Why are the three consecutive political regimes coming from the French Revolution (Convention, Directory and Consulate) referred to as the First Republic and not as the First, Second and Third Republics?
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👤︎ u/Julmath
📅︎ Mar 06 2021
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Are their any good books on the Directory period of the French Revolution?

I’ve found most works on the French Revolutionary period either cover the beginning to 9 Thermidor & the fall of Robespierre or cover the rise of Napoleon through to the end of the first Empire, but I can’t find any works that cover the period in between. Paul Barras, the Thermidorians, & the Directory in general seems to be overlooked, so I wondered if their were any books covering that period well? Thank you!

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📅︎ Aug 15 2020
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OverSimplified's videos on the French Revolution are still completely wrong on everything

This is part II ! Read part I first if you haven't done it already.

Next we get to Louis XVI's trial, and OS is already doing as if Robespierre was the ultimate dictator of France, with him playing chess against Austria and Prussia. Yet at this point he's a mere conventionnel. A popular one, sure, but he is in no way more powerful than any of his 748 co-workers at this point. And he was far from being the only one advocating for Louis' death; maybe he didn't even have the most influential speech in this direction, as that title could be attributed to Saint-Just. 29 errors. This emphasis on Robespierre is completely unjustified : again, he is a mere deputy at this point, and he's part of the opposition at that. What's next ? Ah, OS peddles the idea that Louis' fate was decided by one vote - it was not. There was an absolute majority of just one vote not in favor of death, but in favor of death without conditions - 70 other deputies voted for death with a conditional sentance, making a total majority of 431 for death against 290 for all other options. 30 errors.

Surprisingly, OS says nothing egregiously wrong after that - until he says "so as the Revolution turned increasingly violent and anti-christian" : again this is somewhat caricature and nuance-lacking. Especially, violence per se was not at all what antagonized some populations, it was the fact that violence was directed against the local overwhelmingly refractory clergy. The rebels in Vendée were pretty violent too at times; the problem was whatpuropose violence served. Still his introduction of the Chouannerie and the Vendée rebellion are approximately correct. But then he confuses the royalist insurrections with the federalist insurrections, the latter being actually republican movements. In Toulon, it was originally a federalist revolt that was later taken over by royalists; for the other cities and regions in revolt - Marseille, Lyon, Bordeaux and Normandy, all these regions saw federalist insurrections, but as OS doesn't introduce the federalist revolts (to sum it up briefly, a violent reaction of certain departements to the eviction of tne Girondins) them and just paint France in two colors, we're left misguided. 31 errors.

"The republic sent a relatively unknown young captain by the name of Napoléon Bonaparte (of course his face is comically ugly, why do you even ask, it's

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📰︎ r/badhistory
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👤︎ u/Vaspour_
📅︎ Feb 07 2021
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I watched every film in Alan Clarke's Dissent and Disruption boxset

A few years ago the BFI did a brilliant job of bringing together the television work of Alan Clarke in 2 box sets called Dissent and Disruption (the blu-ray version packaged them together and added some early works, but I don't have that) and I thought while I have an afternoon off, I'd write about them here.

If pressed I'd probably call Clarke my favourite British director. His work for me, at its best, combines a really muscular style with narrative economy (most of his best work begins in media res or very near). There's political critique but also room for the individual who turns things on their head. His work is provocative but not irresponsible or post-modern: he cares, and he wants you to care, but he isn't going to hold your hand or cudgel you into rightthink.

Some people would push back on this: Clarke worked primarily for television, making only 3 features (which I will also cover here, though they're not in this set). His work troubles categorisation because he made single dramas: 45-90 minute one-off shows, often shot on film.

His work clearly has a great influence on cinema rather than television: Gary Oldman's directorial debut Nil By Mouth and Tim Roth's directorial debut The War Zone bear the hallmarks of Clarke's signature style. Notably both Roth and Oldman received pretty major career boosts by appearing in Clarke's works. But if you like Gus van Sant, Paul Greengrass, or 1917 then I think you might find something of value in Clarke.

CineOutsider wrote a very longform review on their website covering the 30 works from the Bluray on a disc-by-disc basis. If you're interested based on this, check that review out because it's much more considered than what I'm about to write.

George's Room (1967): two-hander shot on video. A man wants to rent a room from a woman who is being cagey about letting it. Really this is there to show where Clarke came from: the TV play. It's quite entertaining without being particularly brilliant.

The Last Train Through Harecastle Tunnel (1969): B&W feature about a quiet nerd who wants to spend a weekend indulging in his passion for trains, but everyone he runs into seems to put their shit on him. Whilst it is just mostly conversations, there's a very provocative suggestion of paedophilia having taken place in the history of the people he meets.

Sovereign's Company (1970): arguably the first true Clarke

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📅︎ Jan 26 2021
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Leaders of Switzerland

Just a quick look at the leaders of Switzerland and how to get them. Any change can come as a result of the Savoyard Crisis.

https://preview.redd.it/n8x4932hcdc61.png?width=2508&format=png&auto=webp&s=f726de1ced5643299c4abff47310761a1ca6b71b

  • A democratic Switzerland will always have the same leader, the seven member-Federal Council, with the position of Federal President and VP alternating each year from members of the Council.
  • National Populist Switzerland, the Swiss State, sees General Eugen Bircher and his junta coup the government. Will get to choose a new flag.
  • A Totalist or Syndicalist Switzerland, the Helvetic Commune, can about from being a puppet of the Commune of France, botching the Crisis, or falling to a Syndicalist Revolution. Either the totalist Georges Oltramare or syndicalist Executive Directory will eventually take over. Will get to choose a new flag.

Interesting to note the only non-collective leaders come from opposite sides of the political spectrum: national populist and totalism.

-

The branching off point is the Swiss event: 'Syndicalist Subversion at Work in Romandie,' if France chose to send agents into Romandie.

--If the Swiss disband the local government in French areas, it will trigger unrest in Haute-Savoie and France will be able to take the focus 'Demand Haute-Savoie.'

  • The Swiss can accept the French demand, if they chose to press it, or can look for foreign assistance. (The French not pressing it will unlock Switzerland's neutral tree). That assistance will come from Germany, or if rejected, Austria, which can include an alliance or at least a guarantee. Accepting help from Germany or Austria will open up their paths in Switzerland's political tree. Being rejected by both will unlock the 'enemies on all sides' path, leading to the coup led by General Eugen Bircher.
    • If Bircher coups, he must secure his position if he wants to keep power, known as the New Order. If he is able to (by getting above 80% support for his National Populist party) he and his junta can go onto to pretty much make Switzerland the black spot of Europe, being extremely isolationist. If he can not, the old Federal Council will be restored, but will enable Switzerland to get claims on Greater Switzerland.
  • If the Swiss accept it, the French can push for even further terms, which the Swiss will accept. They will get to keep Haute-Savoie and Romandie, and will become a puppet of France. The flag will c
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📅︎ Jan 19 2021
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I saw four movies (Sophie Jones, The Mauritanian, The World to Come, Moxie)

First up was Sophie Jones

That the struggles in "Sophie Jones" are worse than those found in the lives of most 16 year olds, I believe and hope. It is painful enough to endure them at any age, let alone in a young and vulnerable season when life should be wondrous. Jessie Barr's directorial debut is like re-reading an old journal entry through a lens of simultaneous criticism and forgiveness. It is a coming-of-age story that is both nostalgic and unflinching, and it will ensnare you deeply in its grasp. This is also a relatively restrained work. Nothing is made explicit aside from the internal agony of its heroine, whose headspace we occupy so fully, we can't help sharing in every tremulous emotion that ripples across her.

Barr co-wrote the screenplay with her cousin Jessica, who also stars as Sophie. They drew from their own personal experiences as adolescents who each lost a parent to cancer. As the film opens, Sophie fiddles with a bag of cremated remains, and rubs the ashes between her fingers, revealing a piece of fragmented bone. The story takes place shortly after her mother's funeral, in her junior year of high school, and ends just before she leaves for college. In the wake of her grief, Sophie looks for some form of inner peace through romance and sex. She isn't seeking this out because she wants it, but because she feels like she should want it. No interaction is exactly the same. It all stats with Kevin (Skyler Verity), who clearly has feelings for Sophie that go further than just their hookups. Every time a boy wants to get serious with her, she ends it. Every time a friend tells her some uncomfortable truths, she snaps at them. She wants sexual urgency, not intimacy.

Sophie is a combination of contradictions: She's often sarcastic and disaffected, but she throws herself whole-heartedly into the sincerity of high school theater, cavorting through the embarrassment without ever becoming entangled in its strands. She isn't perfect, and no one that age ever is. She has moments of shocking selfishness. She often says inappropriate things from a place of honesty rather than a place of consideration for how they will affect the listener. But she can also be inviting and kind, supportive and loving, and desperate for the acceptance that only a parent can provide. "At least I've been coping well," Sophie says to her therapist. "I mean, I haven't been cutting myself or drinking or taking drugs

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📅︎ Mar 04 2021
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The origins of socialism

It started with a Frenchman named Babeuf. Amidst the French Revolution and calls for equality, Babeuf looked back to the Roman statesman Graccus, who implemented a policy of land redistribution in which the state took private lands from those who were deemed to have too much and gave it to the poor. He initially looked to Robespierre as an ally since he called for limitations on property rights. Drew inspiration from Rousseau, Mably, Abbe Morelly. Jailed for forgery 1793. In 1795 he railed against the Directory and called for class war. After other leftist groups that made up the Pantheon Club were closed down by a military force led by Bonaparte, Babeuf’s Conspiracy of Equals was the standing leftist agitator group. However, he longed for the days of Robespierre’s Reign of Terror. He proclaimed, “Their dictatorial government was a devilish good idea...The salvation of 25,000,000 men cannot be weighed in the balance against consideration for a few shady individuals.” As we can see, Babeuf believed that the ends justified the means. If some innocent men were killed for the theoretical betterment of the whole, murder was justified. In fact, in the center of the Conspiracy of Equals was the Committee of Public Safety, named in honor of the committee through which Robespierre implemented the Reign of Terror. The new committee even had some of the Terror’s practitioners in it. He boasted about the many victims who fell under the guillotine in the region that he oversaw as public accuser. The Conspiracy’s goals were codified in the Manifesto of the Equals. Its author liked to call himself “The Man Without God.” This group called for the “distribution of riches and knowledge among all the citizens.” They interpreted the revolution’s slogan of egalite to mean equality of outcome. “If there is a single man on earth who is richer and more powerful than his fellows… the equilibrium is broken: crimes and misfortunes are on earth.” Thus, they viewed materialistic inequality as the source for society’s woes. They wanted to “remove from the individual the hope of ever becoming richer, or more powerful” or wiser. Thus, they sought to control/manipulate the mind as well. This would lead to the disappearance of all vices and walls. They believed that as nature had finite resources, one could “only succeed in having too much by arranging for others to have not enough.”

Equality would be achieved by organizing “a communal regime which will suppress private property… require

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📅︎ Dec 11 2020
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Napoleon was Albanian and the Serbs are lying to you

Hello everyone! This is my first post on this sub.

So recently I happened to watch this obscure yet peculiar youtube video in which the author- the staunch Albanian nationalist decided to show us the "truth" about Napoleon's supposed real origin all in a one-minute youtube video. Here's the link. However, in this post, I shall indeed protect the Emperor's good name and go through this video text by text debunking the claims presented by this notorious nationalist. Here we go...

>Napolean was born inCorsica, Italy

r/badgeography

>.He knew a lot about the Albanians. He wanted to be like Alexander another great Albanian. He went to Egypt where Alexander the great was buried and he told his soildiers to be alone in the room.

Though I clearly can't answer to the first claim due to the lack of any sources mentioning Napoleon's knowledge about the Albanian nation I can say that Bonaparte, indeed had a great admiration for Alexander ever since his childhood, though he happened to criticize him on occasion, for example when working on a discourse on the subject 'What are the Most Important Truths and feelings for Men to Learn to be Happy?' for the Lyons Academy's essay prize he negatively commented Alexander's despotism, to quote:

"What is Alexander doing when he rushes from Thebes into Persia and thence into India? He is ever restless, he loses his wits, he believes himself God [...]"^([1])

In the following two sentences, the author tries to tell, in a pretty short manner, why Napoleon went to Egypt by saying that his expedition was only motivated by Alexander's conquests and that it was his initiative. This theory, however, is purely based on common myths and it's completely false. The plans of invading Egypt were first considered by French military strategists in the 1760s. In 1782, the Austrian Emperor Joseph II suggested Louis XVI annexe Egypt as a part of a larger unsuccessful plan of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire^([2]). During the revolution, the plan itself was brought in again and was quite popular among revolutionaries and idealists who wished to bring revolutionary ideals to the people of Egypt, oppressed by Mameluke tyranny and rational strategists like Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand, Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot and of course, Napoleon. Bonaparte himself prioritized Egypt, calling it "the geographical key to controlling the world"^([3]) a

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📰︎ r/badhistory
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📅︎ Jun 27 2020
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Review Request: the first part of an alt history story (1420 words)

Hi, I am new to writing fiction and I’m interested in some early feedback before I reinforce bad habits.

This is the first part of a short novelette I’m working on. It’s an alt history political drama set on a fictional Atlantic country. I’m looking for general feedback, but I’d also like to know if it sounds too verbose or cheesy. You can criticize it harshly if necessary, I have a decent amount of experience writing non-fiction so I’m used to harsh criticism.

The working title is “Brumaire”

I was in the capital, Liddikea, when the coup began. I will not go into excruciating detail to describe the events of that first day, as they were scarcely memorable. Since Grand Marshal Pierre Russo’s death six years earlier, the dictatorship was a mere shell of itself. The incumbent resembled Romulus Augustulus more than Hitler, and the coup plotters swept his gerontocratic rule away with hardly a murmur of protest. As far as I can recall the total casualties of that day may be counted on a single hand.

What stands out in my memory, and the memory of all who can remember the revolution of 1974, are the chaotic and emotional days which followed the coup. The political inclinations of Colonel Jacques Durand were at that point, completely unknown. More unknown was to whether or not the bulk of the military establishment would follow him in revolution. For a series of long and frightful days, the sceptre of civil war seemed imminent. All action in the city came to a standstill. An anxious populace remained at home as much as they could, ears glued to their radios for updates.

In the popular imagination a revolution may only take on two forms, triumphant freedom or jacobin terror. In the first version, the individual may view themselves as one of the glorious revolutionaries, triumphant and righteous. They imagine themselves riding into glory to trample tyranny under foot, and all those who stand in their way. Any who perish must have had it coming in some way, in fact those who imagine themselves in this manner may even substitute their personal enemies into their revolutionary fantasies. Their boss, or maybe a hated minority, will fall to their blades. Those who imagine themselves in this position never consider that they may themselves fall victim, or put any thought into the post-revolutionary moment. Those who fear the second version make their own mistake of clinging to the status quo, or even fantasizing of a reactionary terror of their own.

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📅︎ Dec 28 2020
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Who authorised Napoleon's expedition to Egypt and what the hell were they thinking?

I've been given the impression that the leadership wanted him 'out of the way' or he persuaded people?

Yes I understand they wanted Egypt to then threaten India, but logically it makes no sense.

France was attacked on all sides and they send most of their navy and tens of thousands of soldiers to Egypt? And why did they leave their ships chained to each other at sea instead of towing them onto the land? Did they think the British would never find their ships parked at sea?

Was he supposed to Alexander the Great himself all the way to India?

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📅︎ Nov 23 2019
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A Defense of "Under the Cherry Moon"

The great bad movie podcast How Did This Get Made? covered this movie this week, and it led me down a path to discovering this piece from one of the writers at Ebert’s website. Thought I’d share it here.

https://www.rogerebert.com/features/new-position-a-defense-of-under-the-cherry-moon

New Position: A Defense of "Under the Cherry Moon"

Peter Sobczynski May 04, 2016

In the wake of the shocking death of musical icon Prince last month, his landmark 1984 film debut “Purple Rain” reappeared in movie theaters across the country. Like many of his fans, I took a couple of hours to watch it on the big screen, where it belongs. (In all honesty, I also went because I was seeing “Mother’s Day” later that day, figured that seeing it might help towards evening out my psychic scales.) Watching it again, I’m still convinced that it is either one of the best terrible movies ever made or one of the worst great movies of all time. In many ways, it is kind of an awful film that takes a narrative that might have seemed thin for a later Elvis Presley vehicle and added dime-store psychology and an attitude towards women that even back then was retrograde at best (including such infamous moments as a woman being tossed into a trash dumpster for a laugh and the bit in which Apollonia Kotero is told to purify herself in the waters of Lake Minnetonka); it’s borderline disturbed at worst. At the same time, “Purple Rain” was made with a great style and energy. And unlike many rock stars who tried to make the transition to the big screen (only to find that whatever charisma they displayed on stage in front of thousands of screaming fans did not translate to standing before a movie camera), Prince himself turned out to be a mesmerizing screen presence, even when he was just standing there, performing the songs from the spectacular soundtrack.

There is some great stuff in “Purple Rain,” of course, and in the annals of rock movie history, it deserves its place of prominence. But it’s most significant legacy of the film, at least from a cinematic standpoint, it is that film’s massive success ensured that Prince, if he so desired, could do basically anything he wanted, no matter how outlandish, for a follow-up and he could get it financed by people hoping that he would give them “Purple Rain 2”—either literally or metaphorically. Of course, as anyone who was following Prince even back then, he was never one for repeating himself or doing the expected. Taking advantage of the power h

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📅︎ Oct 09 2020
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Napoleon's Servant Profile from FGO material VII

#Napoleon

Class: Archer
True Name: Napoleon
Gender: Male
Source: Historical fact, Napoleonic legends
Region: Europe
Alignment: Neutral Good
Height: 189cm
Weight: 92kg


Strength: D
Endurance: C
Agility: A
Mana: E
Luck: B
Noble Phantasm: B


Scenario Writer: Sakurai Hikaru/Character Design: Ryota-H
CV: Hino Satoshi
 
Main Appearance: Fate/Grand Order


#Class Skills

Magic Resistance C
Cancels spells with a chant below two verses.
Unable to defend against large-scale magecraft like High-Thaumaturgy and Greater Rituals.
 
Independent Action C
The ability to act independently for a while even without a supply of mana from the Master.
At rank C, it is possible to remain in the world for a day after losing one's Master.


#Personal Skills

Fire Support (Cannon) B+
A powerful ranged attack that is used to support tactical operations.
In Napoleon's case, this attack is used in the form of a bombardment.
Essentially a compound skill that comes included with the effects of the Strategy skill.
 
Charisma of a Triumphal Return B
Napoleon possesses a special kind of charisma.
Essentially a compound skill that comes included with the effects of the Charisma skill.
 
The Light of Possibility B
Although it's a skill similar to Pioneer of the Stars, it is more akin to Innocent Monster.
The great feats he actually achieved and the legends that in truth had nothing to do with him, the idol that made everything his own is what the Heroic Spirit Napoleon is; he who acts as the embodiment of 'expectations' and 'possibilities' upon materializing.
The word impossible missing from his dictionary, subsisting off of minimal sleep, the destruction of the Sphinx in Gisa, meeting the phantom of Alexander the Great (Iskandar) in Khufu pharaoh's Great Pyramid; his manifestation incorporates all of these as facts and truths.
 
Imperial Privilege B
As the first French emperor, he possesses the Imperial Privilege skill, but...
(In "FateGO", it isn't used in general.)


#Noble Phantasm

Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile: The Iridescent Bow Sonorously Announcing the Triumphant Return
Rank: A
Classification: Anti-Army Noble Phantasm
Range: 1~99
Maximum number of targets: 100
 
Ar

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👤︎ u/Konchew
📅︎ Apr 20 2020
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The National Razor

Guillotine, oh guillotine,

How thou blade does shine,

Sharp and swift are your movements,

As blood stains your iron knife,

Stained as you are, you hold nothing back,

Your rope is as soft as the necks that you hack,

You sever the bonds between living and dead,

All that you take are their precious heads,

All your killings are equal and fair,

But not without any sort of flair,

All the names signed off by Robespierre,

Are sentenced to trial, bid life farwell,

Death is awaiting, death its omitting,

Killed by the guillotine,

People lay headless, their corpses grow cold,

As the french revolution now unfolds

The future still lay, mysterious, untold,

As the people are starving, freezing cold,

The winter was rough, their life is tough,

Say the wrong words and that’s enough,

To catch a ride to the guillotine,

All it takes is a word, a phrase,

A simple sentence, your doom awaits,

The monarch was killed, twas his fate,

The king’s son, he was an incarcerate,

Torturing pain, for him death came a little late,

The wife was killed, she shared the king’s fate,

All the while the revolution did proliferate,

Yet destruction fell from hill to hill,

Paranoia spread, people were ill,

Names piled up, the directory was corrupt,

How many people must be killed,

How much blood must be spilled,

To right the wrongs, of innocents,

With nothing, no bread or cents,

Just accusations, that’s unfortunate,

Sent to their fate, a higher power,

The unique, the frightening,

Such a dark hour,

Above, do all the nobles tower,

They stand so still and do not waver,

Such a strong, immense, and wondering flavor,

All hail to the national razor,

The bloody scenes, flowing deep,

Many people cry and weep,

Trying their best to go to sleep,

As the dark continues on,

This tunnel feels so very long,

When the light has disappeared, it’s gone,

Until the end, which will surely come,

Wait until the waitings done,

So, all hail thy mighty Guillotine,

Farewell to these now and forever,

All hail thy mighty lord and savior,

All hail thee, victorious killer,

All hail to the ultimate thriller,

All hail to the one who lives,

In the reign of fear and terror.

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📅︎ Oct 01 2020
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Everything You Need to Know about Napoleon - Bona Part 1

Having finished the epic, all-encompassing biographical 33-hour audiobook, Napoleon: A Life, by Andrew Roberts, I knew I wanted to write something about it, but I wasn’t sure what. Napoleon Bonaparte had one of the most accomplished, divisive, big lives of any person in history, which reshaped the way we think about war, politics, revolution, culture, law, religion, and so much more in a mere 52 years. Any one of those elements could (and has) been isolated and made into a massive tome on its own.

So I just set out to describe and analyze all of the things I found most interesting about the man. This includes a summary of his entire life, his personality quirks, unusual events, driving beliefs, notable skills, and more. If there is an over-arching theme to be found, it’s my amazement at how an extraordinarily competent and risk-tolerant individual lived his life up to the greatest heights only to come tumbling back down to earth.

Not surprisingly, my writing sprawled, but I managed to wrangle it down to three Reddit posts. This is Part 1.

A Truncated Summary of Napoleon’s Life

I originally meant for this to be a truly truncated summary, like, maybe 800 words. But I realized that it’s hard to wrap your mind around Napoleon’s accomplishments (and mistakes) unless they’re all laid out. For instance, everyone knows Napoleon was a great general, but that evaluation comes into focus when you see that Napoleon fought in 43 battles! In comparison, Napoleon’s heroes, Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar, fought in 9 and 17 battles respectively. You can see in this data set that most historically remembered generals only fought in 5-10 battles and no major general (except for Robert E. Lee) fought in even half as many battles as Napoleon.

However, if you already have a decent grasp on Napoleonic history and want to get into more nitty-gritty details, you can skip this section.

Without further ado:

Napoleone di Buonaparte was born into a middling noble family in Corsica in 1769, the same year the Republic of Genoa transferred the largely autonomous island to French control. Napoleone’s father acted with a minority of local nobles as “collaborators” with the new government. These ties allowed Napoleone to move to France

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👤︎ u/Dormin111
📅︎ Dec 02 2019
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Did my DBQ deserve a 2? (I know it's not perfect)

After the French Revolution in the late 1700s, the famous Napoleon Bonaparte came to power, crowning himself emperor in 1804. Napoleon's main ambition was to grow his empire and make France the most powerful country. However after many Napoleon victories, many European countries realized this and started to realize they needed to protect their countries. European countries were motivated primarily by emerging nationalism because of the fear of powers not being balanced and pride and will to fight for their country.

During the late 1700s, Napoleon had been a powerful leader with a track record. Recently defeating the Sardinian and Austrian armies, other countries were nervous. However, countries realized that the balance of power was going to be off if they let Napoleon keep fighting. Looking back at everything the Directory tried to restore at the end of the Revolution, Napoleon was hungry for power. Napoleon had a reputation of brutally conquering his enemies. An example of this is how a Russain nun explained his seizing of Russia. She explained how Napoleon had no respect for the sanctuary his troops were at and they were disrespecting the culture of the church. This evidence demonstrated towards citizens how ruthless and harmful Napoleon really was. Many people were upset because they valued their country high, and Napoleon had no care. In a political cartoon, “Napoleon in the Press” it demonstrated Napoleon's defeat and how with this defeat brought other countries he defeated out of his power. This demonstrates the unbalance of power beginning to happen in Europe. It shows how with one defeat of Napoleon, other countries like Holland become stronger and liberated. This cartoon was impactful to the public’s eye because it shows how one battle can change a lot.

Emergences in pride and confidence for various countries increased during this time. Rulers knew in order to fight against Napoleon they would have to get their troops on board. As an example, Queen Maria Carolina of Naples explained how it is but she has a will to fight him. This is important because with this speech, she was able to strike nationalism into the hearts of French citizens and make them believe they can fight. Another example of this is when Andres Torrejon who was the mayor of Spain, said it was important to die for the king and the homeland. This is important because it also was a way of sparking nationalism in the citizens of Spain.

Although nationalism was the main reason

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👤︎ u/mamsiee
📅︎ Jul 15 2020
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Everything You Need to Know about Napoleon - Bona Part 2 (Genius in Action)

In Part 1 of my summary/analysis of Napoleon: A Life, by Andrew Roberts, I summarized Napoleon’s entire life, personality, and Rome LARPing. In this section, Part 2, I’ll break down precisely how Napoleon was so good at being a general and politician. This part is overwhelmingly positive of Napoleon, but I’ll be packing most of the Napoleon critiques in Part 3.

Military Genius

Napoleon won 38 out of 43 battles between 1796 and 1815, and revolutionized modern warfare in the process. (Though Andrew Roberts’s Wikipedia page says Napoleon was in 60+ battles, so I guess the exact figure is up for debate.)

The root of Napoleon’s military brilliance was likely a combination of extremely high intelligence, ample study (both at the best military college in Europe and extensive reading on his own of modern and Classical texts), an unmatched level of personal battlefield experience, boundless physical and mental energy, and a feel or instinct for battle that consistently served him well (until it didn’t). These factors allowed Napoleon to outcompete countless generals both in the strategic (higher-level, before and after the battle) and tactical (lower-level, on the battlefield) domains.

On the strategic level, Napoleon adopted, perfected, and formalized a few major innovations that fundamentally changed how modern, state-of-the-art military units functioned.

First, Napoleon was one of the first commanders to adopt the “corps system” (pronounced “core”). I’ll be honest: I don’t have the military expertise to explain how the system worked in-depth, but I gleaned that the basic idea was to use tightly-regimented logistical roles to organize armies into corps of 20-40,000 troops. Compared to the pre-corps systems, each corps had the power of a full-sized army, but the movement and flexibility of much smaller forces. This gave Napoleon a massive strategic advantage over non-corps-based armies.

According to Roberts, one of Napoleon’s greatest military actions of all time was the 1805 “Ulm Maneuver,” which consisted of merely turning a 210,000 man (7 corps) army from facing east to facing south

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👤︎ u/Dormin111
📅︎ Dec 05 2019
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The New Generation of Self-Created Utopias As so-called intentional communities proliferate across the country, a subset of Americans is discovering the value of opting out of contemporary society.

The New Generation of Self-Created Utopias As so-called intentional communities proliferate across the country, a subset of Americans is discovering the value of opting out of contemporary society.

Ransom (a pseudonym) Heath, 42, and Eric Johnson, 36, on their way to feed the pigs at the East Wind intentional community in the Ozarks. Ransom (a pseudonym) Heath, 42, and Eric Johnson, 36, on their way to feed the pigs at the East Wind intentional community in the Ozarks.Credit...George Etheredge By Mike Mariani Jan. 16, 2020

THE EAST WIND COMMUNITY is hidden deep in the Ozarks of southern Missouri, less than 10 miles from the Arkansas border, surrounded by jagged hills and tawny fields. Getting there requires traversing country roads that rise, dip and twist through chicken-wire-fenced farmsteads and grazing pastures cluttered with rusty agricultural equipment until you reach 1,145 acres of largely undeveloped highland forest, where cedar, oak, pine and mulberry create a dense canopy. Beneath that are 27 buildings and structures, including four large dormitories, nine personal shelters, a kitchen and dining facility, an automobile shop, a nut butter manufacturing plant and a cold-storage warehouse, all built over the years by the community since its founding in 1974. Outside, farm animals — six piglets, 50 chickens, several dozen brown-and-white cows — crunch through the carpet of winter leaves.

Nearby, a pair of women make their way down a muddy field, one pushing a wheelbarrow, to a weathered-gray wooden barn where they’ll draw gallons of milk from their dairy cows. A reedy man with a long, sandy mullet presses a chain saw to the base of a tree trunk. People stop each other on the dirt paths, asking about the understaffed forestry program, or recounting anecdotes about going into town to sort through credit card charges. Everyone has somewhere to be, yet no one is hurried. There are no smartphones in sight. The collective feels like a farm, a work exchange and a bustling household rolled into one, with much work to be done but many hands to be lent.

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Continue reading the main story Image Aubrey DeLone, 31, harvests kale from a community garden.Credit...George Etheredge Image Milk drips onto a dairy cow's hoof.Credit...George Etheredge East Wind is what its 72 residents call an intentional community, a modern descendant of the utopian colonies and communes of centuries past where individuals share everything from meals, chores and living

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📅︎ Jan 17 2020
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Progress Report 53

Hello everyone!

As you may have heard, we are working on hotfix 0.6.3 which should be with you within a week, it will bring some additional CTD fixes and resolve some AI issues, along with a simultaneous update to the music mod to finally resolve the last few issues with it. Otherwise, work on 0.7 is coming along nicely so today we thought we’d show you something entirely new, enjoy!


The Central America Rework

Hello everyone, I am Beelzebub. As you may know, 0.7 is going to be a heavily American themed update with both North and South America getting tons of attention. However, a lot of people tend to forget the middleman, Central America. Central America’s state in game currently isn’t necessarily bad, but the lore for it is a logically impossible scenario. A Socialist Central American state being formed while the Americans were watching over them was impossible, so what did we decide to do? We brought it back to a more familiar setting.

https://i.imgur.com/4wGdD1D.png

Centroamerica and the United Provinces have been completely abolished, and replaced with the more traditional Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Each of these nations will hopefully be getting focus trees in 0.7 along with unique leaders, generals, and more (Slip ups can always happen so I do not promise anything :p).

I can already predict the “Why are you balkanizing everything” comments so I’ll just answer those concerns now. Any research into Central America can easily lead you to the conclusion that the current setup is impossible. Any wars that did happen in Central America at this time hardly ever lasted any longer then a week due to constant American interference and direct intervention to defend their interests. Not only that, but the current content is sub-par at best with minimal events and basically no content past the unification of the subcontinent. This setup will ensure you have content post unification and beyond.

Our plans for the conflict in the region revolve around 4 general phases in the sub-continent. The first is calm, which will have limited regime changes in all the nations due to the American presence. The second is chaos, which triggers after the American civil war begins, which will completely destroy the countries economically and politically along with various wars occurring. The third is recovery, which will involve the nations preparing for further conflict and with their neighbours and figuring out how to fi

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👤︎ u/zankoas
📅︎ May 04 2018
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The Evil Within 2 - Review Thread

Game Information

Game Title: The Evil Within 2

Genre: Third-person shooter, survival horror

Platforms: Playstation 4, Xbox One, PC

Media: E3 2017 Announce Trailer | E3 Extended Gameplay Trailer | E3 Story Trailer

'Survive' Gameplay Trailer

Who Is Your Sebastian?

'The Twisted, Deadly Photographer' | 'The Gruesome, Giggling Guardian'

'Race Against Time' Gameplay Trailer

'The Wrathful, "Righteous" Priest' Story Trailer

Red Band Launch Trailer

Developer: Tango Gameworks ^Info

Publisher: Bethesda Softworks

Price: $59.99/£39.99/59,99€

Release Date: October [Friday the] 13th, 2017

More Info: /r/theevilwithin | Wikipedia Page

Review Aggregator:

OpenCritic - 78 [Cross-Platform] Current Score Distribution

MetaCritic - 76 [PS4]

MetaCritic - 82 [XB1]

MetaCritic - 81 [PC]

The first game's reception -

Entry Score ^(Platform, ^Year, ^# ^of ^Critics)
The Evil Within 75 ^(PS4, ^2014, ^65 ^critics)

Reviews

Website/Author Aggregates' & Critic's Score Quote Platform
GameSoulz - GameSoulz Unscored ~ Unscored *Some of the initial vision, gameplay and appeal may be lost, exchanged for a more streamlined, smoother experience but that doesn´t mean its worse. No, Tango Gameworks delivered a game expanding on Mikami´s initial vision, mixing it with more weste
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📰︎ r/Games
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👤︎ u/ninjyte
📅︎ Oct 12 2017
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Napoleon Overview

So as I told all of you, this is a very rough overview. Certain parts are fleshed out more than others because there are very specific things i wanted to say to my sister so that I did not overlook them. However, the vast majority of it is just bullet points so that I can remember to bring it up. I add the color later during the course of our conversations. So, if any of you read this, and would like to ask specific questions or engage on comments and conversation, let's do it!

​

A couple of caveats. I am NOT a historian. I didn't even finish college. I just really like to read and talk about history. The vast, vast majority of this is stuff I wrote from memory from what I've read over the 13 years since I first discovered the French Revolution as a topic of interest. A number of these things may be slightly inaccurate, skewed, exaggerated, or even just plain wrong, and I am absolutely fine with that. A number of specifics (like French governments since Napoleons fall) are very general with a question mark next to them because I intended to research that before I deliver my finished product for conversation. I welcome corrections from anyone as that would save me time. This is purely for fun and to get people interested in the topic because of all the interest in what little I've said on the subject so far, I didn't want to wait any longer and massage this rough draft any more.

​

I've messaged a number of you about my favorite, most readable sources and I will list them here.

There’s four primary books I’ve read or am reading that make up the bulk of the “adventure story” motif, which a galloping writing style that’s hard to put down, posted in the order that I read them.

“The First Total War” by David Bell. This was my introduction to the era back when it came out in 2006.Not about Napoleon specifically, but about the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars as a transformative experience for western civilization. A really fascinating look at the enormous impact on our psychology and history.

“The War of Wars” a sweeping military history of the era, can’t remember the author but should be easy to find. Emphasizes the conflict between England and France and the leaders of both countries as the central theme.

“The Age of Napoleon” J. Christopher Herold. A really fun and readable historical overview of all the main characters of the story, Napoleon at the center.

“Napoleon: a Life” by Andrew Roberts. Probably my favo

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📅︎ Apr 06 2019
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[CLAIM] State of Acadia

Name: State of Acadia

Government: Totalitarian Directorial Republic

President of the Directory: Auguste Gautier

National Anthem: Ave Maris Stella

National Flag

Territory


“Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité ou la mort"

In the aftermath of the flood, the traditional homeland of the Acadians was invaded by countless thousands of refugees from both the North and the South. Fearsome of another Great Upheaval, the Acadians banded together in militias once more and did what had to be done to ensure the survival of the few of them that still remained. It is not a legacy to be proud of, yet the events that took place decades ago can never be forgotten, for the blood they spilled sparked the revolution that forged the Acadia of today.

The ideals of Maximilien Robespierre and the French Revolution have since then guided the State of Acadia and safeguarded the livelihoods of its outnumbered Acadian peoples. Through terror, repression, and blood, the State of Acadia has brought stability to New England and remade the very fabric of society. The religions, customs, and records of the past have been all but removed from the public domain, replaced with the Cult of the Supreme Being and the State. In Acadia, Slavery is Liberty, Oppression is Equality, and Obedience is Brotherhood, the only alternative is death.

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👤︎ u/Kersepolis
📅︎ Jan 17 2020
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March Prince Album Club - Parade (1986)

Hello, and welcome back to the Blankies Prince Album Club for March, covering the period in which Prince is making films! I asked a couple friends if they wanted to contribute, and my friend /u/austinaustout created a reddit just to come along with this post. Handing it off to him now.

Parade is a weird goddamn album, even for Prince. Does it have the slinky funky fuck jams his early work is defined by? I mean, the groove on “New Position” definitely thinks so, but the rest of the track runs on steel drums and finely detailed vocal harmonies that turn it into a sparse, crystalline bop more than a traditional sex romp. Does it have an all time high energy pop masterpiece a la “Little Red Corvette” or “Raspberry Beret?” I mean, yeah, but it’s “Kiss,” which features a lead vocal that graduates from “whispering on the dance floor” to “jet engine with a hard-on” over the course of 3 minutes and is impossible not to move to despite neglecting to have a bassline. Does it also have baroque wind instruments, the odd waltz of “Under the Cherry Moon,” the psychedelic march and cavernous drums of “Christopher Tracy’s Parade” and the atmospheric sketches of “Milo de Venus” and “I Wonder You?” Pretty specific question, but yeah they’re all there. Also it ends with Prince performing a heartbreaking acoustic elegy for/as the main character of his first directorial effort?

This brings up one of the big reasons Parade is, as I said at the top, so goddamn weird; it’s technically the soundtrack companion to the first film Prince was solely the author of, and what would be the second film covered on the pod, Under the Cherry Moon (the album’s official title is Parade - Music from the Motion Picture Under the Cherry Moon). Without digging too deeply into the film itself, its French setting seems to lend the music a collection European flourishes which are new to Prince’s body of work here, and its story provides the loose framework of opening the album with “Christopher Tracy’s Parade” as a means of introducing the main character, and closing with “Sometimes it Snows in April,” in which we say good-bye to Mr. Tracy.

That Parade would be the companion to such a huge step in Prince’s career is made more fascinating by the fact that it, and Under the Cherry Moon, were his attempt to bounce back from the difficulty Around the World in a Day had in connecting. After the massive, groundbreaking success of Purple Rain, Prince and the Revolution’s follow-up album eschewed the rock-

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📅︎ Mar 28 2020
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Imperator Francorum: A Napoleon II Timeline

Imperator Francorum: A Napoleon II Timeline

img

--Napoleon I's remarks about his son to Marshal Ouidnot.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Prologue: The Rise and Fall of the First French Empire

The French Empire at the height of its territorial extent and influence under Emperor Napoleon I.

In order to truly understand the circumstances that led to the rise of Emperor Napoleon II "Auguste" commonly referred to as the Eaglet by the French one must first look towards the past to the events leading up to the fall of the First French Empire: the Battle of Leipzig.

France during the Revolution had seen the nation thrown into chaos with the King and Queen executed, and with tyrants, and the incompetent and corrupt directory running France into the ground while inflicting a reign terror upon the population. Through this time of chaos and uncertainty one man rose to the challenge to save France preserving the ideals of the Revolution while ensuring competent and just governance for all peoples: Emperor Napoleon I.

A young Napoleon bearing the standard of France while leading his men on the front lines at the Battle of Toulon against the First Coalition against France.

Emperor Napoleon I was a man forged in the fires of Revolution tempered by the chaos of the battlefield . With his drive for glory, his unwavering determination, and his grand ambition he raised France and its people to heights it had not seen in centuries since the Carolingians.

With his many victories on the battlefield crushing the armies of the various coalitions assembled against France, Napoleon safeguarded the French people from the machinations of the Old Order seeking to reimpose the tyranny and excesses of the Ancien Regime back onto France and its people. And through these daring efforts, he gained acclaim and the French found a new hero to rally behind to place their hopes that they would finally be delivered from

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📅︎ Mar 18 2020
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20 years of RONIN (1998) - an appreciation piece

Today marks the 20th anniversary of John Frankenheimer’s Ronin. It premièred on September 12th, at the 1998 Venice Film Festival. Later that year it was released in my country and for some strange reason stuck as an awkward but mesmerizing story.

What’s more interesting to me is that there’s an apparent clash between the film’s aesthetics, its themes, its music and its cast.

The abundance of cell phones makes me think about The Matrix, a movie premièred half a year later with a whole new visual code hailing the beginning of a digital revolution. But Ronin is shamelessly real: its effects mechanical, not digital. There are mishaps when the camera cuts from stunts to actors, there are continuity lapses in the midst of the most quick-paced car chases, sewn together rather than perfectly aligned by digital transitions. And… has time passed… I learned to love its imperfections and to consider them a time stamp, a patina to be added to the amazing acting going around.

It opens with Sam going down the stairs the link the Rue de Drevet into the Rue des Trois Frères, where The Blue Sky was located. Its logo is visible when Sam comes down the stairs but everytime a character gets to the door of the café there’s a cut to the more suitable and French set where the whole scene occurs. The change in lighting is huge from the exterior to the set and due to make-up even DeNiro face looks different, steelier on the exterior shots and more relaxed on the ones happening on set. Same thing happens with Deirdre’s face, almost natural when she gets out of the van and over-produced inside the café.

20 years on the lot is empty, the building demolished, no place to visit and remember Ronin’s beginning.

Something that comes out immediately is the music score. Its Elia Cmíral first international effort and it sounds really different from everything I’ve seen. There are several scenes that, although action ones, have nothing more scoring them that the mechanical sounds, making them more engaging to the spectator, making sure that everything is really happening, notably to me Sam’s hand-brake manœuvrer: after all this years it somehow rings more real in my ears than all the Fast and Furious fandango, probably because it’s a sound that one can actually ear in a real world vehicle.

But back to the beginning. Sam cases the place, sees Deirdre and Vincent arriving and goes around the back, caching a gun in some beer cases next to the back door. This scheming will happen through

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📰︎ r/movies
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📅︎ Sep 12 2018
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[EVENT] The British Republican Army

The Republican Army had long been a facet of the British Armed Forces that had been neglected, with favour instead being given to the Navy and Air Force. However, with tension increasing internationally with the advent of the ‘Second American Civil War’ and the increasing threat to both Sweden and Russia, it appeared that the next war would take place on sea, in the air, and crucially on land too. Whilst our French comrades are prepared for this facet of warfare on the continent, it is crucial that the British Republican Army is ready to aid and reinforce our allies on the frontlines.

Upon the conclusion of the 1936 Congress of the Trade Unions some months ago, the official policies for the British Army was decided in a compromise between Maximist, Councilist and Autonomist propositions. The Commissariat for Defence has already begun working to implement the reforms, splitting them into four key elements:

  • Reform of the High Command & General Staff

  • Restructuring of the People’s Regular Army & Militias

  • Autonomy of Regional Commands

  • Expansion of R.E.D

The propositions will be put to the Trade Union Congress for approval, which it is expected to receive, due to the Autonomist and Councilist compromise that forged the reforms in the first place, along with the centralising concessions made to the Maximists. Thus, with strong bipartisan support, the reforms shall be implemented, with immediate effect.

 


Reform of the High Command & General Staff

 

After the Revolution, much of the senior British command fled with the reactionary aristocracy abroad, predominantly to Canada. This left our officer corps decimated, and serious work was needed to build it back to its pre-revolution standard in terms of quality. Despite these challenges, the officer corps for the most part is at, today, an acceptable standard. However, acceptable will not be enough to secure the Revolution - both in Britain, and abroad. The Junior Officer Corps needs to be expanded to ensure sufficient organisation of the army in wartime, alongside the vetting of the High Command to ensure both loyalty to the Union, and competency in the field.

Thus, it is the conclusion of the Commissariat for Defence that extensive recruitment should take place of new officers to fill in junior command positions, from Brigadiers, to Lieutenant Colonels, to Captains. Alongside this, promotions to more senior positions should be given to officers tha

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👤︎ u/Bevans-12
📅︎ Apr 13 2020
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Perhaps it's time to summarize SGI real estate holdings - let's start with France

France:

  • Soka de France Buddhist Center in Paris, 97 Avenue du Général Leclerc, 75014 Paris, France

Here's the street view - make of that what you will.

> Temporary suspension of opening hours to the public

>For security reasons linked to the current context [situation] in France, the opening to the public of Soka cult (translation of "culte", which means "sect") centers is suspended. NB: This only concerns the opening hours to the public and not access to the centers for Buddhist activities.

Note that "the current situation" is not clarified - we have no idea what they're talking about, so it could be used as an excuse to cut down on open hours indefinitely.

>Note: An exception is made for practitioners from the provinces or abroad wishing to visit the CBSF , in Paris. Make an appointment for the visit at +33 1 42 66 57 89. Source

  • SGI purchased a "gracious 19th Century villa to establish their "La Maison Litteraire de Victor Hugo" museum, which is open to the public.

>Set in the rolling hills about 12 miles south of Paris, the Chateau des Roches, a peach-colored stone mansion once owned by Hugo's close friend, Louis Bertin, opened this month as La Maison Litteraire de Victor Hugo.The museum is the work of the Soka Gakkai, a lay Buddhist organization that portrays itself as committed to peace, education and culture around the world.

Take a look - I'd say this falls into the same category as Taplow Court. In fact, it is a "château", which translates as "castle" . The accent circonflex - ^ - over the "a" typically means that an "s" used to follow that letter but has been dropped. I have found these older spellings: "chasteau" and "chastel" and "châtel".

Yep - called it: The site gets its own page at the "The World of the French Château"

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📅︎ Jan 20 2020
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[CRISIS] The People’s Spring: France and Iberia

I would rather be exposed to the inconveniences attending too much liberty than to those attending too small a degree of it.” - President Thomas Jefferson


The People’s Spring, the Spring of Nations, whatever it was to be called, the stomachs of of European leaders warned them that something wicked this way comes.

##Portugal

The situation in Portugal is quite dangerous. The Dutch declaration of war on the Kingdom and the process of isolating itself diplomatically from its oldest ally has prompted the the Portuguese public to demand accountability from the state and a greater say in the real matters of state. From this, the Portuguese monarchy has lost virtually all support from the masses. Protests have become common among the common folk, who have developed strong liberal values. The merchant Sebastião José de Arriaga Brum da Silveira was among those professing a demand for the establishment of a republican government. The situation in Portugal is volatile and many pray that violence does not come to their country.

##Spain

The whole ordeal has been one of great trouble to the Spanish, the wars and general neglect from the crown has only served to inspire the Spanish people into action. The happenstances in Portugal, in France and most importantly the Russian Revolution have all served as inspiration for the Spanish revolt. The failure to adequately address the problems resulting from the Mexican Troubles. In a most uproarious expression of the pure fortitude of revolution, the repudiation of monarchism in all forms took place across the country with the ousting of the Spanish Monarchy from Madrid and proclamation of the Spanish Republic led by Juan Álvarez Mendizábal. The constitution of the Republic is heavily based on that of the United States and of the French. The domino effect, too, caused the proclamations of independence for the Republic of Catalonia and the Basque Republic. In the advent of this event another civil war has dawned on Spain, not one of Carlist ideology but one based on the Rights of Man.

Map for Spain

##France

The wars have taken their toll on the people, the seeming ineffective leadership of the French government appeared more like the last vestiges of the Monarchy than anything. Criticisms of President Napoleon’s unchecked powers, the wars, and those policies regarding the economy were just too much for people to bare and so,

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📅︎ Oct 01 2019
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$74k/mo as a clothing manufacturer.

Hey - Pat from StarterStory.com here with another interview.

Today's interview is with Donovan Mathews of Bryden Apparel, a brand that sells clothing manufacturing agency.

Some stats:

  • Product: Clothing manufacturing agency.
  • Revenue/mo: $74,000
  • Started: April 2014
  • Location: Singapore
  • Founders: 2
  • Employees: 6

Hello! Who are you and what business did you start?

Hello from sunny Singapore! My name is Donovan and I am the founder of Bryden.

We are a clothing manufacturing agency with offices in Singapore & China and we specialise in providing an end to end service for fashion brands to create & manufacture their products.

Our goal is to help fashion businesses all around the world to create quality products easily from the comfort of their office or home.

Our customers are typically small to medium sized businesses and we take delight in helping them to compete with the bigger brands by offering a wide range of customisation & product options that are usually out of reach due to large order quantities imposed by manufacturers.

I started Bryden back in 2015 with my partner and we are now a team of 8, with an average monthly revenue of $74,000 and serving customers in more than 20 countries from French Polynesia to USA.

image

Some of the designs we made for our clients at Bryden

What's your backstory and how did you come up with the idea?

I started my own t-shirt brand called Ardentees back in 2009 when I was still in school as e-commerce was starting to get popular. I was intrigued by the whole idea of e-commerce as you could reach a worldwide audience easily. I especially loved the idea of waking up to see emails of orders from customers around the world.

After getting 2 friends on board, we spent a year sourcing & testing different manufacturers with major hiccups along the way before finally able to settle for one and start selling.

image

One of Ardentees’s designs.

Traction for the t-shirt brand business was pretty decent and we even got picked up by a few stores abroad,

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📅︎ Jun 28 2019
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Why did the French Army remain loyal to the government throughout the multiple regime changes of the French Revolution?

I have been listening to Mike Duncan's Revolutions podcast about the French Revolution. I strikes me as odd that every time the government was overthrown the army simply accepted the new management and got on with fighting the Austrians, British, Spanish, Prussians, other Frenchman, etc.

The army does not seem to have remained loyal out of ideological devotion, because over the course of the Revolution its membership ran the gamut of political demographics including noble officers, foreign mercenaries, common-born officers, bourgeoisie active citizens, patriotic sans-culotte volunteers, and levee en masse peasant conscripts. Similarly, the government went from feudal monarchy to constitutional monarchy to republicanism to angry-mob-breathing-down-the-legislatures-neck-ism to ultra-leftist bureaucratic despotism to reactionary kleptocracy to Napoleon. The army probably wasn't loyal to money because the harvests kept failing and the economy kept crashing. The army probably wasn't loyal to government favoritism, because representatives on mission kept executing their commanders and micro managing them into dangerous hyper aggressive tactics. It's problematic to argue that the army was devoted to an abstract notion of national identity because they were busying slaughtering members of that shared national identity in the Vendee and Federe uprisings. In fact, the Federe uprising is an interesting counter example because iirc the French Navy joined the harbor cities in revolt against the central government. It's hard to argue that the army was loyal to the constitution because the constitution was at various times being invented, rewritten, suspended, restored, amended, suspended again, and Napoleon-ed.

In the midst of their employers purging each other, their families starving, their citizens revolting, their enemies swarming, and in general all hell breaking loose, the French Army kept fighting. Why?

edit: I don't know how or why my post title has been flaired with DEATH. What is it and how do I change it?

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👤︎ u/Feezec
📅︎ Aug 10 2015
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HPM 3.6.2 Released (2017/06/02)

Because I forgot to link it when I saw it was updated, and I figure most people here don't know it either.

Download: https://www.dropbox.com/s/86uajwthog15bpy/HPM%200.3.6.2.7z

Changelog:

-Province events to gain and remove cores won't work overseas, ever.

-Added missing AFPG flags.

-Battleships won't use fuel anymore but to compensate for that dreadnoughts use more fuel. Cruisers don't require fuel to build but require coal for maintenance.

-Ukraine shouldn't start with Russian and Byelorussian as accepted anymore. Ukraine, Alaska and Belarus have a decision to remove their respective primary cultures from other countries accepted cultures to avoid problems with the remove/add core events.

-Moved "The Dark Continent" invention to revolution and counterrevolution to reduce the cases of recently-released nations having it.

-France will now lose French-Canadian as accepted after the Jules Ferry laws.

-Changed 805 - Salonika RGO from tobacco to cattle.

-Added a decision to declare a "state of emergency" depending on high militancy/war. This will hopefully keep countries in war for longer, but at the end of the modifier period it will give more militancy.

-Renamed the provinces of New Ireland and New Britain to their native names, Tombara and Birara. (source: A directory for the navigation of the Pacific Ocean; with description of its coasts, islands, etc By A. G. Findlay). The common GPs/SPs that are likely to colonize the islands now have a decision to rename the islands.

-Fixed a wrong flag that made event 110086 not fire ever.

-Added AFPG's custom government flags for CAM, MLY, SIA, BRU, DAI, JAM and AZB.

-Fixed a few instances of Colonial countries not getting the post_colonial_country flag, allowing them to use decisions they shouldn't be able to.

-Added a few missing references in NNM to stop post_colonial_country forming formable nations.

-Changed Rhineland starting religion to Catholic based on their capital and changed Eupen-Malmedy north german pops from Protestant to Catholic.

-Fixed duplicate Himalayas region. The region that's Tibet will be known as "Tibetan Plateau".

-Changed the Trucial States religion from Shia to Sunni and added a few shiite persian pops in Dubai.

-Fixed Manchu numbers in Manchuria according to http://uni-koeln.de/phil-fak/ostas/moderne/papers/No%201998-1.pdf pp 23, reduced the population from 6 million to ~3.84 million or ~960k pops. Based on linear growth since 1790 based on the average

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📅︎ Jun 22 2017
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[CRISIS] Paddle Faster, I Hear People Singing

The French public has seen what transpired in France, a people who have been calling for a separation of powers within a new constitution have come to feel betrayed by the man who served them as president. They wanted not an emperor, they wanted not a monarchy, they just wanted to have a republic in which they could voice their concerns.

Napoleon’s declaration of a new monarchy, not even five years since the fall of the Orleanists has prompted the burgeoning revolutionaries to meet and form their alliance under the name Société des amis des droits de l'homme, du citoyen, et de la constitution (Society of Friends of the Rights of Man, Citizens, and the Constitution). Their ideology could best be described as a mix of the left of the Montagnards and the radicals Hébertistes. The first shots of the Revolution were fired at the Rue de Turenne in the IVe arrondissement de Paris. In an act of mob violence, a captain of the Gendarmerie nationale, Clément Foley, was taken and hanged from a lamppost along with several of his men and bureaucrats.

The Society of Friends of the Rights of Man, Citizens, and the Constitution have organized a shadow government to help coordinate what they are calling the New French Revolution. The neo-Jacobin groups supporters often painted guillotines on government buildings during this time. Several departments of Paris have had the Napoleonic forces driven out and placed under the authority of the Revolutionary Government. It quickly became apparent in the city that the Revolutionaries held numerical superiority, many soldiers supporting the revolutionaries while their commanding officers remained generally loyal to the Empire. The complete loss of public support for Napoleon was a great blow to his ego. In Paris, the newly proclaimed Emperor is trapped, unable to escape the city. Much of France has descended into a mirror of the Revolution with liberal republicans holding the second largest sway among the population, the majority of the public has sided with the radical Société des amis des droits de l'homme, du citoyen, et de la constitution.

In the weeks after, the revolutionary vigor spread to the Basques and Bretons who each declared their independence. The Basques declaring their allegiance to the Basque state formed in Spain. The Bretons, being so exhausted from years of being forced to be like the French declared independence as the Breton Democratic Republic. The armed wing of this self-declared and popular republic

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📅︎ Oct 01 2019
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Historical fiction French Revolution

Hey

As the title suggests I'm looking for any (preferably accurate and nuanced) historical fiction up to, during and/or after (eg. Directory, consulate, empire) the revolution. Preferably from a French perspective so I'm not interested in a tale of two cities nor war and peace etc.

Thanks

👍︎ 2
💬︎
👤︎ u/Gaboopoo
📅︎ Aug 20 2019
🚨︎ report
[European History, Fun!] French Revolution in the Twelve Day's of Christmas

After getting a pretty abysmal test grade in my European history class, my teacher decided to offer some extra-credit. It's to create a Napolean/French Revolution-themed ugly christmas sweater. My idea was to make it the twelve-days of Christmas and I needed to help to brainstorm for some of the days. so far I have:

1 sole dictator

2 missing knee-britches

3 Feudal Estates

4 -ty thousand people guillotined

5 man directory

6 hours march(Women's march on Versaille)

7 countries invaded

8 a.m. Flight(Flight to Varennes)

9th of November Coup d 'etate

10 years of fighting

11

12 new months (revolutionary calendar)

If anyone has something cleverer for the sections that I have already filled in, please feel free to chime in. I'm also trying to work where to put in all the different assemblies/directories/committees.

Thank you so much!

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📅︎ Dec 16 2018
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Considering that one of the reasons why the French Revolution happened was to end the French Oligarchy, how come the French later accepted Napoleon as their new emperor of France?

My knowledge of the French Revolution is somewhat general but I remember how abusive the French oligarchy was which divided the upper classes from the lower classes and instigated the sheer massive anger of the French people when the French oligarchy started to make the lives of the French more difficult because of the increase in taxes because of the severe debt that France was in after the loss of the French-Indian war and when it wanted to side with the Americans during the American Revolution.

And of course, the revolution got even bloodier and more extreme as time went on from the Reign of Terror to the continuous reformation of the French Assembly and how the new French Republic was going to be constructed.

Then all of a sudden, Napoleon took command and started conquering Europe and later declared himself Emperor, then was later exiled and came back again as Emperor but was later exiled again.

I am quite surprised that the French did not seem to object against Napoleon about this considering that one of the reasons why the French Revolution happened in the first place was because of the desire of a governmental reform especially that this happened during the Age of Enlightenment

👍︎ 152
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👤︎ u/sammyjamez
📅︎ May 17 2020
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TMAF about the French revolution
👍︎ 4
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📅︎ Mar 09 2020
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The origins of socialism

It started with a Frenchman named Babeuf. Amidst the French Revolution and calls for equality, Babeuf looked back to the Roman statesman Graccus, who implemented a policy of land redistribution in which the state took private lands from those who were deemed to have too much and gave it to the poor. He initially looked to Robespierre as an ally since he called for limitations on property rights. Drew inspiration from Rousseau, Mably, Abbe Morelly. Jailed for forgery 1793. In 1795 he railed against the Directory and called for class war. After other leftist groups that made up the Pantheon Club were closed down by a military force led by Bonaparte, Babeuf’s Conspiracy of Equals was the standing leftist agitator group. However, he longed for the days of Robespierre’s Reign of Terror. He proclaimed, “Their dictatorial government was a devilish good idea...The salvation of 25,000,000 men cannot be weighed in the balance against consideration for a few shady individuals.” As we can see, Babeuf believed that the ends justified the means. If some innocent men were killed for the theoretical betterment of the whole, murder was justified. In fact, in the center of the Conspiracy of Equals was the Committee of Public Safety, named in honor of the committee through which Robespierre implemented the Reign of Terror. The new committee even had some of the Terror’s practitioners in it. He boasted about the many victims who fell under the guillotine in the region that he oversaw as public accuser. The Conspiracy’s goals were codified in the Manifesto of the Equals. Its author liked to call himself “The Man Without God.” This group called for the “distribution of riches and knowledge among all the citizens.” They interpreted the revolution’s slogan of egalite to mean equality of outcome. “If there is a single man on earth who is richer and more powerful than his fellows… the equilibrium is broken: crimes and misfortunes are on earth.” Thus, they viewed materialistic inequality as the source for society’s woes. They wanted to “remove from the individual the hope of ever becoming richer, or more powerful” or wiser. Thus, they sought to control/manipulate the mind as well. This would lead to the disappearance of all vices and walls. They believed that as nature had finite resources, one could “only succeed in having too much by arranging for others to have not enough.”

Equality would be achieved by organizing “a communal regime which will suppress private property… require

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👍︎ 8
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📅︎ Dec 13 2020
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The origins of socialism

It started with a Frenchman named Babeuf. Amidst the French Revolution and calls for equality, Babeuf looked back to the Roman statesman Graccus, who implemented a policy of land redistribution in which the state took private lands from those who were deemed to have too much and gave it to the poor. He initially looked to Robespierre as an ally since he called for limitations on property rights. Drew inspiration from Rousseau, Mably, Abbe Morelly. Jailed for forgery 1793. In 1795 he railed against the Directory and called for class war. After other leftist groups that made up the Pantheon Club were closed down by a military force led by Bonaparte, Babeuf’s Conspiracy of Equals was the standing leftist agitator group. However, he longed for the days of Robespierre’s Reign of Terror. He proclaimed, “Their dictatorial government was a devilish good idea...The salvation of 25,000,000 men cannot be weighed in the balance against consideration for a few shady individuals.” As we can see, Babeuf believed that the ends justified the means. If some innocent men were killed for the theoretical betterment of the whole, murder was justified. In fact, in the center of the Conspiracy of Equals was the Committee of Public Safety, named in honor of the committee through which Robespierre implemented the Reign of Terror. The new committee even had some of the Terror’s practitioners in it. He boasted about the many victims who fell under the guillotine in the region that he oversaw as public accuser. The Conspiracy’s goals were codified in the Manifesto of the Equals. Its author liked to call himself “The Man Without God.” This group called for the “distribution of riches and knowledge among all the citizens.” They interpreted the revolution’s slogan of egalite to mean equality of outcome. “If there is a single man on earth who is richer and more powerful than his fellows… the equilibrium is broken: crimes and misfortunes are on earth.” Thus, they viewed materialistic inequality as the source for society’s woes. They wanted to “remove from the individual the hope of ever becoming richer, or more powerful” or wiser. Thus, they sought to control/manipulate the mind as well. This would lead to the disappearance of all vices and walls. They believed that as nature had finite resources, one could “only succeed in having too much by arranging for others to have not enough.”

Equality would be achieved by organizing “a communal regime which will suppress private property… require

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👍︎ 4
📰︎ r/benshapiro
💬︎
📅︎ Dec 11 2020
🚨︎ report
The origins of socialism

It started with a Frenchman named Babeuf. Amidst the French Revolution and calls for equality, Babeuf looked back to the Roman statesman Graccus, who implemented a policy of land redistribution in which the state took private lands from those who were deemed to have too much and gave it to the poor. He initially looked to Robespierre as an ally since he called for limitations on property rights. Drew inspiration from Rousseau, Mably, Abbe Morelly. Jailed for forgery 1793. In 1795 he railed against the Directory and called for class war. After other leftist groups that made up the Pantheon Club were closed down by a military force led by Bonaparte, Babeuf’s Conspiracy of Equals was the standing leftist agitator group. However, he longed for the days of Robespierre’s Reign of Terror. He proclaimed, “Their dictatorial government was a devilish good idea...The salvation of 25,000,000 men cannot be weighed in the balance against consideration for a few shady individuals.” As we can see, Babeuf believed that the ends justified the means. If some innocent men were killed for the theoretical betterment of the whole, murder was justified. In fact, in the center of the Conspiracy of Equals was the Committee of Public Safety, named in honor of the committee through which Robespierre implemented the Reign of Terror. The new committee even had some of the Terror’s practitioners in it. He boasted about the many victims who fell under the guillotine in the region that he oversaw as public accuser. The Conspiracy’s goals were codified in the Manifesto of the Equals. Its author liked to call himself “The Man Without God.” This group called for the “distribution of riches and knowledge among all the citizens.” They interpreted the revolution’s slogan of egalite to mean equality of outcome. “If there is a single man on earth who is richer and more powerful than his fellows… the equilibrium is broken: crimes and misfortunes are on earth.” Thus, they viewed materialistic inequality as the source for society’s woes. They wanted to “remove from the individual the hope of ever becoming richer, or more powerful” or wiser. Thus, they sought to control/manipulate the mind as well. This would lead to the disappearance of all vices and walls. They believed that as nature had finite resources, one could “only succeed in having too much by arranging for others to have not enough.”

Equality would be achieved by organizing “a communal regime which will suppress private property… require

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👍︎ 2
📰︎ r/walkaway
💬︎
📅︎ Dec 28 2020
🚨︎ report
The origins of socialism

It started with a Frenchman named Babeuf. Amidst the French Revolution and calls for equality, Babeuf looked back to the Roman statesman Graccus, who implemented a policy of land redistribution in which the state took private lands from those who were deemed to have too much and gave it to the poor. He initially looked to Robespierre as an ally since he called for limitations on property rights. Drew inspiration from Rousseau, Mably, Abbe Morelly. Jailed for forgery 1793. In 1795 he railed against the Directory and called for class war. After other leftist groups that made up the Pantheon Club were closed down by a military force led by Bonaparte, Babeuf’s Conspiracy of Equals was the standing leftist agitator group. However, he longed for the days of Robespierre’s Reign of Terror. He proclaimed, “Their dictatorial government was a devilish good idea...The salvation of 25,000,000 men cannot be weighed in the balance against consideration for a few shady individuals.” As we can see, Babeuf believed that the ends justified the means. If some innocent men were killed for the theoretical betterment of the whole, murder was justified. In fact, in the center of the Conspiracy of Equals was the Committee of Public Safety, named in honor of the committee through which Robespierre implemented the Reign of Terror. The new committee even had some of the Terror’s practitioners in it. He boasted about the many victims who fell under the guillotine in the region that he oversaw as public accuser. The Conspiracy’s goals were codified in the Manifesto of the Equals. Its author liked to call himself “The Man Without God.” This group called for the “distribution of riches and knowledge among all the citizens.” They interpreted the revolution’s slogan of egalite to mean equality of outcome. “If there is a single man on earth who is richer and more powerful than his fellows… the equilibrium is broken: crimes and misfortunes are on earth.” Thus, they viewed materialistic inequality as the source for society’s woes. They wanted to “remove from the individual the hope of ever becoming richer, or more powerful” or wiser. Thus, they sought to control/manipulate the mind as well. This would lead to the disappearance of all vices and walls. They believed that as nature had finite resources, one could “only succeed in having too much by arranging for others to have not enough.”

Equality would be achieved by organizing “a communal regime which will suppress private property… require

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👍︎ 23
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📅︎ Dec 12 2020
🚨︎ report
When the origins of your "social justice" movement lie in totalitarianism

It started with a Frenchman named Babeuf. Amidst the French Revolution and calls for equality, Babeuf looked back to the Roman statesman Graccus, who implemented a policy of land redistribution in which the state took private lands from those who were deemed to have too much and gave it to the poor. He initially looked to Robespierre as an ally since he called for limitations on property rights. Drew inspiration from Rousseau, Mably, Abbe Morelly. Jailed for forgery 1793. In 1795 he railed against the Directory and called for class war. After other leftist groups that made up the Pantheon Club were closed down by a military force led by Bonaparte, Babeuf’s Conspiracy of Equals was the standing leftist agitator group. However, he longed for the days of Robespierre’s Reign of Terror. He proclaimed, “Their dictatorial government was a devilish good idea...The salvation of 25,000,000 men cannot be weighed in the balance against consideration for a few shady individuals.” As we can see, Babeuf believed that the ends justified the means. If some innocent men were killed for the theoretical betterment of the whole, murder was justified. In fact, in the center of the Conspiracy of Equals was the Committee of Public Safety, named in honor of the committee through which Robespierre implemented the Reign of Terror. The new committee even had some of the Terror’s practitioners in it. He boasted about the many victims who fell under the guillotine in the region that he oversaw as public accuser. The Conspiracy’s goals were codified in the Manifesto of the Equals. Its author liked to call himself “The Man Without God.” This group called for the “distribution of riches and knowledge among all the citizens.” They interpreted the revolution’s slogan of egalite to mean equality of outcome. “If there is a single man on earth who is richer and more powerful than his fellows… the equilibrium is broken: crimes and misfortunes are on earth.” Thus, they viewed materialistic inequality as the source for society’s woes. They wanted to “remove from the individual the hope of ever becoming richer, or more powerful” or wiser. Thus, they sought to control/manipulate the mind as well. This would lead to the disappearance of all vices and walls. They believed that as nature had finite resources, one could “only succeed in having too much by arranging for others to have not enough.”

Equality would be achieved by organizing “a communal regime which will suppress private property… require

... keep reading on reddit ➡

👍︎ 16
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📅︎ Dec 14 2020
🚨︎ report
Napoleon's Servant Profile from FGO material VII

#Napoleon

Class: Archer
True Name: Napoleon
Gender: Male
Source: Historical fact, Napoleonic legends
Region: Europe
Alignment: Neutral Good
Height: 189cm
Weight: 92kg


Strength: D
Endurance: C
Agility: A
Mana: E
Luck: B
Noble Phantasm: B


Scenario Writer: Sakurai Hikaru/Character Design: Ryota-H
CV: Hino Satoshi
 
Main Appearance: Fate/Grand Order


#Class Skills

Magic Resistance C
Cancels spells with a chant below two verses.
Unable to defend against large-scale magecraft like High-Thaumaturgy and Greater Rituals.
 
Independent Action C
The ability to act independently for a while even without a supply of mana from the Master.
At rank C, it is possible to remain in the world for a day after losing one's Master.


#Personal Skills

Fire Support (Cannon) B+
A powerful ranged attack that is used to support tactical operations.
In Napoleon's case, this attack is used in the form of a bombardment.
Essentially a compound skill that comes included with the effects of the Strategy skill.
 
Charisma of a Triumphal Return B
Napoleon possesses a special kind of charisma.
Essentially a compound skill that comes included with the effects of the Charisma skill.
 
The Light of Possibility B
Although it's a skill similar to Pioneer of the Stars, it is more akin to Innocent Monster.
The great feats he actually achieved and the legends that in truth had nothing to do with him, the idol that made everything his own is what the Heroic Spirit Napoleon is; he who acts as the embodiment of 'expectations' and 'possibilities' upon materializing.
The word impossible missing from his dictionary, subsisting off of minimal sleep, the destruction of the Sphinx in Gisa, meeting the phantom of Alexander the Great (Iskandar) in Khufu pharaoh's Great Pyramid; his manifestation incorporates all of these as facts and truths.
 
Imperial Privilege B
As the first French emperor, he possesses the Imperial Privilege skill, but...
(In "FateGO", it isn't used in general.)


#Noble Phantasm

The Iridescent Bow Sonorously Announcing the Triumphant Return
Rank: A
Classification: Anti-Army Noble Phantasm
Range: 1~99
Maximum number of targets: 100
&nb

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👍︎ 76
📰︎ r/FGOGuide
💬︎
👤︎ u/Konchew
📅︎ Apr 20 2020
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Everything You Need to Know about Napoleon - Bona Part 3 (When Genius Failed)

The is Part 3 (the final part) of my summary/analysis of Napoleon: A Life, by Andrew Roberts. Part 1 summarized Napoleon’s life and personality, and Part 2 looked at the contents of his military and political abilities.

After so much description of Napoleon’s greatness, Part 3 will focus on his failings.

What was Napoleon was Bad At?

While Napoleon made lots of dumb military and political decisions, his net record is still incredible. But there were a few domains where Napoleon simply didn’t understand the game, but thought he did.

One such domain was naval warfare. Prior to his final exile on St. Helena, Napoleon’s lifetime naval experience was limited to sailing back-and-forth from France to Corsica and Egypt a few times, and making a rather daring cover-of-night naval escape from Elba. But he never got anywhere near a naval battle. Close advisors claim that he tended to mentally fit naval strategy in the same boxes as land army strategy, even though the two are almost nothing alike.

Echoing Rome’s conquest of Carthage, Napoleon long-dreamed-of storming British beaches and taming the lion once-and-for-all. But in the early 1800s, Napoleon was aware that France barely had a navy and Britain had the best one in the world. So over the following years, Napoleon devoted considerable resources to building a French navy almost from scratch which, at least on paper, resembled the fighting strength of Britain’s. Napoleon’s goal wasn’t actually to beat the British navy, but just to hold it off long enough to ship France’s formidable land army across the English Channel, a maneuver that would only take a few hours under ideal weather conditions.

According to Roberts, Napoleon was talking out of his ass on this entire plan. Britain’s navy wasn’t just the best because it was the biggest; it was the best because it had tradition. Most British sailors were well-trained veterans of combat against other navies and pirates. A standard British warship could fire its cannons 150-200% faster than the equivalent French ship. And with Britain’s naval blockade in place, the Fren

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👍︎ 133
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👤︎ u/Dormin111
📅︎ Dec 08 2019
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Why did the French Revolution end in 1799?

I just don't understand it. I know and understand why the French Revolution began, but I don't know why it ended.

I know how the French Revolution ended. It happened when Napoleon overthrew the French Directory and made himself the first Consul of France. But I don't know why this particular event caused the end of the French Revolution. France was technically still a Republic until 1804. And the French Revoluinrary Wars were still going on until 1802. What impact did this event have?

👍︎ 30
📰︎ r/history
💬︎
📅︎ Jun 12 2019
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Did The French Revolution end when Napoleon took power? And if so why?

Also Did The French Revolution Positively impact Europe in a whole?

Thanks

👍︎ 3
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👤︎ u/SSSabercat
📅︎ Nov 14 2017
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Why can’t I get the Napoleon event AS France?

I am currently triggering the french revolution event, however I get the Directory event arter the Regin of terror evet, which means that I can’t get the execution of Louis XVI, and therefore no Napoleon as it can’t get triggered og the directory happens. Why is that? Any helt would be appreciated

👍︎ 4
📰︎ r/eu4
💬︎
👤︎ u/lausthaue
📅︎ Aug 10 2019
🚨︎ report

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