I'll demonstrate with my trees. Here's a big trident maple that the previous owner performed a flat cut on, leaving one small bud to regrow the leader. He left a stub to die back, which I carved down last year just into the cambium, and I sealed it with cut paste: flat cut.
Every year I will have to carve a bit of the dead wood away into the green cambium, and reseal with cut paste. The wound will eventually heal completely, as tridents heal extremely well.
Here is another flat cut on the same tree to create taper, almost closed after 2 years: second cut. I won't have to do anything to this cut and it will heal completely this year.
Here is a V cut, performed last spring, to eliminate the old apex and shorten the crown: v-cut. This is a different trident maple. The pipe cleaners note where branches will be removed in the summer. The v-cut was made to make the transition between the top two branches clean, it should heal in a year or two. Note that v-cuts are not just made on broom style trunks. They should only be used on species that heal quickly, like elms, zelkova, and maples. Species like ginkgo that don't heal well will likely die back.
Here's an angled cut on a ginkgo: angled. I chopped the top 3 feet off after buying the tree from Bonsai Northwest 5 years ago. I left a stub to die back to, and cut just above a bud. Last year I shaved it down to an angle and applied Kirikuchi-Naoru cut paste to seal the wound. It has started to callous over, and will probably take awhile to close as ginkgoes are notoriously slow at healing. This is a special cut paste that I bought from Jonas Dupuich and forms a surface that lasts for years, used on trees that don't callous easily.
If possible, make angled cuts when there is a bud present so that the taper will blend well. When there are no buds at all, a flat cut will produce radial budding so that you can choose which buds to develop into new branches or a new leader. Make these cuts in spring as buds swell, or just after they open if an angled cut is desired. Always seal with wound paste or putty. Edit: I only seal the edge of large cuts.
P.S. this is an answer I gave from the beginner's thread, asking which types of cuts are appropriate for trunk chops. Something I missed is that when making a flat cut, especially with a broom style tree, you can always go back and make a V-cut the fol... keep reading on reddit ➡
These colors being...
Hi there, fellow redditors.
I wanted to ask if someone could point me to some good references which explain the differences between calculating aboveground biomass for deciduous and coniferous tree species.
I'm currently working on my MSc thesis and I want to use machine learning algorithms to relate ground measured biomass with features measured with a UAV (RGB values, height derived from the UAV point cloud, GLCM texture, etc.).
My first approach was to try and calculate biomass for both deciduous and coniferous, but they are statistically different in the features they present. When predicting biomass for coniferous, I get way better results than with deciduous trees.
TL;DR I need references that tell me if coniferous and deciduous biomass calculations are indeed better when done separately. If I'm being a bit more biased: if coniferous biomass models show better performance than deciduous models.
I've been passing deciduous casts during menstruation a few times a year for over a decade. A deciduous cast is basically when the entire uterine lining sheds and comes out in one piece, it is cleary muscle tissue and much different than passing a clot, the pain is also horrible. I've spoken to doctors in the past but none of them knew what I was talking about and it took me years to find any information online. The information I've come across doesn't really give a cause and I'm wondering if any other women have any experience or information, apparently it's not very common.
My 6mo kitten I noticed has double fangs on one side. The adult tooth looks fully grown while the baby canine tooth is still behind it. The baby teeth on the other side and bottoms came out just fine, it's just that one double canine tooth remaining.
I read online that they should be surgically removed if they don't come out on their own. Is there an age that I should be concerned or is it okay to wait a bit and see if it comes out on it's own? Thanks :)
My kitten (domestic shorthair, spayed female, 5 months old, almost 6lbs, healthy and happy) is losing her baby teeth as the adult ones are coming in. She seems to have swallowed most of them (which I've read is usual). I'm curious though, can kittens' stomachs digest their baby teeth or do the teeth just travel through the digestive track and come out intact in poop?