TIL around 45% to 60% of all known living species undergo complete metamorphosis (holometabolism) over their life cycle en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hol…
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Winprod 08 - B2 - Samoth & Speejay - Holometabolous youtube.com/watch?v=KvpPb…
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Winprod 08 - B2 - Samoth & Speejay - Holometabolous youtube.com/watch?v=KvpPb…
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The pupal stage is found in holometabolous insects β€” those that undergo a complete metamorphosis. These insects go through four life stages; embryo, larva, pupa, and imago. gfycat.com/blushingrigidc…
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The pupal stage is found only in holometabolous insects β€” those that undergo a complete metamorphosis. These insects go through four life stages; embryo, larva, pupa, and imago. v.redd.it/ll0dohlgtwh51
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The pupal stage is found in holometabolous insects β€” those that undergo a complete metamorphosis. These insects go through four life stages; embryo, larva, pupa, and imago. gfycat.com/blushingrigidc…
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phrenicotomy seraglio holometabole

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A fascinating scientific controversy from 2009 concerning the evolution of holometabolous insects. timeshighereducation.com/…
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If you think about it, there should be way more pokemon that have an evolutionary path like Trapinch, Strong to weaker, and then maybe to stronger

Lots of insects have larva that are completely different from them in both behaviour and form. A big pattern is predaceous larva, non-predaceous or non-feeding parent. Even non-holometabolous(having no larval form) species like dragonflies have nymphs which hunt and eat fish and tadpoles

Trapinch is based on an antlion, a Neuropteran that is well known for its larval stage and also its adult form's resemblance to a dragonfly. Trapinch has incredibly high attack, and it then evolves into te slightly less powerful vibrava, mirroring the life history of an antlion, before becoming the powerful Flygon.

There should be way more pokemon like this. Especially in the Diptera(fly) family.

There is a covergently evolved species of fly called the worm lion, who has the same strategy as an antlion except it cleans its pit routinely. Maybe the pokemon version could have an ability that clears away entry hazards.

Lots of mosquitoes have predaceous larva, some even have larva that have devrloped their antennae into mantis legs.

The most predatory is probably the Hoverfly larva, the young of most are basically ravenous crawlling drills that devour aphids and pierce through their defenses. But the imagos(adults) are bee mimics who behave like insectoid hummingbirds.

There's also those cave gnats that have that glowing string that they use to catch moths.

Moving on to lepidopterans, caterpillars of the Cup Moths are incredibpy poisonous, even to humans. Thinking about it though, venonat's probably a slug caterpiller

There's a whole bunch of Caterpillers across the whole Order that feed on things as well, even eating snails. The adults are the moths and butterflies tho.

Other orders which include these are Caddisflies and Stoneflies.

Some tadpoles do this as well, where the tadpole is bigger than the adult.

Coleoptera(beetles) usually stay carnivorous through both the larval and adult stages tho, and so do Robber flies. A lot of other flies also have stag beetle like behaviour with inflated eye stalks, something only really present in the Anorinth line.

The point is that there should be more pokemon lines where the baby form is more powerful.

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dreamlessness nonvisible diatropism

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What is this golden Beatle I found
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Why do organisms larger than insects not go through a metamorphosis? What caused certain insect species to evolve to have a metamorphic process in their life cycle?
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[MCU Avengers 4] What Doctor Strange Saw

*Please note that this does not require obscure comic knowledge and is based purely on information as given in films. Any additional knowledge/references are there as a bonus*

Time is a tricky thing. There are dimensions that exist outside of time as we experience it, as well as others that do not conform to our other natural laws. The Infinity Stones were created when the universe came into being and they control all essential aspects of existence. This description, when combined with other films gives us enough information to explain why Thanos required the Time Stone, what Doctor Stephen Strange's vision of a positive outcome was, and why it lead him to give the Time Stone to Thanos, the Mad Titan, and, in doing so, further our understanding of the universe(MCU).

The MCU as We Know It

Infinity War and Doctor Strange give a vast amount of information regarding the MCU. In Infinity War, Wong describes how the Big Bang "sent six elemental crystals hurtling across the virgin universe". As shown in Doctor Strange, Dormammu of the Dark Dimension does not experience time and is visibly upset when he is forced to experience the infinite loop, to the point of ceasing his attack against the Earth. This being is also shown to have relationships with beings outside of his Dimension at varying points in the film's timeline. Effects born within the Dark Dimension are shown to affect the MCU as the Ancient One extends her life through means obtained there. Earlier, Strange is told that "temporal manipulations can create ... [s]patial paradoxes," by Mordo following misuse of the Time Stone/Eye of Agamotto. We spend a significant amount of the film in the Mirror Dimension, a projection that cannot affect change on our universe. The Mirror Dimension exists with different spatial relations and with a mutable reality. Mordo, when chastising Strange for his potential mistake in taking the fight with Kaecilius and his acolytes to the Mirror Dimension, says that "they can't affect the real world, but they can still kill us," indicating that some natural laws still hold true. In the greater MCU, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 shows that Ego, a long-lived being that projects a physical form, experiences time, mentioning that "over millions of years, I learned to control the molecules around me".

With this in mind, I would posit the following regarding the MCU:

  1. The Infinity Stones control the natural laws that all beings in the universe, even th
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Clothing in Permian

Hi:) I'm hoping to find someone with knowledge about different kind of fabrics who could help me determine what kind of clothes could be made in Permian Period.

What I've found on my own:

  • Silk - Sea silk could be produced, as [Pinna](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinna_(bivalve)) genus has been around since carboniferous, and so could Spider silk. Unfortunately, butterflies are much younger, so no regular silk. But perhaps we could get silk from some other holometabolous insects? Need expert opinion.

  • Leather - It seems that leather can be made from any animal. Permian had its share of both scaly and skin-covered animals. However, it seems to have lacked any...

  • Wool and animal fibres - It seems that animals in Permian were bristled at best. No fluffiness and no hair to use, I think. Though perhaps even such short hair could be used to wove fabric?

  • Cotton, Linen and other plant fibres - Again, I need an expert opinion on that. Every kind of plant fibre we use is extracted from flowering plants, which are way younger than Permian. Could Conifers or "Ferns" be used as well? Certainly conifers are used to produce rayon.

  • Other fibres - Asbestos has been used to make fabric since ancient times. Chitosan can be used as a sizing material but as far as I checked, it can't be use to produce fabric on its own. Hagfish mucus contains strong fibres that seem easy to extract (don't know how complicated later processing would be). Hagfish haven't changed much since Permian.

SUMMARY

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bolters impending

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Questions about caterpillars + parasites + parasitoids

First post here!

So firstly, is anyone aware of any sorts of parasites that use caterpillars as their hosts? All my online searching is giving me parasitoid bees and wasps over and over, which isn't what I'm looking for. I know parasites tend to be more indiscriminate with their hosts than parasitoids, so it may very well be that there isn't a straight answer to this question other than "yes" (in lieu of concrete examples.)

Secondly, do parasitized caterpillars (or really, any holometabolous species) ever make it to adulthood? I would think the answer is generally no, but I'm wondering if it ever does happen. I'd think that parasitoids would kill bugs during larval phase, and parasites could *potentially* live through to adulthood, but what really gets me messed up about this idea is what's happening to a parasite within a host during its pupal phase.

Any info/conjecture/suggested resources are greatly appreciated!

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[Lore] [Spoilers] Royalty, Radiance, and Wyrms: Parasitism, Real Biology, and Parallels

All right. So. Okay. I have a lot of interrelated thoughts about this, so let's see if I can express them in a way they all make sense. See, I think the traits of the Pale King, and Hollow Knight's "Wyrm" beings in general, are actually more or less grounded in real-world entomology -- and I include the Kingsoul and White Lady in that accounting. If it's not convincing to you, that's fine, and entirely understandable; I realize that a lot of this is an extrapolation of an extrapolation of what were already the most obscured components of a fragmentary mythos, and honestly it's largely motivated by a simple desire to point out some parallels that I think are quite fascinating, rather than a drive to prove myself right. So let's begin:

Wasps and Wyrms and Prey-Controlling Parasites

There exist a wide variety of parasitic and parasitoid wasps, and the measure of their parasitism wildly varies. Some of them simply feed upon, or lay their eggs inside of, other insects, but that is by no means the extent of what some wasp species can do. Some of them induce behavioral changes in the insects around them, localized or permanent -- rendering them docile or curious or fearless, or instilling loyalty and protectiveness toward the wasp, or causing them to find the wasp, and those who bear a similarity to the wasp, attractive (not necessarily in a reproductive way, just "coming closer feels good and you want to do it"), or turning them against each other, or making it hard and uncomfortable to pay close attention to the wasp's appearance and activities. Some solitary wasps essentially rule colonies of other insects, warped to suit the wasp's desires.

(Sound familiar?)

Sometimes these wasps use lingering pheromones to direct ants to wage war against each other, to benefit themselves or to strike at competitor wasps; some of them drive social insects to a breakdown of their social order -- that which they naturally have, or that imposed by other parasites, including other wasps -- compelling them to fight each other to the death, to raise mandibles against their rulers, to embroil their nests in war and strife.

Where have we seen that before?

Do not call me a traitor... Simply call me a Fool.

Wasps, like moths (and real-world beetles, and a great many other insects) are holometabolous -- a term which literally mean

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