was a final-stage course whose title was simply [REDACTED].

Many students often wonder about this course, which appears to be a relatively short one as courses go, and whose passing is one of the highest bars and mandatory for graduation. Furthermore, the class came with a waiver of permission for mental blockage for all who fail the course. Rumors abound about the contents and nature of the course, ranging from the ribald supposition of a course on the mating habits of pre-FTL species to the hypothetical black hole map and navigation technique that was the joke of the physics department. But no one who knew would tell, so the students were unaware of what they were getting into as they filed into class.

It was clearly held in a lecture hall, although with Security being so tight it might simply be a staging area, some supposed. Eventually the electromagnetic blip signaled the beginning of class. Role call was taken, and was double-checked. Absentees were noted, and security personnel were sent to detain and remove these individuals from the academy. Then, the doors were sealed and locked, which caused a slight murmur to ripple along the spectra of communication.

"Greetings, class. Before we begin, I am legally required to

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 399
📰︎ r/HFY
📅︎ Oct 10 2019
🚨︎ report


The metasediments are intensely folded along the contact with the intrusive. The mine area is located along the limbs of the anticlinal structures with most of the workings following either the igneous-sedimentary contact, or the southeast-trending fault and vein systems.

Super easy geology.

Super easy mine layout. A large, open adit; one way in, one way out. Easy access main draft, all nicely gobbed, cribbed, and trussed. Safe as houses. No shafts to surface, and only a few lateral drifts. It’s drier than Carrie Nation’s panties, no moisture at all. It’s probably a real honeycomb hangout for the locals; all the more reason I chose this property to blast first.

I arrived there in my new Hummer in only 75 minutes. Damn, that MIL-spec truck has some power.

I back the truck and trailer in so the trailer is right up against an outcrop wall of some of the nicest, cleanest sandstone I’ve seen in a quite a while. It forms a nice, natural amphitheater, about 250-300 meters in length, with a slight concave curve. It’s a great place to pitch camp and less than 10 minutes later, I’ve got a nice little campfire going in my nice, little, newly constructed campfire pit.

I have my feet up in my new, Bureau-supplied camp chair, a beer in one arm of the chair, and a cigar in the ashtray in the other arm.

I have the Bureau-supplied (from now on: “B-S”) spotting binoculars and I’m looking directly down the only route available that’s not pocked with VW Beetle-sized potholes and refrigerator-sized boulders. It’s not just an easy mine, it’s fairly easy access.

I’m working on my ubiquitous notes, and a fourth beer, when about an hour later, I hear a couple of vehicles headed my way.

I look through the binoculars and see it’s the catering service the Bureau has laid on for the duration of the trip. They are contracted to do everything. Feed us, clean up, stock groceries and drinks, provide Port-A-Johns, and follow us from mine to mine.

Sounds weird, I’ll admit. I never had such service out in the field, but it’s fairly common in these parts. As mines were becoming old, less profitable, harder to work, or just plain playing out; the owners would plump for big mine-mouth parties in order to entice investors to stick a crowbar in their wallets and pony up for percentages of the mine’s operation and take.

Whatever the story, it’s made logistics much nicer since someone else has to look after the madding crowds.

They arrive with two large, carniv

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 106
📰︎ r/Rocknocker
👤︎ u/Rocknocker
📅︎ Feb 07 2020
🚨︎ report
Don't Wear Red in the Appalachian Woods

It was just another normal walk. That’s how it started anyway; a casual morning stroll on the forested trail that ran behind my parent’s house. They own a home on a couple acres in the small town of Skyline, Alabama. At the time I was in between jobs, and had been living with them as I tried to get back on my feet.

Their property intersects with a winding trail that ran for miles through some unkempt woods in the boonies. In the morning, the Appalachian hills would come alive with the songs of birds and fluttering of insects. The crimson sunrise would paint a beautiful portrait as it filtered down through the bristling leaves of aspen and spruce trees.

There was something about the place that just made me feel at peace. It was like all the stress and anxiety of modern day worries just faded away. It was my Zen place, until the day it was shattered forever.

The day it happened I woke up a bit before dawn, had my coffee and went out for an early-morning walk. The sun had just begun to creep over the horizon when I left the house.

I hadn’t planned on being gone any longer than an hour, and had only been walking about 15 minutes when I noticed something strange. The path around me was oddly silent, with the only noise coming from the sounds of my own footsteps against the gravel. The usual sounds of the woodland creatures or wind gently rustling the trees were absent. Everything was just completely silent.

It didn’t really bother me at first, but the longer it went on, the stranger it seemed. I finally stopped to try and determine whether it was some auditory illusion of some kind. I listened for any of the usual sounds. Cars on the highway a few miles out, lawnmowers fired up by the neighbors or just any noise at all. But there was nothing; just silence.

All of the sudden I began to feel lightheaded. My vision started swimming and my knees grew wobbly beneath me. The hairs on my arms stood on end, and a cold sweat dampened my brow. I didn’t understand what was happening, but in seconds I was struggling just to remain standing.

Panic struck hard, and I desperately reached for my phone thinking I was having a medical emergency. I never managed to reach it, and I just seemed to lose all control of my body and fall face-first to the ground. I still don’t know exactly what happened, but it must’ve been a seizure or fainting spell of some kind. What I do know is that when I finally came to, I wasn’t where I was before.

The environment was pitch black an

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 143
📰︎ r/nosleep
📅︎ Jan 13 2020
🚨︎ report
Botanical intervention in FR

Hi guys,

I want to share my experience and insights into committing to a consistent foreskin restoration program. I originally played around with the idea years ago when I was a young teenager, way before I read about the concept in detail on places like this. I would simply pull my outer skin over the head and tape it closed with scotch tape! How far I’ve come since then… Now I use a combination of manual method as well as a FR device (lesser heard of brand) made of solid silicone which has suited me well.

As an herbalist and medical intuitive, I’ve had a unique perspective into this process of attempting to regenerate lost tissue. Although most guy’s minds probably go straight to physical tension as a means to get their skin to grow, my first thoughts were mainly focused on botanical intervention. Through my diverse studies I’ve learned that plants contain an enormous array of chemicals, some of which are biologically active in humans and can induce a specific cellular response, e.g. regenerate skin cells and nerves.

So, along with manual method and FR device usage, I’ve applied my own cocktail of herbs and natural extracts in oil form as a technique to restore my foreskin. The first go I had a FR, I saw very little progress and was discouraged by this. I also faced issues such as prolonged soreness, redness and dry skin at the end of a day of restoring. After I started to use my own FR oil, my gains increased exponentially. I was also surprised by how much sensitivity I was regaining. I got sensitivity back on the scar *itself* and de-keratinized my glans. The scar line is so sensitive now that I can’t touch it directly (but if feels great when my restored skin is sliding over it).

All the genetic circuitry for our foreskins remains in our brains, as well as the nerves which connect this area to our penis. It’s just that the final destination has been removed so the connection is not complete. Personally, I’m not satisfied with only producing new skin… I want to restore some of the lost connections. And if that means attempting to regenerate the nerve endings in that area and rebuild old tissue then that’s where I’ll start.

I’m NOT saying that my oil can full-on regenerate your original foreskin. But personally, I’ve seen phytochemicals be capable of amazing changes to the body. For instance, one of the ingredients that I blended into my oil is Lion’s Mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus). Japanese scientists have demonstrated that it is capable

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 5
👤︎ u/apotheman
📅︎ Jan 13 2020
🚨︎ report
L-Carnosine Brain Synthesis

Looking for a cheaper options to buying L-Carnosine, I am examining the supplementation of L-Histidine and Beta Alanine seperately.

The Potential of Carnosine in Brain-Related Disorders: A Comprehensive Review of Current Evidence

.... Both of carnosine’s precursors, β-alanine and L-histidine, can be easily taken up from circulation into the brain through amino acids transporters in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) [14]. This enables local carnosine synthesis in the brain, which takes place in olfactory neurons [15] and in glial cells, specifically in mature oligodendrocytes [16,17]. Carnosine itself can also cross the BBB [18], but it is thought that the majority of brain carnosine is a product of its de novo synthesis localized to specific areas of the brain rather than a result of its penetration through the BBB [12]. Carnosine together with homocarnosine, which is a dipeptide of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and histidine and the dominant carnosine analogue in the human brain, are both present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [16].

.... Lastly, carnosine is recognized as a non-mast cell reservoir for histidine, utilized for the synthesis of histamine [34], which is an important neuromodulator with a role in brain disorders likely mediated by the type of histamine receptors.

.... Furthermore, carnosine analogues, anserine (β-alanyl-3-methyl-L-histidine), and N-acetyl carnosine, as well as the carnosinase inhibitor (bestatin), failed to reduce infarct volume or improve neurologic function in a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia [70].

.... Several studies have also examined the involvement of histaminergic circuits i

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 5
📰︎ r/Nootropics
📅︎ Jan 26 2020
🚨︎ report

Please note that this site uses cookies to personalise content and adverts, to provide social media features, and to analyse web traffic. Click here for more information.