Is there an estimation for how much of Nennius' Historia Brittonum has been lost?

Greetings. So, I recently got interested in the Matter of Britain books and decided my first stop would be historia brittonum by Nennius. It is supposed to tell the story of Britain for about 2000 years since the alleged colonisation by the Trojans, but the copies I've seen online seem frightenly short with less the 50 pages. So my question is, has the text been preserved in its entirety? If not, are there any notes in literature about how long the original version was supposed to be?

Thank you very much.

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📅︎ Dec 22 2021
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Fan servant idea: nennius of britannia

Nennius is a mythical prince of Britain at the time of Julius Caesar's invasions of Britain (55–54 BC). His story appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (1136), a work whose contents are now considered largely fictional. In Middle Welsh versions of Geoffrey's Historia he was called Nynniaw.

In Geoffrey's story, Nennius is said to have fought Caesar in personal combat and taken his sword, which he used to kill many Romans. In the Tudor and Jacobean eras he became an emblem of British patriotism.

for more information

Class: shielder

alternative class: saber

Sex: male

Source: britain_________________________Alignment: Legal good

Strength: B____________________Endurance: A

Agility: C________________________Mana: E

Luck: C+____________________________Noble Phantasm: ?

class skills:

magic resistance B: basic information

riding D: no normal horse (or car) will challenge him

Self-Field Defense A: he is in his best class

Personal skills:

Shield of Rousing Resolution C: "I will not leave any ally unprotected"

Battle Continuation A: "he just doesn't know when to give up"

patriot D: an ability for certain Servants considered as "patriotic symbols" is able to empower other Servants of the same nationality

noble phantasm (1): metallic reflection: the impossible to cross shield

this NP It is the materialization of that moment in which the sword of Julio Cesar was trapped in the shield of Nennio,any weapon or NP melee (gae bolg, etc.) gets stuck in the shield could be stolen by nennio and used as if it were his own. (His true noble phantasm)

noble phantasm (2): Crocea Mors

In the same way that in life as a Servant, Nennio stole the NP from Julio Cesar.

(saber is not my best class, so please refrain from summoning me in that class)


Julio César: (it is better that he does not find me) -nennius probably

boudica: "I'm sorry what happened to you"

mash: "There really are very few shielders here, aren't there?"

okita: oh fence, you remind me of a certain half ghost girl who tried to kill me (I really feel bad for that lancer)

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📅︎ Nov 02 2021
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Nennius' Battle List

Made the title broad because I'm interested in any theories people have for the others, but at the moment I'm wanting to ask about Bassas...

A few places online I've seen claim that Cambuslang is the main contender for a real Bassas, but nowhere can I find a justification for it, or even a reference. Anyone know where that comes from? One site claimed it was to do with the etymology of Cambuslang, being the "long bend in the river" (or I'd add the "bend in the river of ships"), but then failed to explain how that links it to Bassas in any way...?

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📅︎ Sep 18 2021
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Parallels from the Historia Brittonum by Nennius with other Texts

The 9th century Historia Brittonum, written, compiled, or ascribed to Nennius, is the beginning of the Arthurian legend. By his own admission, Nennius heaped together various written and oral sources. Here are a few parallels I have found between passages in the HB with other classical and medieval texts.


> In the meantime, three vessels, exiled from Germany, arrived in Britain. They were commanded by Horsa and Hengist, brothers, and sons of Wihtgils.

Ammianus Marcellinus, late 4th Century:

> There, as a lion, because he has lost a deer or a goat, gnashes his empty jaws, just when the forces of the enemy were broken and scattered by fear, in place of Macrianus [Emperor Valentinian] made Fraomarius king of the Bucinobantes, a tribe of the Alamanni dwelling opposite Mainz. And soon afterwards, since a recent invasion had utterly devastated that canton, [Valentinian] transferred [Fraomarius] to Britain with the rank of tribune, and gave him command of a troop of the Alamanni which at that time was distinguished for its numbers and its strength [in 372AD].

Ravenna Cosmography, circa 8th century

>In the West Ocean is an island called Britain, where the Saxons coming from Old Saxony with their leader Ansehis seem to be living now.


>Hengist, under pretence of ratifying the treaty, prepared an entertainment, to which he invited the king, the nobles, and military officers, in number about three hundred; speciously concealing his wicked intention, he ordered three hundred Saxons to conceal each a knife under his feet, and to mix with the Britons; "and when," said he, "they are sufficiently inebriated, &c. cry out, 'Nimed eure Saxes,' then let each draw his knife, and kill his man; but spare the king, on account of his marriage with my daughter, for it is better that he should be ransomed than killed.

>The king with his company, appeared at the feast; and mixing with the Saxons, who, whilst they spoke peace with their tongues, cherished treachery in their hearts, each man was placed next to his enemy.
>After they had eaten and drunk, and were much intoxicated, Hengist suddenly vociferated, "Nimed eure Saxes!" and instantly his adherents drew their knives, and rushing upon the Britons, each slew him that sat next to him, and there was slain three hundred of the nobles of Vortigern. The king being a captive, purchased his redemption, by delivering up the three provinces of East, Sout

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The Battles of King Arthur // Nennius (C. 830)…
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Nennius, 9th Century welsh monk and reputed author of a History of Britain. King Arthur fans cite him a lot.
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📅︎ Oct 17 2015
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Kings and Generals - The Anglo-Saxon Invasion of Britain. Bad Maps and Poor Research.

Hello again, I’m back with everyone’s favourite Welsh-history-related topic: Welsh history!

Or I guess Brythonic history?

Regardless, I’m going to be taking a look at a video titled Ancient Celts: Anglo-Saxon Invasion of Britain by the YouTube channel Kings and Generals, who I’m sure need no introduction on here.

Before I start I’d just like to clarify that I’m not an expert on anything, and many of the topics in this video are debated, so if I say something you disagree with please let me know so I can cry correct myself, thanks!

#’The Age of Arthur’

The first 12 seconds open with an unusual statement:
>In the 5th Century AD, Britain was the last bastion of Celtic culture in Europe.

This is only true if you ignore Ireland, an island which not only features in this video but also frequently appears in the rest of K&G’s ancient celt series. Not sure how they missed this.

They also call this era the “Age of Arthur” at 0:16. I’m willing to accept this as just a dramatised title but I think it’s worth noting that historians do heavily disagree on how historical Arthur was (that is, the original Brythonic warlord Arthur, I’m completely unfamiliar with the later myths), and the historian T. Charles-Edwards summaries it best:
>’One can only say that there may well have been an historical Arthur, that the historian can as yet say nothing of value about him’.
-T. Charles-Edwards - The Arthur of the Welsh (p.29).

With the historian John Davies echoing a similar comment:
>’It is reasonable to believe that a man of that name (Arthur) did exist and that he was the leader of Brythonic forces, … to say more than that would be inadmissible’.
-John Davies - A History of Wales (p.57)

Just keep that in mind as we move on to the rest of the video.
>Do you think you are strong and wise enough to change the fate of the ancient Celts?

Me personally? No, probably not, I’m not sure how you’d go about that… maybe if we stopped the Library of Alexandria from burning down then we could read their famous book on how to build guns in the 5th century and -
>The sponsor of this video, Humankind, will give you a chance to test this!


#’P and Q Celtic’

From 3:08-3:18, K&G describe how the language of the Britons was present as a series of:
>P-Celtic dialects broadly classified as “Common Brythonic”. Meanwhile the Q-Celtic tongue of Gaelic continued to thrive in Ireland

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Researching Arthurian Legend, interested in pre-christianized versions!

Hi, I'm currently reading Le Morte D'Arthur and plan to read the History of the Kings of Britain and Vita Merlin but I am also interested in reading books about what the legend looked like back when it was more pagan? I have heard that at some point the legend was heavily Christianized and whilst the pagan influences still exist in these versions, I think it would be nice to know of some of these differences. I know there aren't many complete tellings of the legend from before Le Morte D'Arthur but I was wondering if there were any books or documentaries that basically gather the bits and peices of what is recoverable from the older versions and describes how they may have been told. I'm also interested in the versions of the legend from England's neighbors like Wales, Ireland, and Scotland, etc. If anyone has some good recommendations on where to start I'd very much appreciate it!!

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Problem with Caesar

Sorry this is a rant I just wanted to get it off my chest.

I studied Classics and Caesar is one of my all time favourite figures in history but I cannot help but feel fgo did him kinda dirty.

I don’t have problems with fgo making him more of a player and a goofball at times, or even fat (for some reason I still don’t totally get why they did this); it’s more what they missed out.

When I look at Caesar I see the cunning and the charm, but I don’t but I don’t see the ruthlessness, the inspiration or the polarising attitude of him, nor a real focus on military. The problem with not including these to the proper extent is that it makes Caesar feel incomplete, he is missing some parts of him that make him iconic, some of the traits that Caesar is best known for.

I just hope that if and when we get a rider Caesar they try and shine a spotlight on some of the characteristics that where ‘I feel’ neglected in his saber version.

Sorry again for the rant; but thanks for reading if you got this far and I would love to hear others opinions.

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Habenyan chooses a bride for Ritsuka (day 76 - Cleopatra)
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📅︎ Nov 02 2021
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Battle of Camlann question: which exact day do you think it happened?

With this question, I am making the assertion that Arthur was a real historical figure. I have been reading Geoffrey of Monmouth’s account of Arthur and referencing Gildas and Nennius and scouring the internet for dating references concerning when the historical battle of Camlann occurred. The year seems to likely have been AD 537, as a famine occurred that year which could line up with the loss of a great king and much warfare, though Monmouth gives 542 as the year. However, I am more interested in ascertaining what specific day of the calendar year it may have happened. I believe Arthur was a real king and I believe him to be a Christian saint, thus I am interested in finding a day which can be considered his feast day, which would ideally be the day he died (or abdicated his crown to go to Avalon, if you prefer). There does not seem to be any reference to seasonable weather or conditions which may reveal this in Monmouth’s account, though perhaps we can assume it wasn’t winter as wars were not often fought then. Does anyone have any information or thoughts on the matter? Any knowledge of local Welsh traditions of a day of celebration for Arthur perhaps?

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[Other] Unresolved History: What, if any, historical truth lies behind the stories of King Arthur? Is the Once and Future King nothing but a fairy tale, or, as many historians suspect, is he based on a real historical figure?

The legend of King Arthur is central to the idea of England today, going back to romantic literature from the Middle Ages through contemporary culture like Monty Python’s Holy Grail. There is no firm proof of his existence, though there are plenty of alluring hints and circumstantial evidence, leading to an intense debate about his historicity going back many decades. What is the truth behind the stories?

Many of the “popular” features of Arthurian legend (the Round Table, the quest for the Grail, the marriage to Guinevere and betrayal by Mordred) are almost certainly literary constructions of the French Arthurian romances, popular pieces of literature like Le Mort d’Arthur and Romans de Brut from the 12th to 15th centuries. Scrape away these fictional elaborations, however, and there remains a wealth of circumstantial evidence that these romances, which themselves draw from earlier Welsh and Breton legend, may have a vague basis in reality. In this post, I will go over some of the evidence for and against a historic Arthur from the academic literature, drawing from a number of primary and academic texts, most notably N. J. Higham’s “King Arthur: Myth-making and history”. Full sources at the bottom.

Background: A truly Dark Age in post-Roman Britain

Historians today are generally skeptical of the term “dark age” in reference to the European Middle Ages. However, the term still applies fairly well to at least one area and time period. From the time of the last Roman military withdrawal in the beginning of the 400s to the first reliable chronicles recording events in the 600s, we have almost no primary sources on any events in much of Britain. Besides very brief sources like graveyard inscriptions, our sources can be summarized as follows:

  • Annales Cambriae (henceforth the Annales), a Welsh chronicle which was probably put together somewhere around the 10th century, and with entries going back to the middle 400s (full text here);
  • Historia Brittonum (henceforth Historia), an 8th or 9th century history of the British people generally heavy on myths and light on facts (full text here);
  • De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae (henceforth Gildas), a 6th century sermon by the British priest Gildas which extensively discusses various historical topics ([full text here]
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Arya Stark is a head of the dragon [spoilers, main]

First let's get this out of the way:

GRRM said not all three heads have to be Targaryens. In fact one of them is not.

Next let us establish something about "worms".

Arthurian legend finds its origins in Nennius (a British historian). His titled work "Historia Brittonum" was the first to try to give an origins story to the British island.

It was also the first with a reference to Arthurian legend, mainly the tale of Merlin. In this "history" Merlin goes by the name of Ambrose or Ambrosius. He tells king Vortigern (king of the Britons) to dig up a vase with two wyverns inside the soil.

They are white and red. Geoffrey of Monmouth had his own retelling of Merlin's origin story under the title o "Historia Regum Britanniae" which retells the same story.

An illustration added depicted a red and white dragon fighting each other in the place of the wyverns.

This is to say, worms are dragons.

In ASOIAF, the kindly man tells of the firewyrms digging under the soil of Valyria.

There were precursors to dragons, whose fires forged Valyrian steel (and lightbringer but that is a story for another day).

Worms are the devourers of the dead. In ADWD we are introduced to the three heads of the trios, or the great Shepherd. Each head is meant to allude to a head of the dragon, but for this post we will limit ourselves to the devouring head.

" The first head devours the dying " - ADWD.

In AFFC we are given another allusion to the three heads of the dragon. There are three apples Alleras shoots. After he finishes with all three apples he says (ambiguously)

“The dragon has three heads,” he announced in his soft Dornish drawl. " - AFFC

The second apple is a wormed apple.

" “This one’s wormy,” he complained, but he threw it anyway. The arrow caught the apple as it began to fall and sliced it clean in two. One half landed on a turret roof, tumbled to a lower roof, bounced, and missed Armen by a foot. “If you cut a worm in two, you make two worms,” the acolyte informed them." -AFFC

In the Riverlands Arya eats withered apples like those that have worms inside of them.

In the Gods Eye, during the fire Arya: "got dirt in her mouth b

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While reading the fandom i found something interesting about the name of the characters.

Azazel Ameri = Azazel/Satan

"the opposer," Arabic: شيطان‎ Shayṭān) formerly known as Azazel (Hebrew: עֲזָאזֵל, Azazel; Arabic: عَزازِيل, Azāzīl) personifies evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver that leads humanity astray. He was a jinni who fell out of favor with God when refusing to honor the creation of Adam, then seducing humanity into the ways of sin, and who now rules over the fallen world.[Azazel]

Purson Soi = Purson

In demonology, Purson is a Great King of Jinnestan, being served and obeyed by twenty-two legions of demons. He knows of hidden things, can find treasures, and tells past, present and future. Taking a human or aerial body he answers truly of all secret and divine things of Earth and the creation of the world. He also brings good familiars.

Valac Clara = Valac/Ualac

In demonology, Valac is the mighty Great President of Jinnestan, having thirty (thirty-eight to other authors) legions of demons under his command. Valac is said to give true answers about hidden treasures; he reveals where serpents can be seen, and delivers them harmless to the magician. He is said to appear as a small poor boy with angel wings riding on a two-headed dragon.

Shax Lied = Shax/Scox

is a Great Marquis of Jinnestan, and has power over 30 legions of demons on evil horses. He takes away the sight, hearing and understanding of any person under the conjurer's request, and steals money out of kings' houses, carrying it back to the people. He also steals horses and everything the conjurer asks. Shax can also discover hidden things if they are not kept by evil spirits, and sometimes gives good familiars, but sometimes those familiars deceive the conjurer.

Sabnock Sabro = Sabnoch/Sabnach

is a mighty Great Marquis of Jinnestan, who has 50 legions of demons under his command. He builds high towers, castles and cities, furnishing them with weapons, ammunition, etc., gives good familiars, and can afflict men for several days making their wounds and sores gangrenous or filling them with worms.

Gaap Goemon = Gaap

In demonology, Gaap is a mighty Prince and Great President of Jinnestan, commanding sixty-six legions of demons. He is the king and prince of the southern region of

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On the Origin of Gawain's Potatoes

Gawain was said to love making and eating potatoes since his introduction to the series. This has developed into a joke among the community, but anyone who has taken elementary level history classes would be aware that potatoes were a "New World" crop and didn't exist in Europe until the Columbian Exchange in the 1500's. Saber/Arthur, Gawain, and Camelot take place about a millennia before in the 500's; it is central to Arthur's story that he ruled in the aftermath of the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Is it possible that Nasu, who so carefully adapted the Arthurian legend, overlooked this simple fact?

Unlikely. So then, how did Gawain make potatoes for the Knight of the Round Table without the potato having been introduced to Europe for another thousand years? This could only be possible if he sourced his potatoes from an isolated plot, where they would not fall into the hands of the masses and thus spread across Europe. A garden isolated from the rest of the world, an island detached from the outside.

The Garden of Avalon. That mystical island; said to be the final resting place of Arthur, sometimes home to Merlin, and possibly fairies as well.

The name "Avalon" itself gives us some hint as to its true purpose; Avalon is traditionally called the "Island of Apples" because it is similar to the Welsh word for apple, "afal". And yet, Nasu showed us Avalon in the Realta Nua visual novel and there don't appear to be any apple trees. However, this may not be an error in etymology after all, for France (at that time Gaul or Francia, Kingdom of the Franks) is featured heavily in Arthurian legend; it is the homeland of Lancelot. The modern word in French for potato is "pomme de terre" or "apple of the earth", supposedly because the French though potatoes looked a bit like apples. Nasu wanted us to realize that whatever Briton named Avalon made that same connection when he saw the potatoes there. Indeed, that picture

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Translations of De Excidio and Historia Brittonum?

Are there any critical editions/ modern English translations of Gildas and Nennius available in print. I have looked online but everything seems to be self-published books of the Giles translation without any scholarly notes or additions.


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[5e] You can write your own Lore Sheets for the Camlann Chronicles, and get writing credits.

Here is the Kickstarter update, but I will explain here.

The Camlann Chronicles (which is currently in Kickstarter) introduces "Lore Sheets", a Lore 100 System rule that may also be utilized in 5E campaigns. Lore Sheets is a system neutral mechanic designed to facilitate campaign play and immersion in a setting rich with detail. We have already used Lore Sheets in the Sassoon Files (a CoC campaign) and in Rational Magic (a 5e campaign). This is the third Kickstarted campaign to use Lore Sheets; it’s a core feature of Sons of the Singularity RPG products.

In 5e, Lore Sheets are handouts that provide players with extra background information about their characters and the game world. One benefit of Lore Sheets is that complex information about the setting can be distributed quickly, reducing the GM's need for long expository and narration.

In the Camlann Chronicles, Lore Sheets are all structured to have a “settings” part and a “relationship” part. If your table does not want to use the Lore Sheet rule, the settings part becomes a simple hand-out used to help players familiarize themselves with mythic Britain. Here is an example:

>  Nennius and the Trolls. Trolls are generally regarded as foul, stupid beings. They are violent and most have no compunction against eating other sentient beings, such as humans. Some, rare trolls are quite intelligent; these beings can be reasoned with, but still don’t share the same values as held by civilized people. All trolls regenerate; the only sure way to kill a troll is to burn it or cover it in a strong acid.

> I’m friends with Monk Nennius, the abbot of St. Peter Cuthbert Chapel of the One True God. Nennius’s congregation is small, perhaps because Nennius focuses on the pursuit of knowledge in honor of the intellectual faculties the New God has given us. Nennius would like assist his research by collecting some troll blood and flesh.

Backer Created Lore Sheets

We would like to invite Backers to create their own Lore Sheets; a 175 word mini-narrative which describes a relationship a player-character has with another character or part of the game world. We will edit the Lore Sheet, attach it to a game setting, and publish it. We will also give you a writing credit for y

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Gododdin literature

Welsh triads:

I will begin this article by first explaining why i refer to the Welsh triads, as Gododdin literature.

And the reason is, because the sub-roman welsh language actually takes root in the East coast of modern day Scotland. Approximate to todays Lothian region.


>The Gododdin (Welsh pronunciation: [ɡɔˈdɔðɪn]) were a P-Celtic-speaking Brittonic people of north-eastern Britannia, the area known as the Hen Ogledd or Old North (modern south-east Scotland and north-east England), in the sub-Roman period. Descendants of the Votadini, they are best known as the subject of the 6th-century Welsh poem Y Gododdin, which memorialises the Battle of Catraeth and is attributed to Aneirin.

Link for photo

Gododdin territory


Now the Gododdin were almost definitely Norse-Gaels, speaking a Norse form of Gaelic.


>The meaning of Gall-Goídil is "foreigner Gaels" or "foreign Gaels" and although it can in theory mean any Gael of foreign origin, it always was used of Gaels (i.e. Gaelic-speakers) with some kind of Norse identity. This term is subject to a large range of variations depending on chronological and geographical differences in the Gaelic language, e.g. Gall Gaidel, Gall Gaidhel, Gall Gaidheal, Gall Gaedil, Gall Gaedhil, Gall Gaedhel, Gall Goidel, Gall Ghaedheil, etc. The modern term in Irish is Gall-Ghaeil or Gall-Ghaedheil, while the Scottish Gaelic is Gall-Ghàidheil.[1]
>The Norse–Gaels often called themselves Ostmen or Austmen, mea

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Bad Saxon History, or How ByzantineBasileus has run out of Ideas for Entertaining Titles.

Greetings Badhistoriers! Today I am reviewing another documentary from the Barbarians series. This one is Season 2, Episode 2 - The Saxons:

The Germanic nature of this installment requires that I have my trusty bottle of Mead handy. So let us begin!

0.08: And once again, a warrior from the Late Roman period has a sword with a crossguard better suited to the high or late Middle Ages. DRINK!

0.032: Even though the battle scene is clearly meant to be set in the Late Roman Era, the door in the background has a modern lever handle. DRINK!

0.36: The Roman soldiers here are completely inaccurate. Late Roman troops should look like this:

Instead what is portrayed is the classic, square-scutum, segmentata legionnaire from the early and middle Empire:


1.15: One of the Saxon warriors is wearing blue woad warpaint, which was Pictish, not Germanic. DRINK!

1.25: Sword with crossguard from the late medieval period. DRINK!

1.32: I trust this historian because he has an awesome mustache.

1.35: The historian is named Michael Jones and he works for Bates College. I wonder if he has a Masters.........

1.47: More classic, scutum-equppied legionnaires. DRINK!

3.16: The sword held by the warrior in the coif looks like a pure fanatasy weapon. DRINK!

3.22: That is the most unenthusiastic cheering I have ever seen.

4.10: Now the narrator is stating that the Great Migrations created a burning desire in the hearts of Hengist and Horsa, the future Saxon warlords. Total bullsh#t. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says this about them in 449 AD:

"This year Marcian and Valentinian assumed the empire, and reigned seven winters. In their days Hengest and Horsa, invited by Wurtgern, king of the Britons to his assistance, landed in Britain in a place that is called Ipwinesfleet; first of all to support the Britons, but they afterwards fought against them. The king directed them to fight against the Picts; and they did so; and obtained the victory wheresoever they came. They then sent to the Angles, and desired them to send more assistance."

One can certainly speculate as to their ambitions, but to actually explain as if it were true what they were feeling is just very bad historical practice as their is absolutely zero evidence to support such an assertion. DRINK!

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📅︎ Apr 30 2017
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Fantastic Beasts Theory: The Legend of Merlin and the Two Dragons

>“A son cruelly banished >Despair of the daughter >Return, great avenger >With wings from the water.”

Thanks to a theory I found on YouTube by Lee’s Little Sister, some interesting things were brought to my attention, that I believe hold some significance to the Fantastic Beasts story. This idea originates from her so I take no credit on that part, however I did want to share my thoughts on the meaning behind this and expand on some ideas. (This theory is in the even that Grindelwald’s reveal at the end of FB2 is true, and Credence is somehow a Dumbledore.)

To begin we look at the legend of Merlin. In Harry Potter, Merlin and King Arthur are real people, Merlin having once attended Hogwarts and is considered the most powerful wizard of all time.

We don’t however know much about his life in canon, so whether the events of this legend take place in history or not is to be seen. We may or may not find out.

However this legends does appear to hold significant thematic influence over the arc of the Fantastic Beasts films...

In legend Merlin was a young boy born of no earthly father, who was sought out as a sacrifice by King Vortigern as a way to stop his fortresses from collapsing. This was advised my his magicians.

However Merlin proved to have prophetic abilities, as he could tell Vortigern why his fortress continued to fall. It was because beneath it were two dragons separated by water. One White Dragon, and one Red Dragon. When the water was drained, the two would fight.

They represented the conflict Vortigern was having with the Saxons. The White Dragon represented the Saxons, and the Red Dragon represented Britain. Now this has two meanings to me. Draining the water allows them to fight. So I believe this is breaking the blood bond between Dumbledore and Grindelwald, who are subsequently the dragons.

As this takes place during the Second World War era, I believe Grindelwald’s side will represent the Saxons. Aka the White Dragon. As the Saxons have roots in Germany. Which connects to the Nazi regime that ruled over Germany at the time. Dumbledore therefore is the Red Dragon, who represents Britain and the allies.

Their duel happened around the same time as the end of the Second World War.

After this fight where the Red Dragon eventually chases off the White Dragon, Merlin has a vision of the exiled sons of King Constantine (Aurelianus and Uther) returning to take back their throne, as well as the the de

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📅︎ Jan 04 2020
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Bad Saxon History Part Three, or How ByzantineBasileus went to the Store and Purchased some Milk.

Welcome to the final part of my review of the Saxons 'documentary':

The good news is that I should be able to dedicate Sundays to continuing my reviews whilst working full-time and tutoring. The bad news is I still have to watch them. So let us finish this!

21.08: Now we go to the north to see how the S̶t̶a̶r̶k̶s̶ Anglo-Saxons there are doing.


21:19: "At the beginning of the 7th century Æthelfrith dominates many of the surrounding Saxon chieftains, plundering their treasure, their crops, and especially their women”. I didn’t know they had Socialists back then. Also, according to the primary sources Æthelfrith never treated the Anglo-Saxons in his kingdom that way. Instead, Bede states:

“At this time, the brave and ambitious king, Ethelfrid, governed the kingdom of the Northumbrians, and ravaged the Britons more than all the chiefs of the English, insomuch that he might be compared to Saul of old, king of the Israelites, save only in this, that he was ignorant of Divine religion”.

So he campaigned against Celtic Britons rather than against his own people. Additionally, a warlord who treated his own vassals in such a manner would lose their support very quickly, and so could hardly have engaged in taking over other kingdoms. DRINK!

21.29: They are just having a Saxon peasant wear blue war-paint for absolutely no reason. DRINK!

21.47: Another Saxon peasant with blue war-paint, which was the style of the time. DRINK!

22.28: I love how this royal family just has dinner with no one apparently guarding their hall.

22.47: Among the lesser known of Æthelfrith’s talents was to speak whilst keeping his mouth completely closed.

23.33: The documentary has a woman as an expert, which is obviously an error as history is clearly a masculine academic pursuit. DRINK!

25.28: That crown looks way too fake, but I don’t know enough about 7th century English ornamentation, so I will reserve a drink until another Redditor can clarify things.

27.10: The narrator states Æthelfrith sent an ultimatum to Redwald to deliver Edwin to him. This is incorrect. Bede makes it clear Æthelfrith first tried bribery and assassination several times, and only threatened Redwald as a last resort. DRINK!

27.22: Did they just pick out these costumes from a fancy dress store?


29.18: Besides the blue war-paint, tactics appear to be just abandon any formation and charge wide

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📰︎ r/badhistory
📅︎ May 14 2017
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Bad Saxon History Part Two, or How ByzantineBasileus has Finished his Sentence and was Returned to his own Timeline.

Greetings Badhistoriers! It is time for the next part of my Saxons review, continuing on from here:

12.05: What the hell is that knife? It looks like a left-over from the set of a Rambo movie. Definitely not a seax, so I am counting it as an inaccuracy. DRINK!

12.22: The narrator states Vortigern had serfs. Serfdom (or rather, serfdom in the traditional sense) was an aspect of a long-holding form of social, economic and political organisation called feudalism, and was a result of the slow development of different forms of ownership and patron-client relationships throughout Europe, as seen from these sources:

The problem with the narrator making this claim is that feudalism (or manorialism, again in the traditional sense), did not exist in the 5th century AD. Tenancy certainly existed, as Diocletian made certain occupations hereditary, and this included colonus, who were peasants tied to the land they worked. However, the social structure of Britain was different, and social and ideological values different from that which underpinned a feudal mode of existence. DRINK!

12.49: "Um, guys, what are we actually doing?" "Quiet! Just keep stacking hay onto this weird wooden frame until the film-crew leaves. Then we can start drinking."

12.58: More fabulous and immersive voice acting!

13.25: "The Saxon vengeance is furious and swift". As opposed Saxon vengeance being mellow and lethargic.

13.36: The horsemen has modern stirrups. DRINK!


13.57: The narrator states that Vortigern was killed by his own nobles. Nennius writes that he died in a fire that consumed his fort, and ascribes the flame as falling from heaven, whilst Geoffrey of Monmouth claims the fire was a result of Aurelius Ambrosius laying siege. I prefer the account of Nennius owing to the earlier date (wherein the fire may just have been an accident), but either way the death of Vortigern in the sources is different to that given in the episode. DRINK!

14.01: Blue war paint on a Saxon warrior. DRINK!

14.14: More blue war paint. DRINK!

14.37: The narrator is getting the chronology wrong again. First they state that Vortigern is killed, then the Saxons and nobles of Britain organize a peace conference where the Saxons murder them.

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📅︎ May 03 2017
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jaunes secondary allusion is hercules from greek mythology

(I mean roman torchwick alludes to Romeo Candlewick from the story Pinocchio.His appearance bears some resemblance to Candlewick’s appearance in Disney’s film adaptation of Pinocchio named Lampwick.The director’s commentary on the RWBY Volume 1 DVD mentions that Roman’s appearance is a “shout-out to A Clockwork Orange” (1971 British film). This is likely because his appearance, in particular the bowler hat, eyeliner and penchant for white clothing, echoes the appearance of the gang (known as the “droogs”) in the film. so he alludes to two characters and possibly another so it shows that a character can have more thna one reference though they will have a character they will mainly allude to)

I mean hercules was the greatest hero of greek mythology greater than achilles (both hercules/heracles and achilles were trained by chiron ) who is pyrrhas inspiration ( achilles crossdressed as a red haired woman named pyrrha) so jaune representing hercules (He and his friends conquered Troy in a couple of days. 2-3 generations later it took all of Greece sending their badasses at the Trojans (including achilles) and a 10 year siege to beat them. ) could represent jaune eventually surpassing pyrrha nikos plus it would be interesting if jaunes biological dads name was jupiter (after the roman. God jupiter who is hercules father and the roman counterpart to zeus i mean there were already two characters whose inspirations were roman gods (neptune and mercury) ( heck what if the the man who raised jaune along with his mother wasnt actually his biological father and his biological mother had an affair and sired jaune ( though I would doubt that rt would pull that ) also Omphale, Queen of Lydia, forced hercules to dress in woman’s clothing and do women’s work so hercules had cross dressed as woman like how jaune cross-dressed in womens clothing and hercules was known for his strength( and he was also pretty smart )

and jaune has shown a lot of raw power in terms of physical strength despite having never been trained before the beginning of rwby Can we talk about how abnormally strong Jaune is?

Like jesus christ, he’s holding up a whole god damn, steroids-induced horse.

What about those times he deflected a serious blow by doing nothing more than flinging his shield up in the vague direction of the strike?

And how he launched Pyrrha (a tall, amazon woman of nea

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👤︎ u/kingace22
📅︎ May 14 2017
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A completely unsubstantiated Potato on Jaune's sisters.

Okay, hear me out here.

Jaune is based on Joan of Arc, a woman who dressed as a man to fight the British.

Crocea Mors, Jaune's ancestral weapon, is based on the weapon of the same name, which was wielded by Julius Caeser against the British Prince Nennius (Nennius stole it, but that's not important).

So, what do these two figures have in common? They fought the British.

So, I propose that Jaune's sisters will be based on historical figures who fought the British. I even have a handy little list of potential figures:

  • George Washington: The classic. Likely would have musket-style weapon
  • Napoleon Bonaparte: Short, but hot-tempered. Napoleon is also famous for his use of cannon, so she'd have a heavy weapon.
  • Shaka Zulu: Would obviously use an ikwa, a spear with a sword-like tip.
  • Mahatma Ghandi: The sister that didn't become a Huntress.
  • Mordred: We need Arthurian legend up in this bitch, and Mordred totally fits as the sister-who-betrays-everyone-to-Cinder.
  • Erwin Rommel: The sister who everyone think will betray them, but is actually pretty cool. Tank-based weapon?
  • Michael Collins: She wanted to be an accountant. Now she's a Huntress with a stealth-based style.

So, whaddya think? Am I going insane from hiatus and exposure to the community?

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👤︎ u/Luimnigh
📅︎ Mar 07 2016
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Ideas for the Breton Reconquista mod

So, I'm well and truly unhappy with the fact that I can start as Cornwall, push the Anglo-Saxons back into the sea and unite my Celtic brethren into an empire unseen in the west since the Ostrogoths took power and not get so much as an event text.

Now, I'm learning as I go but I was hoping to bounce ideas of people here. I'm starting with county culture renames (because come on, even the vikings get that in England) I've renamed Cornwall (county and duchy) to Kernow and Devon to Devnant. I was thinking Somerset would become kerbritoc and Gloucester kergloui.

Should I continue to go with the place names from ?

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📅︎ Apr 02 2018
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Possible link between Prose Edda and History of the Britons?

Before I start I should give a fair warning, the theory I'm ranting about is somewhere between 'Loki was a spider god' and 'the Vikings visited Mesoamerica' on the credibility scale, but I wanted to share it nonetheless. I should also mention that I've never really read any hagiographies and don't know much about medieval miracle traditions or anything like that.

So there's this passage I came across in Nennius' Historia Brittonum about the saint Germanus (possibly Germanus of Auxerre) that I found interesting:

>At that time St. Germanus, distinguished for his numerous virtues, came to preach in Britain: by his ministry many were saved; but many likewise died unconverted. Of the various miracles which God enabled him to perform, I shall here mention only a few... ...At length, came one of the king's servants, who bowing himself before the man of God, announced the words of the (king), inviting them, at the same time, to his own house, to which they went, and were kindly received. It happened, however, that he had no cattle, except one cow and a calf, the latter of which, urged by generous hospitality to his guests, he killed, dressed and set before them. But holy St. Germanus ordered his companions not to break a bone of the calf; and, the next morning, it was found alive uninjured, and standing by its mother.

TL;DR, a calf is killed and eaten, only to be revived the next day by St. Germanus, on the condition that none of its bones are broken.
As you may have noticed, this sounds suspiciously similar to the myth told in Snorri's Edda wherein Thor kills his two goats to be eaten on the condition that none of their bones are broken, and the next day revives them. Of course there's one key difference between the two stories, in that Thor's warning is ignored and one of the bones are broken, resulting in the goat being lame upon revival.

With that difference in mind, St. Germanus' next miracle is of interest:

>I shall first advert to that concerning an iniquitous and tyrannical king, named Bennlli. The holy man (Germanus), informed of his wicked conduct, hastened to visit him, for the purpose of remonstrating with him. When the man of God, with his attendants, arrived at the gate of the city, they were respectfully received by the keeper of it, who came out and saluted them. Him they commissioned to communicate their intention to the king, who returned a harsh answer, declaring, with an oath, that although they remained there a year, they sho

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📰︎ r/Norse
📅︎ Nov 20 2019
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{Discussion} Understanding Merlin the Magician

The Legendary Origins of Merlin the Magician

Most people today have heard of Merlin the Magician, as his name has been popularized over the centuries and his story has been dramatized in numerous novels, films, and television programs. The powerful wizard is depicted with many magical powers, including the power of shapeshifting, and is well-known in mythology as a tutor and mentor to the legendary King Arthur, ultimately guiding him towards becoming the king of Camelot. While these general tales are well-known, Merlin’s initial appearances were only somewhat linked to Arthur. It took many decades of adaptations before Merlin became the wizard of Arthurian legend he is known as today.

Merlin and Ambrosius

It is common belief that Merlin was created as a figure for Arthurian legend . While Merlin the Wizard was a very prominent character in the stories of Camelot, that is not where he originated. Writer Geoffrey of Monmouth is credited with creating Merlin in his 1136 AD work, Historia Regum Britanniae – The History of Kings of Britain. While a large portion of Historia Regum Britanniae is a historical account of the former kings of Britain, Merlin was included as a fictional character (although it is likely that Geoffrey intended for readers to believe he was a figure extracted from long-lost ancient texts). Merlin was paradoxical, as he was both the son of the devil and the servant of God.

Merlin was created as a combination of several historical and legendary figures. Geoffrey combined stories of North Brythonic prophet and madman, Myrddin Wyllt, and Romano-British war leader, Ambrosius Aurelianus , to create Merlin Ambrosius. Ambrosius was a figure in Nennius' Historia Brittonum .

In Historia Brittonum , British king Vortigern wished to erect a tower, but each time he tried, it would collapse before completion. He was told that to prevent this, he would have to first sprinkle the ground beneath the tower with the blood of a child who was born without a father. Ambrosius was thought to have been born without a father, so he was brought before Vortigern.


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📅︎ Sep 03 2020
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The story of Crocea Mors (Spoilers for the latest WOR)

Let's establish a couple things:

First, we know the sword and shield combo Jaune uses is known as Crocea Mors, which is Latin for "Yellow Death." Jaune proclaims Crocea Mors was used by all men in the Arc line, all the way back to his Great Grandfather, who allegedly fought in the Great War. An event that wallowed in obscurity until this weekend's World of Remnant.

Second, in the WOR, we are introduced to the last King of Vale, and he was a powerful warrior who helped to defeat the forces of Mantle and Mystral in the last climactic battle of the Great War. A lot of speculation can be thrown around about this King and who he was, but like so many other users, I am focusing on one aspect of his arsenal: his sword. Simply put, it is a yellow blade, and it wrought death among his enemies in droves. Sound familiar?

A lot of people have been speculating as to how this King is related to Jaune. Many say the Great Grandfather Jaune speaks about in episode 2 of Volume 1 is in fact the Warrior King we saw in the latest WOR.

I, however, disagree. That is because there is more to the story of Crocea Mors than simply being a powerful weapon. If you look to the story of the "real life" Crocea Mors, we see it was the weapon used by none other than Julius Caesar, one of the greatest emperors of ancient Rome. Under his command the Roman Empire conquered much of the known world, and Caesar eventually set his sights on the Island of Britain.

This is where it gets interesting. In one fateful battle during his invasion of Britain, Caesar encounters British prince Nennius on the battlefield. In a bizarre turn of events, the sword Crocea Mors gets stuck in Nennius' shield. Nennius throws away his own sword, taking up Crocea Mors and using it against the Roman invaders. According to viewer accounts, Nennius was able to kill every soldier he met with a single blow thanks to the power of his new sword.

Allegedly the loss of his weapon was enough to demoralize Caesar, since he then called off the invasion and retreated back to Rome. Nennius died fifteen days after the battle due to a wound given to him by Caesar, and Crocea Mors was buried with him.

For reference:

Now what does this all have to do with Jaune and RWBY? It could mean a great many things, but my theory is a simple one: Great Grandfather Arc is the one who stole The Yellow Death from the King of Vale.

Which raises an

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📅︎ Jan 15 2017
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You guys know this kali yuga sanskrit BS everyone here worships had phoenician origins right?

And they worship the same god baal.

You don't have to read it all. Just skim and pay attention to the bold. There's a tl:dr at the end.

>But even before the age of the Hittites, Anatolia was significant for a far more important reason: it is the growing consensus of experts from several different fields that it is the birth-place of all the Indo-European languages. For example, Dr Russell Gray and PhD student Quentin Atkinson from the University of Auckland in New Zealand had calculated from a group of 87 languages--as diverse as English, Lithuanian and Gujarati —that the so-called proto-Indo-European language arose between 8,000 and 9,500 years ago, and that the epicenter for the spread was in Anatolia. Likewise, geneticists—operating in complete independence of the linguistic experts—arrived at the conclusion that the genes associated with the so-called Neolithic Farmers that would later enter Europe and spread their language, originated in Anatolia. Archaeologist Colin Renfrew —isolated from both the linguists and geneticists—drew upon his knowledge of archaeology and concluded that the so-called Indo-Europeans originated from Anatolia.

>This is a striking confluence of events, since the proposed “Aryan homeland” (as the Indo-Europeans were then known) had always been assumed to have been in Southern Russia, or the Caucus Mountains of Georgia.

> The truth is: It has. Intriguingly, it was suggested in the 1920s by a British anthropologist named L.A. Waddell. To make things even more fascinating, his area of expertise was not the Middle East, but Northern India and Tibet. He traveled with the British army and learned the Tibetan language and was considered one of the world's foremost experts on Tibetan Buddhism. While in Northern India, he also learned Sanskrit. While reading the ancient Indian epics whose authors described their original homeland before arriving in the sub-continent, he recognized topographical traits and features that very much suggested Anatolia.

> Since Sir William Jones presented his analysis of Sanskrit in 1786, Western scholars knew that Sanskrit—like Hittite—was an Indo-European language. So Waddell was intrigued that this Indo-European-speaking people in Northern India appeared to be pointing to Anatolia as their homeland. What drew his attention there even more were certain provocative correspondences. **For instance, the ruling class who first invaded Northern India called themselves “ Khattiyo

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📰︎ r/C_S_T
📅︎ Sep 10 2016
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If you're looking for inspiration check out the book "Stuff Matters"

I just picked this up today and haven't gotten too far into it but it's amazing and extremely insiteful! It takes the history of materials to explain how they work, how they evolved, how they progressed civilizations, and how they influenced legends.

Quick example: through this book I've discoverd that steel was so rare and powerful compared to other metals at that time that it gave birth to legends like Excalibur. Also: samuri swords were crafted out of a special type of steel made from the volcanic sands near by that contained iron.

The author of this book looks into multiple different materials like steel, glass, and paper and very entertainingly explains the science behind them and history about legends and evolution of civilization. Absolutley inspiring to anyone who wants to learn about the progression of society.

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👤︎ u/CloneTwo7
📅︎ Feb 25 2017
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Crocea Mors

So I was going through swords of mythology trying to find a cool one when I saw a familiar name Crocea Mors the article wiki is short and doesn't have much information, just that some guy had this sword and every one he hit with it died later he gets it stuck in a shield and dies of a head wound inflicted by Caeser, but I was wondering how late to the party I am with this information and do you think that the "It killed everyone Nennius struck with it." will come into play. (also cool how Juane uses his shield as a sheath when the legend involves the sword getting stuck in a shield)

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📅︎ Nov 20 2015
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👤︎ u/AndruJorj
📅︎ Mar 28 2018
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Learning to read Latin fluently

I've been taking Latin for four years and I can translate pretty well - some of the texts I've gone through include Caesar's De Bello Gallico, Catullus's poems, Horace's Odes, and the Aeneid. My goal is to eventually be able to read Latin without translating to English, but I feel like one of the biggest problems, especially in poetry, is that I try to parse out the grammar rather than reading the text. So I'll think "ok, here's the verb, this is the subject, etc." instead of trying to actually read and make sense of it. I've heard that Lingua Latina is a good book for learning to "read" rather than translate, but I took a look at it and it seems very simple. Would it be worth my while to read through it and are there any other texts that might be helpful? For what it's worth, I only care about being able to read, although I'd be willing to practice writing/speaking if it helped.

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📅︎ Jun 10 2015
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[Harry Potter] Rowena Ravenclaw was a Saxon warrior queen - one who likely possessed a second Founder's object ("Ravenclaw's Dagger")

tl;dnr: Rowena Ravenclaw was a "shieldmaiden" and an Anglo-Saxon princess - likely married to a Saxon king, Vortigern - and ruled as a Saxon (Germanic) "warrior queen" before, and perhaps after, the founding of Hogwarts. Being of royalty and wealthy, she also likely helped to fund Hogwarts, and likely started the Hogwarts library.

This theory also posits that Rowena, being an Anglo-Saxon woman of "high birth", also likely carried with her another Founder's object - a knife, or, rather, what I'll term "Ravenclaw's Dagger". What happened to the Dagger is unknown - it may have been buried with Ravenclaw when she died, or ended up somewhere else. It may have been passed to the Bloody Baron's relatives, who may have been the Lestrange family.

"Ravenclaw's Dagger" may have also been the same weapon used by the Bloody Baron to kill Helena Ravenclaw, Rowena's daughter, and himself. It may also be the same dagger used by Bellatrix Lestrange in the books and movies - albeit, clearly, without the knowledge of either Bellatrix or Voldemort.

More specifically, it would've been a very personal item for her - and, given her background, she would've carried a knife on her, perhaps at all times.

Let me explain.

"Rowena" - if we are to look at historical records - is a name associated with British lore and mythology. First and foremost, it is an Anglo-Saxon, or just Saxon, name. More specifically:

> Rowena, in the Matter of Britain (the body of Medieval literature and legendary material associated with Great Britain, and particularly, King Arthur), was the daughter of the mythological Anglo-Saxon chief Hengist, and wife of Vortigern, "King of the Britons".

> Presented as a beautiful femme fatale, she won her people the Kingdom of Kent through her treacherous seduction of Vortigern. Contemporary sources do not mention Rowena, which leads modern historians to regard her as fictitious.

> The name "Rowena" does not appear in Old English sources, such as Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. It was first recorded by Geoffrey of Monmouth in his 12th-century Historia Regum Britanniae (in various spellings, including Ronwen, Renwein, and Romwenna), and may represent a Medieval Latin corruption of some lost Old English or other Germanic name.

> She is first mentioned in the 9th century Historia Brittonum (t

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👤︎ u/Obversa
📅︎ Jul 11 2017
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The real emblem of Jaune's?

Ok, so I may be going WAY overboard with this theory, but hey, it was a 2 A.M discussion with my partner, when we were both tired, but we came up with a theory or two as to what Jaunes real emblem is, as we know its hidden under his armor on the front of his hoodie, from 29:20 r so in Given this We decided to try and figure out what it might be. Now, Rozalyn paige on tumblr got a shot of it from forever fall that gives us a better look that may help corroborate our theories:

. Given this, we came up with 2 ideas as to what his emblem may be

SO, with the image as a guide, lets start by looking at his weapons. Jaunes sword is named Crocea Mors, or Yellow Death. I'll be coming back to this..... Now, historically, it was known to be Julius Caesars sword, but theres one interesting story relating to the theft of the sword that might be important: Caesar apparently lost the sword in battle, to a British prince named Nennius, when it happened to get stuck in his shield....... And more interesting is the fact that Nennius had no historical record, and his appearance in stories is therefore due to falsified records, much like Jaune admits in Jaundice part 2 about using fake transcripts.

Now if we go back to v1e2 (shining beacon), we get Jaunes tales of his weapon set, but what is interesting is how he describes them. He says: "I got this sword.... And this shield too", which indicates he may not think of them as together. Next, when discussing his weapons provenance, he has the shield put away, and is holding and looking at Yellow death only when he tells Ruby: "Its a hand-me-down, my great-great-grandfather used it to fight in the war."

Now given these facts, and the fact that Miles and Kerry are sneaky buggers, I therefore suspect that Jaune not only falsified his records, but may have also falsified his name as well..... He may not be an Arc, or consider himself an arc..... If so, he may potentially be a descendant of Caesar or Nennius...... And considering Caesar was supposed to be a great general, this may well fit in with Jaune becoming leader of the team...

Now Caesar was a Roman, and one of the biggest images associated with rome happens to be the shewolf who suckled Romulus and Remus, so one potential emblem is therefore a gray wolf, similar to the conjectural emblems of team CRDL and Sun Wukongs..... And the emblem happens to have a line that could be a nose, and a

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📅︎ Feb 24 2016
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Medieval British historian confuses Julius Caesar and Claudius

An excerpt from History Of The Britons (Historia Brittonum) by Nennius, a Welsh monk who lived in the 800s CE. Translated by J. A. Giles:

>Then Julius Caesar, the first who had acquired absolute power at Rome, highly incensed against the Britons, sailed with sixty vessels to the mouth of the Thames, where they suffered shipwreck whilst he fought against Dolobellus, (the proconsul of the British king, who was called Belinus, and who was the son of Minocannus who governed all the islands of the Tyrrhene Sea), and thus Julius Caesar returned home without victory, having had his soldiers Slain, and his ships shattered.

>But after three years he again appeared with a large army, and three hundred ships, at the mouth of the Thames, where he renewed hostilities. In this attempt many of his soldiers and horses were killed; for the same consul had placed iron pikes in the shallow part of the river, and this having been effected with so much skill and secrecy as to escape the notice of the Roman soldiers, did them considerable injury; thus Caesar was once more compelled to return without peace or victory. The Romans were, therefore, a third time sent against the Britons; and under the command of Julius, defeated them near a place called Trinovantum [London], forty-seven years before the birth of Christ, and five thousand two hundred and twelve years from the creation.

>Julius was the first exercising supreme power over the Romans who invaded Britain: in honour of him the Romans decreed the fifth month to be called after his name.

Notes and Sources

It is a stretch as an anecdote. But its a snapshot of how very, very wrong medieval Brits were about their own history. There are a lot of mistakes.

Julius Caesar only "invaded" Britain twice, not three times. It was in 55 BCE and 56 BCE, not 51, 50, and 47 BCE. Although those dates are pretty close, considering the other mistakes.

Because Julius Caesar definitely did not conquer Britain. He made two small attacks on its southern coast, two consecutive summers, sailing back to Gaul in between and eventually giving up, settling for only having conquered Gaul. Nennius named the wrong conqueror, in the wrong century.

Emperor Claudius, who became emperor 85 years after Julius Caesar's assassination, conquered Great Britain. It was under him that Britain was added to the Roman Empire, and Claudius was given the honorific "Brittanicus" which he bestowed on his son.

History of the Britons [online sourc

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📅︎ Apr 16 2018
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B-17G bomber (tail number 337715) 'Lassie Come Home' as seen from the front gunner dome another B-17.
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📰︎ r/WWIIplanes
📅︎ Jan 26 2015
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Is it possible that King Cerdic of Wessex was the inspiration for King Arthur ?

I was doing research on the kingdom of Wessex and was lookin at the story of its founding and I seen that there had been theories that he could have been a native Briton because The name Cerdic is thought by most scholars to be Brittonic – a form of the name Ceretic – rather than Germanic in origin. According to the Brittonic origin hypothesis, Cerdic is derived from the British name *Caratīcos or *Corotīcos. This may indicate that Cerdic was a native Briton, and that his dynasty became Anglicised over time. This view is supported by the potentially non-Germanic names of some of his descendants including Ceawlin, Cedda and Caedwalla. And after the Saxon’s were established in Britain but it seem for a time the natives were able to keep the Saxon’s contained by winning a series of military victories, led by a Chieftain named “Arthur” the name first appears in a 6th century compendium of welsh poems known as The Goddodin. Here a Briton heron named Guaurdur was described as “Not Arthur, amongst equals in might of feats this implies that “Arthur” was a well known figure to the 6th century celts, and was considered the benchmark for heroism in his age then in the 9th century a Welsh monk named nennius attributed twelve great battles to the semi-mythical warlord the most triumphant one occurring in the early 500s AD at a place thought to be modern day Bath, Somerset, England, leading warriors’ from across the Brythonic Kingdoms, the warlord of legend vanquished an army led by king Aelle of the south Saxon’s, thereby breaking Germanic power in Britain, and delaying there advance for an entire generation. Gildas writing far closer to the time period in question attributes Briton victory at bath not to Arthur but to a Romanized commander named Ambrosius Aurelianus. I was thinking what if the 2 people mentioned, Ambrosius & Arthur were placenames of the same guy aka Cerdic who if the theory is to be believed that he was a native Briton may have been a Romano-British commander who after the Saxon’s colonized southern and western England conquered what became know as Wessex (which would include bath) from the Saxon’s delaying there advance and eventually his dynasty became anglicized over time another thing the monk Nennius said the battle of bath took place in the early 500s which would was around the time that Cerdic began his reign (519-534) then there were two opposing legends of Cerdic the cerdic The anglicized dynasty of Wessex spoke of a Saxon invader who

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📅︎ Jul 07
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Art Oenfer & the search for King Lots grail

Search for Lancelots grail:

In this article i am going to attempt to locate Lancelots grail, leading up to trying to finally identify the most likely candidate for King Arthur.

Now before we go any farther, i have left links below for the previous Art Oenfers.

You should not read the book back to front.

First read those below, starting at one, and then read this one.

King Art Oenfer & Son - Part 1

Gallus the Mac - Part 2

King Art Oenfer III & the barbarcia conspiriato - Part 3

King Art Oenfer IV & V - Part 4

King Art Oenfer VI - Part 5

King Art Oenfer & the historia francorum - Part 6

King Art Oenfer & The boys - Part 7

Link for photo

King Arthur


Ok, so as with most of my other articles, i will be investigating the myths and legends of traditional British history, comparing them to contemporary accounts, and also investigating the modern day criticisms from historians and scholars.

I will begin with the criticisms below.

I will also add, the criticisms are blank statements, and completely unhelpful without explanation into how they came to their conclusion, and without proving that they have the necessary understanding in the subject to make such a judgement.

King Arthur

>The details of Arthur's story are mainly composed of folklore and literary invention, and modern historians generally agree that he is unhistorical.[2][3]

[Link for photo](

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📅︎ Oct 16 2020
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Trinovantum in Welsh tradition, was a pre-roman settlement based in the location that is now London.


>In medieval British legend Trinovantum is the name given to London when, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, it was founded by the exiled Trojan Brutus, who called it Troia Nova ("New Troy"), which was gradually corrupted to Trinovantum. The legend says that it was later rebuilt by King Lud, who named it Caer Lud ("Lud's Fort") after himself, and this name became corrupted to Kaer Llundain, and finally London. This legend is part of the Matter of Britain.

Link for photo

Roman London


Brutus, was supposed to have invaded Britain in 1112 BC, becoming the first king of Britain, and founding the City named Trinovantum.

Brutus of Troy

>Brutus, or Brute of Troy, is a legendary descendant of the Trojan hero Aeneas, known in medieval British history as the eponymous founder and first king of Britain. This legend first appears in the Historia Brittonum, an anonymous 9th-century historical compilation to which commentary was added by Nennius, but is best known from the account given by the 12th-century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth in his Historia Regum Britanniae.

Link for photo

[Brutus stone](

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📅︎ Sep 23 2020
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In the legend of King Arthur, it explains a battle in which Arthur surrounds rebel kings and forces them to pledge allegiance to him. Is there any historical evidence of this battle? What was it called and what actually happened?

This was just after they attempted to assassinate him.

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👤︎ u/Scipio218
📅︎ Sep 15 2015
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Did King Arthur exist?

Specifically, the supposed 6th century leader that led British forces in a battle against the Saxons.

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📅︎ Sep 25 2015
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Does anyone else think that "The Warlord Chronicles" by Bernard Cornwell is one of the most amazing epics ever written?

The 3 book series tells the story of King Arthur without any magic. The series has amazing battle scenes, political intrigue and conflict between Pagans and Christians.

Here is how Cornwell's website describes them: "Once upon a time, in a land that was called Britain, these things happened . . . .” well, maybe. The Warlord Trilogy is my attempt to tell the story of Arthur, ‘Rex Quondam Rexque Futurus’, the Once and Future King, although I doubt he ever was a king. I suspect he was a great warlord of the sixth century. Nennius, who was one of the earliest historians to mention Arthur, calls him the ‘dux bellorum’ – leader of battles or warlord. I have to confess that of all the books I have written these three are my favourites. They have been translated into a score of languages and were best-sellers in a dozen countries."

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📰︎ r/books
👤︎ u/superegz
📅︎ Dec 14 2015
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