Numerical Aperture in Zemax

In Zemax, is there an analysis option that gives me what the NA of the system is? How do I know/calculate the NA for my system in Zemax?

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[A Level/College Physics] Using Numerical aperture Formula

Hello.

Formula - wavelength = (Aperture Size*SinΓΈ) / n

My aperture size is 0.06mm... Theta(angle) = 0.6 and I believe N = refractive index = 1

Therefore 0.06*Sin(0.6) / 1

I am meant to get ~ 600 but I get 6x10-4.

Iβm not sure what Iβm putting in wrong so need help thanks

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π€︎ u/hasan995
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Metalens achieves near-unity numerical aperture - "The researchers expect that (...) the new lens may also be used to make improvements to photolithography (...) and is expected to increase the efficiency of single-photon emission processes, which are used in quantum optics systems." phys.org/news/2018-03-metβ¦
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Metalens has designed an optical lens with the highest free-space numerical aperture to date, achieving a value of just under 1. pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/β¦
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What is the numerical aperture of a fiber if it has an angle input facet?

Imagine you have a square fiber. No big deal, NA = sqrt(ncore^2 -ncladding^2). But thats if your fiber has an input and output that are parallel.

Now imagine the input face is slanted with an angle theta. How does the NA change as a function of theta?

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π€︎ u/delmar15
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Clarification needed regarding focal ratio, numerical aperture and the speed of an optic

Background: The focal ratio or 'f-number' of a simple optical system (say, a telescope) is given by the ratio of its focal length to the diameter of the aperture (which in the case of a telescope is the lens or primary mirror). 'Fast' optics typically have a focal ratio of f/5 or less, and the term 'fast' comes from the ability to use a short shutter time during photography.

Questions: Why is it that two optical systems with the same diameter aperture will allow you to collect more light per unit time? It seems to me the focal ratio is a measure of how narrow or shallow the rays converge toward the focal point (related to the optic's numerical aperture). I would expect the amount of light collected in a given time to depend only on the diameter of the optic and not on how shallow the rays converge.

I'll be the first to say that f# and numerical aperture (NA) have always confused me because they seem to describe the same thing - how sharply a lens focuses light. Any clarification between these two quantities would be appreciated.

please no ELI15 answers, go into as much detail as you like :)

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[Question] How do you explain numerical aperture to non-scientists?

Have you folks ever had to explain NA and resolution limits to non-science oriented people? I seem to find myself in situations where I have to explain over and over why it is really impractical to measure something that is 4 microns with a 500x lens with a NA of .5. Anyone have thoughts?

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The researchers demonstrate the highest resolution optical images generated to date using a lens-free on-chip microscope, achieving a numerical aperture of ~0.9 across a very large field-of-view of more than 20 square millimeters newsroom.ucla.edu/portal/β¦
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π︎ Sep 05 2012
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Electron polarization potential reference chart for those considering upgrading their numeric aperture alloys
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A weekly discussion thread celebrating milestones and achievements by r/PelotonCycle members. We talk a lot about putting in the work, training hard, working out together. Let's not forget to celebrate those hard-won achievements. Because r/PelotonCycle doesn't try to make you strong, beautiful, or capable. We're here to remind you that you already are.

Congratulations to all; we're proud of you!

-Mod team

Milestones for Annual Challenge:

2000 Minutes \_perpetuallyanxious
\_TinkerTailor
a\_dobb
abcdeelicious
abyssandhole2004
acceptable\_worry
Acorgiandababy
alanisfoundrocknroll
all\_of\_the\_hedgehogs
AllyGally
alvvaysgobackwards
Always\_in\_undertow
amandaleigh207
Amber\_Vo
amc\_420
angrypickle911
Arobbin630
Artbyjess
ashea07
Ashqelon12
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asque2000
atascm
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aussiejimi
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berinbalt
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bkot
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BostonRiverSong
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cls86
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Collectivebytes
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dafkdidwegeticecream
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Dcclick
dchristensen13
Dewbacca9
DG-VGC
Dharma\_11
Distractiontactic
djwh33
DLaCombeNP
dmwoodcox
DoAndroidsDrmOfSheep
doboi
doubletb00
doveybutt
DovOps
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DRLNNKY
DSFTR
Dwbrew
eclpug
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elatz27
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ElvisAte
... keep reading on reddit β‘

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Minute long optical delay -- Is it possible?

Is there any possible way to manufacture a device which will (passively) delay some photons for a minute? As far as I understand it, a fiber with a numerical aperture of 1.5 would have to be 7.4 million miles long to achieve this delay, by which point all photons would be lost to absorption. Are there other methods that exist besides fiber optics? Anything I could build with a non-nation-state budget? Any input or musings are welcome. Thanks!

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Ernst Abbe is the OG of microscopy as we know it

I thought this sub might appreciate this lengthy read on Ernst Abbe, who is truly one of the most important figures in microscopy as we know it today.

Among his discoveries: **How the wave-nature of light directly influences image formation and resolution in the microscope **, the formula for resolution and numerical aperture, the diffraction limit, origins and corrections of spherical and chromatic aberration, and on.

Since 1873, all Zeiss microscopes were built using Abbe's optical designs.

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Best way to get a level stage?

I have an application where I am using a high numerical aperture lens focused onto a sample on a moving x-y stage. Because of high numerical aperture of the lens, I am losing focus of the sample as it translates through x and y. I checked and shimmed my stage so that is level as best I can tell with your standard bubble level, but my issue persists. Based on my measurements focal height is changing roughly 100 Β΅m across 20 mm. Any ideas for (preferably low-cost) solutions that will keep my sample perfectly level?

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π︎ Sep 03 2020
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Diffraction limit / airy disk size for finite conjugate imaging (and other related questions)?

How does one calculate airy disk size for finite conjugate imaging? For example in the simple case of having 1:1 imaging with a spherical singlet.

Another question: Using a microscope objective the object is finite distance from the lens (1f) and the image will be at infinite and you need a tube lens the form an image, but the diffraction limit is calculated using the object space numerical aperture of the objective lens. Does the image space numerical aperture of the tube lens matter at all?

And what if your object is slightly further away than at 1f and thus a real image will be formed somewhere really far from the objective (without using a tube lens). Is the diffraction limit still calculated using object space numerical aperture of the microscope objective and not the image space NA?

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π︎ Sep 30 2020
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Wii - Health and Safety Precautions

### Wii - Health and Safety Precautions

Important Safety Information - Read the following warnings before setup or use of the Wii. If this product will be used by young children, this information should be read and explained to them by an adult. Failing to do so may cause injury or damage to property.

WARNING - Seizures
Some people (about 1 in 4000) may have seizures or blackouts triggered by light flashes or patterns, and this may occur while they are watching TV or playing video games, even if they have never had a seizure before.

Anyone who has had a seizure, loss of awareness, or other symptom linked to an epileptic condition should consult a doctor before playing a video game.

Parents should watch their children play video games. Stop playing and consult a doctor if you or your child has any of the following symptoms:

• Convulsions
• Eye or muscle twitching
• Loss of awareness
• Altered vision
• Involuntary movements
• Disorientation

To reduce the likelihood of a seizure when playing video games:

• Sit or stand as far from the screen as possible.
• Play video games on the smallest available television screen.
• Do not play if you are tired or need sleep.
• Play in a well-lit room.
• Take a 10 to 15 minute break every hour.

WARNING - Repetitive Motion Injuries and Eyestrain
Playing video games can make your muscles, joints, skin or eyes hurt. Follow these instructions to avoid problems such as tendinitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, skin irritation or eyestrain:

• Avoid excessive play. Parents should monitor their children for appropriate play.
• Take a 10 to 15 minute break every hour, even if you don't think you need it.
• If your hands, wrists, arms or eyes become tired or sore while playing, or if you feel symptoms such as tingling, numbness, burning or stiffness, stop and rest for several hours before playing again.
• If you continue to have any of the above symptoms or other discomfort during or after play, stop playing and see a doctor.

WARNING - Electric Shock
To avoid electric shock when you this system:

• Do not use the Wii during a lightning storm. There may be a risk of electric shock from lightning.
• Do not use the AC Adapter if it has damaged, split or broken cords or wires.
• Make sure that the AC Adapter cord is fully inserted into the wall outlet or extension cord.
• Always carefully disconnect all p
... keep reading on reddit β‘

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π€︎ u/Captainzedog
π︎ Jan 22 2021
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Microscope for bacteria

Hello,

I'm sure this questions come by every now and then. My apologies if this question has already been answered a lot.

I'm new in this field and would like to know what microscope I need to see bacteria.

What I really like to do is to check if a solution, like a water based product, or an oil based product has bacteria in it.

I don't really have to be able to zoom in that far that I can see every details of the bacteria, but far enough to see that it's actually a bacteria that I'm looking at. But also not just some blurry dots.

I happend to stumble upon this one: https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B004TP7KDM/ref=oh_aui_detailpage_o04_s02?ie=UTF8&psc=1

Or would something like this be good enough as well: https://www.amazon.com/Celestron-LCD-Deluxe-Digital-Microscope/dp/B00369V2E0

As you can tell, I'm not really sure what to look for. Doesn't it need a certain zoom (ie: 400x, 600x) and numerical aperture or anything like that?

What microscope do you recommend in my case?

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π€︎ u/Sevenrow
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I have recently started learning about deblurring images using deconvolution. I have a stack of images (in .tif format) of size 873 MB (1392 x 1040) and a total of 301 images in a single .tif stack which I want to deconvolve. I do not have the PSF but I have the following details:

1. Numerical Aperture: 0.3
2. Refractive Index: 1.00
3. Emission Wavelength: 620 nm
4. Specimen Thickness: 3

I need to generate a PSF and then deconvolve the image. I have tried PSF Generator but I don't know why it just stops showing me the image even after running it. I have also tried deconvolutionLab2 but it gets stuck probably because the image is too big.

Please tell me what I can do for an efficient way of deconvolving the image and also generating the PSF.

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π€︎ u/itsron_143
π︎ Feb 05 2020
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Optical fiber communication technology and description of optical fiber broadband

Fiber opticcommunication technology

In recent years, the speed of scientific and technological development is accelerating, and the optical fiber communication technology is developing towards the direction of higher transmission rate and larger capacity.If the optical fiber communication technology continues to advance according to the present pace, it is expected to develop to the full wave fiber, multi-mode fiber, polymer fiber, photonic crystal fiber and other branches.

Full-wave fiber

With the increasing demand for optical fiber bandwidth, the communication industry has been trying to find a way to eliminate the "water absorption peak".The manufacturing technology of all-wave fiber is essentially a specialized manufacturing technology that reduces the attenuation peak of standard single-mode fiber near 1383nm to a sufficiently low level by eliminating the "water absorption peak" of OH ions as much as possible.

https://preview.redd.it/x8bw84sc3w331.jpg?width=400&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=ca6572a10ec90d6bd731bd2dafe222e3b4550e77

Multimode fiber

With the establishment of gigabit Ethernet, Ethernet was upgraded to ultra-high rate, and the continuous progress of communication technology greatly promoted the development of multi-mode fiber.Multimode fiber has a thick core (50/125 micron (European standard) and 62.5/125 micron (American standard), and can transmit light in many modes.

Polymer fiber

The fiber core of quartz fiber is very thin, and the coupling and interconnection of fiber are faced with technical difficulties, because of the need for high-precision alignment technology, so it is a difficult problem for the access network users with short distance and many contacts.And polymer fiber (such as plastic fiber) because of its large core diameter, it can use cheap and simple injection connector, and its toughness and flexibility are good, large numerical aperture, can use cheap laser source, in the visible light area with a low loss window, suitable for access network.Polymer fiber is the most promising transmission medium in FTTH project.

Photonic crystal fiber

Photoniccrystalfiber (PCF) was proposed by st. j. sell et al in 1992.For quartz fiber, the structure of PCF is characterized by evenly arranging air holes along the axial direction between them. Thus, from the end face of the fiber, there is a two-dimensional periodic structure. If one of the holes is damaged or missing, a defect will appear

... keep reading on reddit β‘

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Does putting an aperture in a laser beam make the smallest point it can be focused to larger or smaller?

If you put an aperture in a laser beam to block some of it, I would imagine that the spot it can be focused to becomes larger due to diffraction. The numerical aperture of the system is limited by that truncation of the beam. For a regular laser focusing without an aperture, the beam diameter determines the numerical aperture, not the lens diameter.

But if the spot becomes an infinitesimal pinhole, then it's the same as a point source emitting light. And the equation for how well resolved that point can be is defined by the airy disk using the aperture size of the lens diameter.

So as the aperture is shrunk down, do the two relationships describe different things? For example, does the NA associated with the aperture of the laser beam describe how small of a Gaussian spot can be formed, and the NA associated with the lens itself describe the size of the airy disk that all the light coming through the aperture can be condensed into?

I guess fundamentally it's just confusing because a coherent beam is usually implied to only have a NA related to the beam diameter, but after passing through an aperture it diffracts so the whole diameter of the lens is relevant in picking up and focusing the higher diffraction orders.

Or perhaps my understanding is totally messed up?

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π€︎ u/sikyon
π︎ Apr 15 2019
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More Apple 3D Sensor / Microvision MEMS Mirror Dot Connecting

An impressive circumstantial evidence case continues to mount that Microvision is involved in Apple's 3D Sensor:

SUMMARY:

FACT 1:

AppleInsider and Morgan Stanley: Himax reportedly involved in Apple 3d sensor - will provide WLO Keywords: wafer-level-optics (WLO) and diffractive optical elements (DOE).

FACT 2:

Major Apple/Primesense 3D Sensor Patent Relies Heavily on MEMS Scanning Mirrors and WLO https://google.com/patents/EP2817586A1 http://stks.freshpatents.com/Microvision-Inc-nm1.php

FACT 3:

January 4, 2016. Himax Announces Wafer Level Optics Laser Collimator and DOE for Laser Projectors Used in Next-Gen Applications (especially in "an active sensing 3D camera projector")

Device radically reduces size of laser projectors and has been "integrated into laser projectors for next-generation applications. Himax has significantly reduced the size of laser projectors, enabling the integration of technologies, such as active 3D scanners, into mobile devices, automobiles, augmented and virtual reality devices, and IoT applications."

DETAILED POST:

FACT 1:

AppleInsider and Morgan Stanley: Himax reportedly involved in 3d sensor - Will provide WLO Keywords: wafer-level-optics (WLO) and diffractive optical elements (DOE). http://appleinsider.com/articles/17/03/31/himax-reportedly-joining-3d-sensor-supply-chain-for-iphone-8

"Himax reportedly joining 3D sensor supply chain for 'iPhone 8' By Malcolm Owen Friday, March 31, 2017, 06:37 am PT (09:37 am ET)

Rumors of 3D-sensing features being included in Apple's rumored OLED iPhone are continuing to grow, with the Taiwanese Himax Technologies reportedly joining the supply chain for the device, providing glass for a module constructed by Lumentum. ...

The module in question will use VCSEL (vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser)-based DOE (diffractive optical elements) for the camera, claims the report. The sources claim the module will use a chip-on-glass (COG) construction, with Himax handling the glass component design, and backend partner ChipMOS also providing assistance.

Earlier this week, Morgan Stanley analyst Charlie Chan wrote about the possibility of Himax injecting itself into the 3D sensing component supply chain. In a note received by Barron's, Chan writes that Himax's wafer level optics (WLO) technology can further reduce the size and fit the 3D sensing in smartphones.

Chan suggests Himax's work on 3D sensing technology will make up 20 percent of the firm's revenue in 2018..."

FACT 2:

... keep reading on reddit β‘

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Why is the numerical aperture in metallurgical objectives lower than in normal objectives? In metallurgy, wouldn't it be better to use epi-illumination with normal microscope objectives, because that way you would get better resolution, because normal objectives have higher numerical aperture?

How is a phase contrast objective different from a normal microscope objective? Can they be used without a phase contrast filter? Do they work like a normal objective, if you don't have a phase contrast filter?

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π︎ Nov 11 2018
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Electron microscope detector achieves record resolution

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 74%. (I'm a bot)

> Electron wavelengths are many times smaller than those of visible light, but electron microscope lenses are not commensurately precise.

> Typically, Muller said, the resolution of an electron microscope is dependent in large part on the numerical aperture of the lens.

> Image resolution in electron microscopy has traditionally been improved by increasing both the numerical aperture of the lens and the energy of the electron beam, which does for the microscope what light does for a camera or an optical microscope - illuminates the subject.

> The Muller group was able to reach a resolution of 0.39 - a new world record - and at a lower, less damaging beam energy where resolution from the aberration corrected lenses alone was 0.98 .

> Muller&#039;s group used the EMPAD and a technique known as ptychography: As the electron beam scans the sample, the detector collects both full-position and momentum distributions of the scattered electrons in overlapping steps.

> The EMPAD, which has been retrofitted on microscopes across campus, can record a wide range of intensities - from detecting a single electron to intense beams containing hundreds of thousands or even a million electrons.

Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: Electron^#1 resolution^#2 microscope^#3 Muller^#4 beam^#5

Post found in /r/technology and /r/science.

NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.

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Can you form a darkfield image with a microscope with a larger objective NA than condenser NA?

If you had a microscope with a larger objective numerical aperture than condenser NA, and inserted a darkfield annulus, is it possible to get a darkfield image?

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π︎ Jan 08 2017
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When is a laser beam gaussian?

I know that gaussian beams stay gaussian, when they hit lenses. However, lets say I have a laser beam which is a gaussian beam. This beam gets stuffed into a (single-mode) fibre. When it exits the fibre, I assume its not gaussian anymore, because it propagates according to this numerical aperture rule and not the w(z) formula from the model from Gauss. So what happens when this beam then gets collimated by a lense? How does the collimated beam behave? Does it behave like a gaussian beam?

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π€︎ u/DaGambasSchorsch
π︎ Aug 27 2015
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ELI5 why light microscopes are limited in terms of the smallest size of objects they can resolve

So if I understand things correctly, light microscopes can be used to visualize things down to as small as about 200 nanometers or so. After that, electron microscopes must be used. I know that one of the reasons for this has to do with the wavelength of light itself, and (again, if I'm understanding things correctly) the shortest visible wave is around 400 nanometers. But I'm also told that the lower limit to resolution has to do with the numerical aperture of the lens system, and (from what I read) the highest we have is around 1.4. This is where I get lost. Can someone ELI5 what that means? What is the numerical aperture of the lens system and why can't we increase it past 1.4 (or whatever the limit is). Thanks!

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Second year university biology class, a couple questions regarding microscopes and conversion factors.

Hello! I am taking a cell bio class and have become completely stuck with a few questions. I'm just not entirely sure what the questions are asking so any help would be appreciated. Thanks!

a) If you used the 40X objective lens to measure an object with your calibrated ocular micrometer and determined it to be 4.0 ocular units in diameter, what would be its diameter in Β΅m?

b)What is the limit of resolution when using the 40X objective (numerical aperture: 0.65) on the labβs microscopes, in nm and in Β΅m, if you are using light with a wavelength of 575 nm?

c) Would you be able to resolve an object that is 0.6 Β΅m in diameter with this 40X objective and why?

Thanks!

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π︎ Oct 02 2012
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Condensers in microscope

Just a question... can I still use a microscope even without a condenser? and why so?

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π︎ Feb 16 2021
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I was gifted a cool microscope for my birthday. I'm trying to learn how to make cool microscopy pics. This is my very first composite image of some dead bug's head i found on my lamp. It's made of roughly 30 images that i edited on photoshop. Criticism is welcomed.
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π€︎ u/gpalo
π︎ Dec 29 2020
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I have recently started learning about deblurring images using deconvolution. I have a stack of images (in .tif format) of size 873 MB (1392 x 1040) and a total of 301 images in a single .tif stack which I want to deconvolve. I do not have the PSF but I have the following details:

1. Numerical Aperture: 0.3
2. Refractive Index: 1.00
3. Emission Wavelength: 620 nm
4. Specimen Thickness: 3

I need to generate a PSF and then deconvolve the image. I have tried PSF Generator but I don't know why it just stops showing me the image even after running it. I have also tried deconvolutionLab2 but it gets stuck probably because the image is too big.

Please tell me what I can do for an efficient way of deconvolving the image and also generating the PSF.

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π€︎ u/itsron_143
π︎ Feb 05 2020
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3D Microscopy Deconvolution

I have recently started learning about deblurring images using deconvolution. I have a stack of images (in .tif format) of size 873 MB (1392 x 1040) and a total of 301 images in a single .tif stack which I want to deconvolve. I do not have the PSF but I have the following details:

1. Numerical Aperture: 0.3
2. Refractive Index: 1.00
3. Emission Wavelength: 620 nm
4. Specimen Thickness: 3

I need to generate a PSF and then deconvolve the image. I have tried PSF Generator but I'm not able to save the PSF Image after it is shown. I have also tried deconvolutionLab2 but it gets stuck probably because the image is too big.

Please tell me what I can do for an efficient way of deconvolving the image and also generating the PSF.

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π°︎ r/ImageJ
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π€︎ u/itsron_143
π︎ Feb 06 2020
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What model describes this laser beam?

Lets say, I buy a fibre-coupled laser. The laser initally is a Gaussian beam (TEM00) before the coupling. The fibre is a single-mode fibre. Now when the beam exits the fibre, it propagates according to that numerical aperture rule, so I assume it is not Gaussian anymore. When this laser now gets collimated by a lense, what model describes the collimated beam? Is it Gaussian again?

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π€︎ u/DaGambasSchorsch
π︎ Aug 27 2015
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Needing help on some conversion factors regarding microscopes

Hello! I am taking a cell bio class and have become completely stuck with a few questions. I'm just not entirely sure what the questions are asking so any help would be appreciated. Thanks!

a) If you used the 40X objective lens to measure an object with your calibrated ocular micrometer and determined it to be 4.0 ocular units in diameter, what would be its diameter in Β΅m?

b)What is the limit of resolution when using the 40X objective (numerical aperture: 0.65) on the labβs microscopes, in nm and in Β΅m, if you are using light with a wavelength of 575 nm?

c) Would you be able to resolve an object that is 0.6 Β΅m in diameter with this 40X objective and why?

Thanks!

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π°︎ r/HomeworkHelp
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π€︎ u/tantan88
π︎ Oct 03 2012
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