p t k s m n l j
a ã å ā à á â ä æ
“mi pana e ni.” becomes í ãâ e î.
“mi luken e nasin pona.” becomes í üē^ e âì^ õâ.
Really I'm talking about Classical period and maybe Baroque
I open up a random concerto by Haydn or Mozart and I feel like I'm usually hit in the face with
I I IV IV V V V7 V7 I
in a really dramatic way.
And then usually a transition to the V key or maybe something minor.
Is this your experience or do I just have some sort of selection bias going on?
I feel like the most beautiful works by these composers is their more soulful, slightly more dissonant pieces, or the ones in a minor key. And yet it seems like the majority isn't like that.
I wonder if it's a taste thing? I come from a blues and rock background so I want something a bit more colorful?
For example, today I randomly opened up Haydn's Cello Concerto No. 1 and listened to the first movement. The melody is somewhat interesting but the overall sound just doesn't do it for me. It seems bright and bland. Maybe he's doing something complex and technical underneath it and I'm not hearing it?
Sometimes when a word has alef before or after و it’s usually pronounced “v” like اول or آواز but not always, other times it’s a long “u” like خوب just wondering if there’s any rhyme or reason to reading this ambiguous letter.
Hi Nerds! Looking for a girl name that meets the following criteria:
All I can think of are the following: Violet, Winnifred, Josephine, Annabelle
For an example text, WAP by Cardi B (Ben Shapiro mix)
ʋʁ̞ojeʃ iɳ ziʃ ouʃe
zeje'ʃ ʃoɱe ʋʁ̞ojeʃ iɳ ziʃ ouʃe (3x)
I ʃaiɖ: ʃejʈiθieɖ θjeaq
ʃeðeɳ ɖayʃ a ʋʁ̞eeq
ʋʁ̞eʈ aʃ p̪-ʋʁ̞ojɖ
ɱaqe zaʈ p̪ull ouʈ ɢaɱe ʋʁ̞eaq
zeje'ʃ ʃoɱe ʋʁ̞ojeʃ iɳ ziʃ ouʃe (4x)
ɰou eθiɳ ʋʁ̞is ʃoɱe ʋʁ̞eʈ aʃ p̪-ʋʁ̞ojɖ
b̪jiɴ a b̪uqeʈ aɳɖ a ɱop̪
θoj ziʃ ʋʁ̞eʈ aʃ p̪-ʋʁ̞ojɖ
ɢiðe ɱe eðejysiɴ ɰou’ðe ɢoʈ
θoj ziʃ ʋʁ̞eʈ aʃ p̪-ʋʁ̞ojɖ
b̪eaʈ iʈ up̪ ɳ-ʋʁ̞ojɖ
qaʈʂ a ʈʂajɖʐe
Eqʃʈʂja ɭajɖʐe aɳɖ eqʃʈʂja ajɖ
p̪uʈ ziʃ p̪-ʋʁ̞ojɖ jiʈ iɳ ɰouj θaʃe
ʃʋʁ̞ip̪e ɰouj ɳoʃe ɭiqe a qjeɖiʈ qajɖ
op̪ oɳ ʈop̪
I ʋʁ̞aɳa jiɖe
I ɖo a qeɢel ʋʁ̞ile iʈ’ʃ iɳʃiɖe
ʃp̪iʈ iɳ ɱy ɱous, ɭooq iɳ ɱy eyeʃ
ziʃ p̪-ʋʁ̞ojɖ iʃ ʋʁ̞eʈ, qoɱe ʈaqe a ɖiðe
* Linguolabials were ignored because they're dumb and I hate them. /h/ was removed as it is not possible to go further back. Vowels were not transcribed in the IPA. Silent cosonants removed.
Can they? I haven't found anything on the World Wide Web about this. Maybe the idea is so absurd that no one writes about it?
I'm under the presumption that the perfect octave is a stronger consonance than the perfect fourth dissonance; and thus introduces more "stability" than "instability". I also feel its because its the "root" being doubled.
In case what I'm saying doesn't make sense; Twentieth Century Harmony suggests that a perfect fourth is dissonant in consonant settings.
But if you add a perfect fourth to C E G, you get C: the octave. This chord is anything but dissonant; it's just a major chord with a doubled root. If I invert the chord and play G C E; you definitely hear that "fourthy" sound and that doesn't get dispelled if I double the C again.
I don't think I'm smart enough to get the answer on my own; so any explanations would be greatly appreciated!
And what is the given difference between consonants and vowels in your language? Because in Danish the difference is that vowels have the same name as the sound they make, while consonants do not. I realise now that that is not the case in English, and i'm guessing other languages as well.
Sorry, poor English.
Japanese are very poor at pronunciation of words including consonant clusters.
If you can't pronounce well, the Japanese will hesitate to speak and will not function as an IAL. It's the same as English.
Is consonant cluster absolutely necessary for IAL?
Together, over time, I’m talking about John during the epilogues onward is the dirk body to be believed then technically only Meat is for 2ollux
I'm sorry for this obscure and rather useless question, but I've been searching around for explanations why is Perfect 4th considered a dissonance, but lack good explanations why some don't/didn't consider it a dissonance.
Three things that popped up in my head were:
So, I would like to imagine what would (northern) French look like in the future. And I want a total deletion of the schwa.
But here comes the problem of having tons of consonants ligning up.
So I decided to allow liquids, nasals and fricatives in the nucleus if it is not surrounded by more so that that is pronounced:
J'ai décidé de ce que je me referait /ʒe.de.si.de.ts.kʃ.m.ʁ.fʁe/
que ce que je faisait se fasse démolir /ks.kʃ.fse.sfas.de.mo.liʁ/
je te redemanderais pas ce que je sais plus /ʃ.tʁ.dmɑ̃dʁe.s.kʃe.ply/
Do you find it naturalistic? Or do I have to only delete the schwa when it makes more than two consonants meet?
For a lot of us English speakers, the tense consonants like ㄱ vs ㄲ, ㄷ vs ㄸ are hard to distinguish. I think in order for me to say them clearly, I always end up saying that syllable louder. Like this sentence:
요즘 꽃이 비쌀까요?
I have to say it like:
yojum GOchi beSAlGAyo?
Is there a better way to say them, without saying those syllables louder or with more emphasis, but somehow still making it clear what letter you're saying? Or is it just natural to make them louder? What if I want to emphasize a different part of that sentence?
That's maybe not the best example sentence, since in that context it's clear what words those are supposed to be. But you can imagine some others where either ㄱ or ㄲ would make sense, and you just have to hear it.
Is there a place I can find the most to least common consonants and vowels OF ALL HUMAN LANGUAGES NOT JUST ENGLISH as a percentage, for example: k (80%) p (70%) ... ð (4%) ɮ (1%)
And something similar for vowels: a (80%) e (70%) ... ɤ (5%) ɶ (2%)
TL;DR I am looking for a set of notes that is larger than a scale and where each note, in any combo, would sound consonant/harmonious. Any ideas on what this could be or how/why does it work are welcome! Backstory below
I remember as a kid visiting the Copernicus Science Centre in Warsaw, Poland.
There was a music playground (like this, but physical). I remember being impressed because no matter what notes I picked (even if I played every note at the same time) it sounded harmonious! The range of notes available was huge, at least 4 octaves, and I remember there were all sorts of intervals between them - even 2nds and 7nths.
Now I'm trying to figure out what was going on there, but unfortunately, I can't find any resources on their webpage (the exhibition might be no longer there) and I can't visit Warsaw.
What's this large set of notes called? Any ideas on what this could be or how/why does it work are welcome!
The Slovak language features the letters Ĺ ĺ [l̩ː] and Ŕ ŕ [r̩ː]. They are long and syllabic versions of the letters L l [l] and R r [r] (audio pronunciations can be found here).
Do any other languages include long, syllabic consonants? Can other consonants also be syllabic and long? Or is this a distinct feature only possible with the letters l and r?
Like, ngo 我 and nga 牙 has recently (last 30 - 40 years) been merged with just o and a by increasingly more younger Cantonese speakers, but other nasals, like mo 魔, ma 媽, no 拿 and na 那, or other velars such as k'a 卡, ko 個 and ka 家 never does that. And also, the velar nasal (ng) syllabic consonant merges with the bilabial nasal (m) syllabic consonant by younger speakers too (ng 五, 伍, 吴, or 蜈 all becomes pronounced like m).
Is there like a reason why specifically only the velar nasal (ng) initial or syllabic consonant gets supressed like that by younger speakers? What are the reasons why velar nasals without vocals before it grows increasingly unpopular amongst younger Cantonese people?
(You may skip this intro)
I've learnt a lot in a previous post/question about the frequency of pharyngeal consonants used in conlangs. It was an intriguing discussion, and now it's got me asking more questions. I've come to notice that languages with pharyngeal consonants (at least based off my observation diving through Wikipedia) have very large consonant inventories.
Speaking of consonant inventories, WALS Online Chapter 3A on 'Consonant-Vowel Ratio' states:
"The fact which produce this result have probably led to the suggestion that it is a typical pattern for large consonant inventories to be counterbalanced by smaller vowel systems across the [world languages]."
There are of course many exceptions like Hawaiian having both small consonant and vowel inventories, while !Xóõ (Southern Africa) possesses 100+ of consonants and 30+ vowels.
So here is my question: do you find yourself giving your conlang a smaller vowel inventory as you add more consonants (and vice... keep reading on reddit ➡
I’m looking for clarification regarding double consonants in Dutch and how their presence affects pronunciation. for example, a friend of mine from Rotterdam tells me that in a compound word like trekkoord or koppijn, he would stop on the consonants, similar to Italian double consonants, in order to pronounce both words. so, i’m curious if this is true from other native Dutch speakers’ perspectives. Does this happen in verbs as well? Like in trekken? I’m confused because I’ve read that the only function of double consonants is to indicate the shortening of the preceding vowel and the consonants themselves should not be doubled...would love some additional opinions/perspectives. thanks!!
Although it seems like epiglottal stop and epiglottal trills (/ʡ/, /ʜ/, /ʢ/) are not on the IPA table itself, but are mentioned separately under “Other Symbols”. Even more interestingly, the IPA calls /ʜ/ and /ʢ/ “epiglottal fricatives”.
And for what it’s worth, the Wikipedia page for Epiglottal consonant redirects you to the Pharyngeal consonant page.
I'm an SLP for ages 5-22 in a public school district. I have never worked in early intervention.
My son is 13 months old and he says at least 15 words, which is great. However, I am super concerned about his sound development. He passed his hearing screen at birth and I will be asking for another one at his next appt but I dont see any signs of a hearing loss, and he has no history of OM.
MY CONCERN - he deletes initial consonants most of the time:
"ilk" = milk "Ah-ta" = water "ips" = Gypsy, our dog. "Uck" = yuck
He has very few words for which he uses consonants: more, go, and occasionally Mama though he really doesn't call me very often. Maybe because we are together 24/7 (thanks COVID).
He sometimes adds a vowel to the beginning of words to get momentum.. sometimes "go" becomes "I go" or ah-go.
His best and clearest words all begin with vowels: auntie, uncle, egg, up, off, uh oh, apple, all done.
Everyone is telling me that I'm crazy because he talks so much and he is... keep reading on reddit ➡
I'm specifically talking about the Devanagari script as used in Hindi. Conjuncts like प्ल are reasonably obvious, but ones like क्ष are less so. I've never seen a list of these consonants - what exactly are the rules here and how many are irregular? Thank you
In my language Kalavi, the pharyngeal consonants of ʕ and ħ are used. Kalavi is a language spoken by dragons (in my universe) and I would like to believe they would use their 'throats' more often as phonemic material.
That being said, I am just curious as to how common is it amongst languages in the conlanging community. Do your phonological inventories have pharyngeal consonants? Does pharyngealisation only occur as secondary articulation? Are they semivowels? Do they evolve into other sounds as time goes on? What circumstances led to pharyngeal consonants becoming part of your inventory?
My language only has one, so I have to make it the most beautiful consonant
which consonant is the most amazing, gorgeous, and spectacular
i'll go with the most upvoted by tomorrow, or i'll make a poll between like two or three of the highest depending on how close it is
everyone seems to rightly think that ŋ is the most amazing, gorgeous, and spectacular consonant so ŋ it is
I've been having a difficult time trying to learn all the Thai vowels. Maybe I'm over thinking maybe I'm not, so bare with me!
The Sources I've been studying for vowels:
I've noticed that there's slight differences between the vowels between sources such as เ– ียะ being ia in one... keep reading on reddit ➡
I was reading through the Korean phonology wiki and noticed that it wasn't noted how /t, d/ were realized (alongside any of the other coronal consonants), so I googled it.
That lead me to finding a sample of this book, with the following excerpt highlighted:
>Given the MRI data, Kim, Honda & Maeda (2002) have suggested that the two independent systematic patterns - (a) the concomitant tongue and larynx movements and (b) glottal opening - should be the control parameters characterizing the three-way phonation contrast in Korean consonants. That is, the apical contact of the lenis (lax) con... keep reading on reddit ➡
To avoid misuse of terminology, I'm not going to use any here, so I apologise for the generality. From my best understanding, this post concerns only consonants that are 'stops' but I couldn't be absolutely sure.
I read from a reliable source that consonants were pronounced more to the front of the mouth in French than in English (apart from the r).
There is near no resources that I can find on the differences with similar consonants among different languages and the 'p', 'k', 't', 'd', etc. are all written using the same IPA symbol as in English.
If there truly is a difference in pronunciation, what was this writer talking about? On a related note, is there a difference to a native listener?
Edit: [Source](https://www.lawlessfrench.com/pronunciation/consonants) Marked under "French vs English Consonants" right at the top.
I was having a stab at creating rules for Scottish Gaelic, and am running into issues with consonant groups and spelling rules. Maybe I'm using things incorrectly, I don't know.
I have 3 groups: all consonants (C, VulgarLang's default group), slender consonants (X), and broad consonants (Y). I used X and Y because they didn't seem to have any predefined groups. The groups are:
Then I wanted to create some spelling rules which depend on the consonant groups that vowel/diphthongs fall between. Here are some examples (forgive the unoptimized regex):
The output fails to use the consonant g... keep reading on reddit ➡
I mean, let's take the example of instrumental, when a word ends in a consonant, the "v" of "-val/-vel" is replaced by the last consonant of the word, e.g. dolog -> dologgal instead of dologval. But what happens when the word already ends in a double consonant (e.g. vicc or cucc)? Can you say "vicccal" or "cuccal"? (Sounds absolutely weird though) Or is there another way?
Probably for some cases, I mean e.g. -ssa/-ssä wouldn't fit well with a consonant ending but still, that's really mindblowing
oose (goose, etc)
uce (spruce, etc)
use (use, as in make use of)
This is the chart I have thus far created for my upcoming Stolze-Schrey summary. It will be slightly reformatted to add title, headings, etc. so no need to comment on that aspect.
But I would like some opinions and comments regarding:
This will eventually become a part of a document posted to archive.org thus my desire for it to be as clearly read and understood as possible. I know that many here have a better understanding of linguistics, etc., so your thoughts are very valuable to me.
Thank yo... keep reading on reddit ➡
Saw a comment about something else on Reddit where someone asked when to use the pronounced like thee vs the pronounced the regular way. It reminded me of another grammar rule that has something to do with if the following word begins with a consonant or a vowel, but I can’t think of it.
Hope that makes sense!
For context, I'm 19, and since I was 14-15 I felt something weird when I was speaking, and didn't know what it was. Some weeks ago I started learning German (and because of that, putting attention to my pronunciation) and I noticed that when I say certain consonants (k, g, h, d, t), I was making a click sound. It doesn't hurt, just gets annoying because it sounds kinda loud close to my ear. It's driving me crazy because I just can't stop noticing it, and I don't know if others notice it too.
Also for more information, sometimes my jaw gets blocked for 2 seconds and closes abruptly when I jawn (once or twice a day)
Here is a link to the sound, I'm saying "k" for the first seconds, then "t".
Hello everyone, I thought you all might enjoy this video, which discusses the evolution of medieval Portuguese and Spanish consonant sounds into their modern versions.
PIE words from Mallory and Adams 2006
|kʷ, gʷ||k /#_|
|ḱ, ǵ||ć /#_|
|s||Ø / Root final|
|n||ŋ / before velars|
|h₂||a / syllabic|
|Ø||V / root final|
|e||V / root nucleus|
|*h₃neh₃-mn̥ "name"||*nime "name" [Aikio]|
|*wédn̥ "loc. water"||*wete "water"[Aikio]|
|*mei- "to exchange"||*miɣe- "to give, sell" [Aikio]|
|*mesg- "to wash"||*muśke- "to wash" [Aikio]|
|*deh₃- "to give, take"||*toɣe- "to bring, fetch, give" [Aikio]|
|*h₂epér- "behind"||*perä "behind" [Aikio]|
|*ḱh₂d- "to fall"||*ćaδa- "to fall, rain" [Aikio]|
|*h₂éndʰes- "flower"||*anti~onta "root/branch/sprout" [Aikio]|
|*h₂eǵ- "to drive"||*aja- "to drive/chase" [Aikio]|
|*Hérdʰo- "side"||*ert(t)ä "side, rib" [Aikio]|
|*ǵʰew(h₁)- "voice"||*ćuwi "throat/mouth" [Aikio]|
|*wedʰ- "to lead"||*weta- "to pull" [Kortlandt]|
|*gʷelh₁- "to die"||*kola- "to die" [Forni 2017]|
*bʰe... keep reading on reddit ➡
My first language (Cantonese) doesn't have them. It has strong distinctions between aspiration and non-aspiration. When we learnt English, teachers told us to differentiate English B/P, D/T by buff of air, which is aspiration. This method is not totally wrong because English P T are also quite strongly aspirated. I ended up not knowing the voiced aspect of B D until like 20 years later.
Then I learnt French and Spanish. Aspiration in them is a lot less than in English. I have hard time understanding, and also be understood because I don't sound voiced. Eg I said 'Bordeaux' with the consonants B and D unvoiced. The one I spoke to said 'where?' at first. If I need to say 'gateau cadeaux' things will be tricky too, though I don't have this personal experience.
Now I know what voiced consonants are. I can tell when listening to individual syllable while anticipating them. But in a speech it is hopeless.
I am self learning Japanese now. Aspiration in Japanese seems to be e... keep reading on reddit ➡