For the first time epigenetic age-related changes have been measured in chimpanzees. Aging leaves its mark on the chimpanzee genome, just as it does in humans. More than 65,000 of the DNA sites changed in a clock-like way across the lifespan, with some gaining methylation and others losing it. trinity.duke.edu/your-celβ¦
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π︎ Oct 05 2020
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Made my own Tortle lifespan - Nice result

I read that Tortle lifespan in 5E was only ~50 yrs and was dissatisfied so I made my own with the power of fake maths and Wikipedia!

First up, determine lifespan change from ape to human:
Average chimpanzee lifespan: 50-60 yrs
Average lifespan humans in 5E: "less than a century" - > 100 yrs (out of spite)
So going fron ape to human means +2/3 to lifespan on the high end. For turtle age, I took the longest living species with the oldest confirmed age ~189 yrs but some are suspected to be over 200 so I took 210 for easier calculations, so:
Tortle: 210 + (2/3 * 210) = 350 yrs average lifespan
BUT, but, of course some live longer than that. The record for confirmed oldest human was Jeanne Calment at 122 yrs and the oldest living hominid was Little Mama, a chimpanzee that lived to be 77-83 yrs old.
Based on our previous numbers, that is another increase of roughly 1/3 average lifespan on top, which brings our record holding Tortle to an age of tadadaaaa: 420 years old!
So yes, you can rectify why your old pipe smoking Shaman Tortle NPC is 420 old if only you use these simple, free steps based on moon logic.

(Disclaimer: none of these calculations are even loosely based on anything supported by evolutionary theory or even basic science.)

TL;DR: your Tortle can be the weed number old if you're willing to throw any other sense out the window.

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π€︎ u/Kelfaren
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Healthy cardiovascular biomarkers across the lifespan in wild-born chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) (2020) pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3β¦
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Healthy cardiovascular biomarkers across the lifespan in wild-born chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes)

https://sci-hub.st/https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0609 - Full Sci-Hub with tons of cool graphs.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci

. 2020 Nov 9;375(1811):20190609. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2019.0609. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

# Healthy cardiovascular biomarkers across the lifespan in wild-born chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes)

## Abstract

>Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are a crucial model for understanding the evolution of human health and longevity. Cardiovascular disease is a major source of mortality during ageing in humans and therefore a key issue for comparative research. Current data indicate that compared to humans, chimpanzees have proatherogenic blood lipid profiles, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease in humans. However, most work to date on chimpanzee lipids come from laboratory-living populations where lifestyles diverge from a wild context. Here, we examined cardiovascular profiles in chimpanzees living in African sanctuaries, who range semi-free in large forested enclosures, consume a naturalist

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π€︎ u/dem0n0cracy
π︎ Sep 23 2020
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Personality links with lifespan in chimpanzees. Among captive chimps, the more agreeable males and more open females survive longer. elifesciences.org/articleβ¦
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π€︎ u/StuartRFKing
π︎ Oct 09 2018
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I just learned the following facts at a Zoo.

1. A bald eagle can live as long as forty-eight years.
2. The lifespan of the average flying squirrel is fourteen years, nearly the same as the average marriage.
3. A group of owls is called a parliament, like the lawyers and judges in India. God!, I bet they donβt award full custody to just the owl moms.
4. Butterflies can taste their feet. All I can taste is hate.
5. Swans mate for life and remain loyal to partners. Zoe is definitely not a name for a swan.
6. Anteaters can eat up to thirty thousand insects in one day which, if you compared insects to rupees, the number is just fifty thousand rupees less than the average cost of a divorce.
7. The chimpanzee newborn is dependent on maternal support but they donβt restrict the alpha ape to weekend, supervised visitations.
8. Ducks commit suicide after the death of mate, maybe they do the same when they cheat.
9. Horses canβt vomit, or cry watching all the other people at the zoo with their families.
10. A black vulture will attack a nymphomaniac mate. Maybe I need to be a black vulture.
11. Lions have been observed apparently holding grudges against other lions and taking revenge.
12. The Ostrich can travel over forty miles an hour. A bullet can travel over eight hundred miles an hour.
13. The average fox can carry rabies, mange and other diseases. Just like the drug peddler next door also carries guns.
14. A herd of unicorns is called a blessing. Zoe proved to be a curse sugar-coated as a blessing.
15. A group of crows is called a murder. I already knew about a murder.
16. Hippos can run faster than humans. But not today.
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What I believe happens after death and why a certain form of Reincarnation could be possible.

Hi all! new member. I had this thought come to be while driving home from work today. I wanted to share it with you all.

1. The brain makes the person. There is no soul.

2. Conciousness is an emergent property like fire, and is defined by itβs physical makeup and unique experiences, giving the illusion of true individuality/soul.

3. conciousness is possible from our day to day observations, therefore it exists. Therefore it can exist in possible other universes which are able to give rise to complex brains of the order that we see them here, or their equivalent.

4. Conciousness is an emergent property of specially configured matter, or anything else beyond curent understanding. This requires a certain degree of complexity.

5. There are 10^X possible states of matter, or βstuffβ that have this emergent property.

6. βyouβ are concious as the person that you are because your brainβs unique configuration is a possibility of the 10^X states and therefore must have the emergent property of conciousness.

7. Because of the logic in line 3, βYouβ or the phenomena of βSeeing through these eyesβ is inevitable, but also due to subjective time which makes any 10^X value infinite. This would violate the belief of free will. For example, after you die you live as someone else as that person existed when the original βyouβ were alive. You go through their motions exactly the same.

8. The reason why you dont wake up as new people everyday under this logic is because this current state of matter arising this subjective conciousness is continuitous. Point A is birth, Point B is death. This βreincarnationβ can not take place while a certain subjective possibility is playing out in linear time. Subjective time was mentioned earlier but mainly comes in to affect in interim periods between lifetimes, or reinforces linearity while this life plays out (sorry if this part is confusing. I can answer questions.)

9. As stated before, There reason line 8 holds despite other beings being continuous as well, is that conciousness doesnβt βchange perspectivesβ unless the subjective time of βyourβ possible matter state reaches itβs end, which is the physical death of the brain.

10. Carrying on from line 8, Sleep or anesthesia does not violate this truth because thanks to the timeline, βyouβ will persist after this lapse of conciousness. Continuity is such that lapses of concious experiences at any time other than death or birth do not affect this. βVoidβ or absence of t

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π€︎ u/CockeyedCato
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The elephant in the room: beorc and laguz lifespan inequality

I originally posted this on serenesforest but Im wondering what reddit has to say as well.

One element I have seen in the tellius games that I believe needs to be further addressed is theΒ the unequal lifespans between Beorc and Laguz. I believe that this is an absolutely HUGE plot detail which has a lot of thematic potential. As the games make somewhat clear, Beorc have a lifespan similar to that of humans as we know them. For Laguz and BrandedΒ it is less clear, but what we do know is that they live considerably longer than Beorc, with individuals like Janaff looking like teenagers despite being over a century old. The oldest we know of is Dheginsea, who is over a thousand years old but looks to be about 60 and Lehran, who is also over a thousand but looks in his 20s.Β  I believe that this issue is far more important to Tellius and it's people than the games give them credit for and I believe a lot more can be done to address it.

I think that the games do an inadequate job at addressing the impact that this problem would have on the beorc and laguz, as it only seems to get passing references like "oh yeah, as a branded I age slower than a normal beorc and that's how they can tell i'm a branded and discriminate against me" or "you're only 20? Why are the Beorc sending babies into battle?"Β I believe that this issue has massive consequences for the relationship between the Beorc and the Laguz as a whole as well as how the characters see themselves and others. Consider this, how would you feel if you only lived to be about 80 years old, but yet there is another race of humans that lives to be over a thousand? how would you feel? Cheated? Envious? It honestly seems like the Beorc were screwed over by the Goddess, and they likely hate the Laguz because of it, seeing them as a favorite sibling blessed with greater strength and a longer lifespan. Then we arrive at the Laguz.Β How would you feel if you were among the race that lived to be a thousand years old? How would you see the people who only lived to be 80? you would see them be born, grow old, and die while you remained young for decades? How would you see them? How would you value their lives?Β Indeed, I believe the Lifespan issue to be one of the core reasons behind the rift between the Beorc and Laguz, and one that is rarely talked about in the games.

Next we arrive to how it affects the story and the characters we know. Frankly, I find the Idea of Muarim outliving tormod by decades to be absolutely heart

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π€︎ u/AryanGodLeonardo
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Respect Composite Animal (Real Life?)

COMPOSITE ANIMAL

"I am fond of pigs. Dogs look up to us. Cats look down on us. Pigs treat us as equals" β Winston S. Churchill

A single entity that has all of the abilities and talents of all animals on Earth. It is as fast as the fastest animal, strong as the strongest animal, durable as the most durable animal, as smart as the smartest animal, and has tons and tons of weird minor hax abilities.

(Note: In this case, humans are not counted as animals. Animals that live underwater or are extinct will be included.)

###PHYSICALS

STRENGTH

SPEED

DURABILITY

• [Can survive a asteroid smashing into Earth, can endure temperatures up to -458 de
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π︎ Nov 20 2020
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Why do viruses often come from bats? A discussion with your friendly neighborhood virologist

Hello /r/Science! Iβm /u/_Shibboleth_ and Iβm a Virologist/Immunologist.

The 4.5 years I spent getting a PhD were dedicated to studying antibody responses against emerging viruses like Ebola and Marburg. So you can imagine how much time Iβve spent thinking about bats.

Hereβs some answers about why they always seem to be the culprit when it comes to outbreaks.

# A: It's complicated.

TL;DR - Bats are a perfect storm of: genetic proximity to humans (as fellow mammals), keystone species interacting with many others in the environment (including via respiratory secretions and blood-transmission), great immune systems for spreading dangerous viruses, flight, social structure, hibernation, etc.

You may not be fully aware, but unless your head has been stuffed in the sand, you've probably heard, at some point, that X virus "lives in bats." It's been said about: Rabies, Hendra/Nipah, Ebola, Chikungunya, Rift Valley Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis, and yes, SARS, MERS, and, now probably SARS-CoV-2 (with the addition of another intermediate species?)

But why? Why is it always bats? The answer lies in the unique niche bats fill in our ecosystem.

# Bats are not that far off from humans genetically speaking

They're placental mammals that give birth to live young, that are about as related to us (distance-wise) as dogs. Which means ~84% of our genomes are identical to bat genomes. Just slightly less related to us than, say, mice or rats (~85%).

(this estimate is based upon associations in phylogeny. Yes I know bats are a huge group, but it's useful to estimate at this level right now.)

Why does this matter? **Well, genetic relatedness isn't just a fun fancy % number. It also means that all the proteins on the surface of our cells are

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π︎ May 06 2020
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Could Stars and Planets be a form of non carbon based life that we cannot comprehend as being alive? by u/Purest Videos

u/PurestVideos says: Stars and planets are a form of life and evidence of life but not in the way we currently understand or perceive. Stars and Planets are born, they live and undergo changes until they eventually die.

Stars more interestingly so as they go through a wide variety of changes and stages of maturity. A large star that dies eventually goes on to create more stars or planets, which is their cycle of life.

Here is a basic illustration of a stars life cycle https://www.schoolsobservatory.org/sites/default/files/astro/starcycle.jpg

I believe we are already looking at life and it has been in front of our faces the entire time.

u/VolpeFemmina says: As above, so below. Isn't it interesting how the parts of an atom orbit?

u/PurestVideos replies: I always thought reality scales infinitely downwards and upwards in size, if you zoom out far enough then all the trillions of galaxies act like cells and make up something bigger

u/PM_ME_TIGOLBITTIES replies: I've had a theory regarding this very thing for quite some time. The universe, at either micro or macro scale, is based off fractals. As we see in nature, fractals are everywhere. If you were to stand on an atom's nucleus (which at this scale would be the size of our Sun), the nearest orbiting electron would be the distance from the Sun to the Earth, and only spread further the farther the electron shell, with the lowest being Oort cloud range. And consider this: every atom that makes up our planet, from the rocks to the trees to us, were once born in a star. As Carl Sagan states it, we're all made of star stuff.

Now, let's examine life. Life as we know it requires a few things. The very basic building blocks of life, organic molecules, are made up of atoms arranged in a partiular arrangement. Amino acids are the most basic component of life, as they form the very basis of DNA and RNA. Guanine, Cytosine, Lysine, Adenine, Thymine...all of these are formed from a base of just four atoms. Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen and Nitrogen, with other atoms making the side chains of each type. Think about that... the very most basic organic molecule that forms the basis for ALL life, is just four basic elements, all of which are of abundance in our universe.

Now, where does life truly begin? When do the basic organic molecules reach a point where they form the most basic of cells, or the smallest of virii? Think of it as a box of Legos. A few random Legos by themselves form nothing. Co

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π°︎ r/outsideofthebox
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π€︎ u/BakaSandwich
π︎ Oct 14 2020
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Louis has written this article for The Times. Unfortunately, it's behind a paywall, but I've C&P the full article for you all :-) (CONTAINS TIGER KING SPOILERS)

> For the past week or two, the strange saga of a group of American big cat owners, told in a seven-part documentary called Tiger King: Murder, Mayhem and Madness, has been whatever the equivalent of a water-cooler talking point is in this post-Covid world. The series has captivated viewers in the millions with its colourful cast of characters, vast menageries of animals, details of cult-like polyamorous domestic arrangements and, at its heart, not one but two possible murder-for-hire storylines.

> I too binge-watched the series over successive nights, marvelling at the weird twists, unexpected deaths and super-abundance of exotic megafauna. But Tiger King had an added interest for me. In 2011, I made a documentary about exotic pet owners in America. I know several of the key players in the series. In fact, over three separate trips, I spent the best part of a week with the Tiger King himself.

> Joe Maldonado-Passage, nΓ© Schreibvogel, and known to most as Joe Exotic, is a skinny, high-voiced good old boy with a dyed blond mullet, a row of rings in his ear, a couple more in his nipples and (so we are told) a βPrince Albertβ in the end of his penis. Joe is one of those larger-than-life characters who screams βmade for TVβ and, indeed, seems to have dedicated much of his life to a continuous audition to play the lead in a reality series. Not content with running his zoo, he has a side-hustle as a country-and-western singer, complete with moody music videos (the biggest mystery of the series, to my mind, is not who plotted to kill who, but whether Joe is the one singing on those records: his vocals sound nothing like his speaking voice). He has also been at various times a stage magician, a pet shop owner and a police officer, and is β through most of the series β the mainstay of a domestic arrangement with two much younger men, neither of whom, apparently, is gay.

> When I met him, on a blustery May day in 2011, what stood out, apart from the blond mullet and the nervous energy, was the blue eyeliner tattooed on the rims under his eyes. He was a strange mix of butch and femme signifiers. He carried a gun, which never left his side, and handcuffs, but there were also t

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π€︎ u/overseergti
π︎ Apr 05 2020
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[SECRET] i revive a dead post

Advanced Genetic Engines, otherwise known as AGE, has finally stepped into the spotlight with a new initiative- to heighten the average human IQ.

That is the spotlight of the government. You see, ever since China came out of the woods with their engineered superman known as Kong, the Dakotan government has been interested in the possibility of producing a human with high-level abilities. However, ever since the Dixie Bioweapon Crisis, we have been put behind in genetic research into creating these "augments". As such, the MAU has raced ahead in creating the first artificial humans.

However, we don't want to create an inbred monstrosity. As such, we have delegated our research into three stages- development of the conceptual DNA, testing on live lab animals, and creation of the first hyper-intelligent human. Judging by the world's antipathy towards Kong, we estimate that no one will pretty much care.

# STAGE ONE

This stage will focus on planning the actual DNA baseline. Contrary to most beliefs, IQ is actually just a measurement of brain speed and underlying logical frameworks. While it is estimated that a large portion of genes in the human body affects the health of the brain, the main thing we are going to be focusing on is the ability for high-speed thinking and problem-solving. This means faster response times, and the ability for fast learning.

HYPERINTELLIGENCE AND THE MODIFIED BRAIN

Our current theoretical prototypes include several changes and new genetic inclusions into the human body. The actual nerves themselves have been altered so that the electrochemical borders inside nerves (which slows nervous transmission rates) are much less prevalent than before genetic modification. This has significantly reduced reaction times involving fight or flight instincts. Incorporated feline genes (more robust myelin sheath) have enhanced reflex and agility, while ganglia have been redesigned to straddle the spinal cord to record and remember actions (ganglia usually only cover the peripheral nervous system with an e

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π€︎ u/AvianFire
π︎ Jul 23 2020
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Treating house cats as wild animals is stupid.

Up until the mid nineties we wasn't sure what the cats ancestors was which is why you see wet food advocates use science that was gathered from a completely different animal Felis margarita. This would be like applying a chimpanzee diet to a human beings. Even when we did figure out the ancestor of the house cat we only narrowed it down to a species and only assume it's the African subspecies. Than there is the whole cats aren't domesticated myth and do fine on there own that came around before we started measuring lifespan of feral and out door cats to learn that they live drastically reduced lives when left by themselves. Cats are solitary animals don't really apply to housecats as Feral cats live in huge colonies and the fact that cats do well with another cat around way better then they do when alone. Another myth is only cats go feral. Every domesticated animal can produce feral populations even ones we think are stupid or helpless like Chickens.

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π︎ Feb 28 2020
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The moment 7 chimps are released into a sanctuary after almost 40 years of medical testing gfycat.com/OffensiveHonorβ¦
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π︎ Sep 22 2018
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Live Slow; Die Never: Senescence and the Evolution of the Elven Lifespan

Hello people of the internet. I am an archaeologist, university instructor and long-time player of Dungeons and Dragons. In my spare time I've been contextualizing the fantasy races of D&D in evolutionary theory, and I wanted to share with you short article on the subject. It is directed primarily at dungeon masters, world builders and people interested in learning more about how anthropologists approach the study of human beings.

I think I should also add that the theories I present here and in other posts are notably at odds with the lore of D&D in most cases. I recognize that each of these species already has founding mythologies, some of which are very detailed. What I'm presenting is an alternate history in which evolution played the dominant role in shaping the current suite of life. It's still possible for both these ideas and the cosmological stories of the D&D races to coexist, so long as we understand the myths to be cultural narratives that are not necessarily grounded in literal fact.

If you want to read more on the topic, I have also posted about the evolution of orcs, dwarves, halfings, two on dragonborn, and several on elves. Iβve also discussed what a species is in the context of half-orcs and half-elves.

Enjoy!

Iβve written a few posts on elves to-date, but a subject I havenβt yet touched is their strangely long life-spans. While the average human might expect to live around 80 years, elves can live to be nearly 1000 with little deterioration to their physical or mental states. A perfectly valid question in both D&D and biology is why do elves live so much longer than other races? Moreover, what might

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π€︎ u/jjwerner42
π︎ Sep 04 2019
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[Rick and Morty] Rick is older than he looks

TL;DR Rick is effectively immortal because he had the opportunity to become so and because he is much older than he looks, which in turn has to be true because of how much he has accomplished.

Obviously, spoilers below

This theory is based on circumstantial evidence and revolves around the concept of microverses as introduced in Season 2, Episode 6, βThe Ricks Must Be Crazyβ (one of my favorites, coincidentally). It is also about βourβ (C-137) Rick because it is based on his behavior, specifically. That said, I wouldnβt be surprised if it applies to many Ricks in the βcentral finite curveβ.

If you agree with all of the premises that I list below, then Rick has to be immortal in the aging sense. I need to explain what I mean by immortal in the aging sense: I mean that Rick has developed a way to prevent himself from aging such that he satisfies the criteria for βEngineered Negligible Senescenceβ and has continuously been applying this technology to himself for many decades or even centuries. It shouldnβt be a matter of contention that Rick could develop this technology in the first place, as in the pilot he visits a βfuture dimensionβ where the aging process has been βhaltedβ. (He could have even ripped the tech from that dimension when he was younger.) Whether Rick has been using this technology on himself for some time is not a settled matter, and that is what I want to address.

Premise 1: The amount of time required for Rick to develop all of his inventions is certainly greater than 50 years (length of a professional career), almost certainly greater than a single lifespan, and probably more than two lifespans.

Recall his most impressive creations:

• A hyper-advanced AI (his ship computer) that can simulate human children based on a brain scan of their parentsβ memories and effortlessly negotiate inter-species peace accords
• A love potion
• A device for transferring a personβs mental existence from body to body (used for Tiny Rick and possibly intended for Operation Phoenix)
• FTL travel (power armor suit from the Purge episode)
• Shrink ray
• A hyper-detailed virtual reality (?) for Beth with procedurally-generated, biologically living creatures
• A gun that shoots anti-matter
• Dark matter
• A curse-removing device
• Cybernetic weapons and implants
• Anatomy Park

These are just the devices that we can be fairly certain Rick himself invented. (e.g. t

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π︎ Oct 18 2018
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Lifespans, longevity and utilitarian veganism

This post specifically discusses utilitarian-based arguments for veganism, but if you'd like to expand your views based on your particular normative positions around longevity and lifespan that would be great too

A common vegan (utilitarian) argument against husbandry is that animals are slaughtered at a fraction of their natural life span, thus depriving them of the enjoyment of future experiences. I've seen several info-graphics that illustrate this point of which I'll link a couple:

Within his utilitarian calculus, vegan philosopher Jeff McMahan came up with a thought experiment in which he justified a form of "benign carnivorism" based on the assumptions that "it does not... seem morally objectionable to eat an animal that has died of natural causes" which I believe epitomizes the critical importance that utilitarians give to sentient creatures being able to reach their natural lifespans:

>Suppose that we could create a breed of animals genetically programmed to die at a comparatively early age, when their meat would taste best. We could then have a practice of benign carnivorism that would involve causing such animals to exist, raising them for a certain period in conditions in which they would be content, and then simply collecting their bodies for human consumption once they died. Such a practice would not be bad for the animals and would arguably be good for them, since they would have lives worth living and would not have existed at all if not for the practice. And the practice would not involve doing anything to them, such as killing them, that would be against their interests.

https://philosophy.rutgers.edu/joomlatools-files/docman-files/Eating_Animals_the_Nice_Way.pdf

Vegans that base their beliefs on other positions would argue that it's still wrong in itself to modify living creatures for the purpose of exploitation. However, McMahan mentions the possibility of finding such gene occurring in nature, in which case he explains that:

>There would, it seems, be no more reason to eliminate the gene than there is to try to increase the life spans of shorter-lived species to match those of longer-lived species.

While "because it's natural" shouldn't be an appropriate justification for our ethical positions I assume that the majority of people accept that, n

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π︎ Apr 23 2019
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Human Hearts Evolved for Endurance β and They Need It to Stay Healthy

Quotes from the Discover post summarizing the PNAS study:

>Gorillas and chimpanzees tend to spend a lot of time sleeping or being relatively inactive, but are incredibly strong and powerful, especially in short bursts. With chimpanzees, said Shave, βitβs very quiet and calm, and then you have high bursts of very, very intense physical activity. We think that probably results in spikes in blood pressure.β
>
>Ape hearts are well suited to this kind of activity, with thick walls and a rounded shape. They respond well to the kinds of abrupt changes in blood pressure demanded by activities like quickly climbing trees or fighting.

.....

>Human hearts are significantly different from ape hearts. The left ventricle pumps oxygen-rich blood around the body, and in humans it is more elongated and simply larger than it is in chimpanzees.

.....

>Thereβs one additional significant difference between the hearts of humans and apes. When human hearts pump, they also rotate. This twist helps push more blood out each time it beats, and also draw more blood in for the next time it pumps.
>
>βItβs something new that came in with humans,β said Shave. βItβs not there in the chimps. Itβs also not there in gorillas.β
>
>Running for our Lives
>
>Those evolutionary changes to the human heart make it possible to send more blood around the body and to maintain that effort until itβs time to rest. But there was a trade-off. As human hearts adapted to deal with the large volumes of blood required for endurance activity, they became less adept at responding to high pressures required to support strength activities.
>
>Because the human heart also remodels throughout the lifetime in response to a personβs activity, the heart can change shape to reflect more of a chimplike structure when people donβt do endurance exercise. The researchers found that the hearts of both the football linemen and sedentary individuals experienced remodeling that made their hearts less adapted to responding to endurance challenges and more adapted to responding to pressure. The walls became thicker, and the heart didnβt twist as well.
>
>βSo the common teaching is that your heart is healthy and normal unt

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π°︎ r/slatestarcodex
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π€︎ u/lamson12
π︎ Sep 22 2019
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Vulcans are naturally less intelligent than humans

First of all, I'll state a few facts I will use to base my claim.

In the real world, the human brain consumes a lot of energy. In fact, 20% of our total energy consumption is used by the brain. This is the reason chimpanzees are so much stronger than humans; their extra energy is directed to muscles instead of the brain.

Now, we know Vulcans are much, much stronger than humans. Still, they live on a vegetarian diet. This means that they don't consume as much energy as humans. So their bodies cut the costs somewhere else.

Moreover, we know that without proper discipline, Vulcans tend to let their emotions take over. Therefore Vulcans need to constantly concentrate to maintain logical behaviour. While humans are prone to emotional outbursts as well, we are still mostly in control during them, unlike Vulcans.

We also know that Vulcans took much longer to progress to the point where Humans are in the 22nd century. They had more brutal wars than humans, and their scientific development took time even after they had adopted the way of logic. This suggests that they are not as adept to progress as humans.

My theory is that Vulcans are naturally less intelligent than humans.

Vulcans consume less energy, yet are stronger than humans - this evolutionarily hints that their brains use less fuel. They constantly need to maintain discipline to stay in control of their emotions, meaning that their brain processes are more "streamlined" than that of humans. This also explains their limited need of energy. The limited intelligence is compensated by Vulcans long lifespan, as well as their ability to focus their mind on the task at hand. Still, while humans lack the will to discipline their minds in the same way, this difference of intelligence might explain why humans were able to take Vulcans over in technological advancement in such a short time.

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π€︎ u/Mcmount21
π︎ Mar 04 2018
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Humans: Type 6, Technology Level 43, Class 1

[WP] The galaxy is at war. Surprisingly humans did not participate in the war but instead, both sides find themselves using human-made weapons to kill each other.

We were discovered and classified by the Kinretian Empire in 2051. Civilization #4156: a Type 6, Technology Level 43, Class 1 Species. Not quite so unique and special as weβd thought of ourselves for so many millennia.

Type 6 civilization, meaning that we had developed the idea of collective governance, but had not yet unified as a species nor began colonizing space. When we were found, we were still recovering from the disastrous war in Southeast Asia. The hostilities had ceased, but we could not be sure that the aliens hadnβt been observing as nuclear bombs were dropped on some of the worldβs largest cities. Billions of lives lost in a matter of days; certainly not the finest hour for our species. And even if the Kinretians werenβt watching, surely they would notice the massive hotspots of radiation that blanketed what had once been India, Pakistan, and parts of China. There was no way to hide our shameful behavior from them.

Technology Level 43, which ranged on a logarithmic scale of 1 to 100. Level one would be something like chimpanzees, able to grasp the concept of a tool and what it could be used for, but not having enough knowledge to progress beyond blunt objects with which to hit stuff. And a level 100 civilization would be so advanced that we might not even be able to comprehend their existence much less how their technology works. The vast majority of intelligent species never really rise above a 10, only using tools enough to survive in their food chain but never building a true civilization. The initial reaction on Earth to being assigned a level 43 was βeh, not too bad.β It didnβt sound far off from the baseline of 50, which the Kinretians had pegged to their own civilization when they first started to explore other worlds.

But then we learned what they could do. Faster-than-light travel, lifespans of centuries instead of decades, vast space-faring empiresβ¦ feats and marvels that science fiction writers could only dream of. The distance between 43 and 50 was a lot further than it seemed, roughly the equivalent of the difference between the technology of 2051 and the bronze-age Egyptians.

What we could do, seemingly better than other species ranked far higher than us, was create weapons. It turns out that a Type 6 civilization at Technology Level 43 is rathe

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π°︎ r/Luna_Lovewell
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π€︎ u/Luna_LoveWell
π︎ Oct 26 2017
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This is what would happen to Candy's Burgers and Fries after we all abruptly vanished.

This is a sequel to my last post, which is here.

Timeline

1 day

As power outages grow across the globe like cancers, Candy's is engulfed in natural darkness for the first time in thousands of years. Having no spirits to possess them and no advanced AI, Candy and Cindy simply stare out into the empty, dark restaurant.

Even though the mascots of Freddy Fazbear's Pizzeria have collapsed and the food long since decayed or eaten by local fauna, flora, and/or fungi, the mascots of Candy's prove to be superior. Although their colors are fading, the robots are surprisingly intact. The star decorations have weakened due to the passage of time, and the thin cords keeping them up snap, causing them all to fall to the floor. Posters and labels have begun to peel like wallpaper, and the cardboard cutouts are beginning to deteriorate due to all the moisture seeping into the restaurant. The blue origami cat, located in the Arcade Area has long since become a pile of slop due to water damage.

25 years (Fall of Vinnie)

Although the restaurant looks similar to what it looked like fifteen years ago, much has changed. The ceiling tiles have started to fall out, and a few of the posters and labels have peeled off. The signs have fallen, and the cardboard cutouts have been reduced to mats of moss and fungi. The drawings on Blank's carapace have faded away, and the red colors of all the animatronics has vanished, turning them different shades of blue. However, the puppeteer's puppet has not lasted like the rest of them did. Being made mostly of wood and other organic materials, Vinnie proved to be a prime breeding ground for mold and various types of fungi and moss when people left it to rot. As a result, barely anything is still recognizable, except for the face, being made of porcelain.

88 years

Over the years, Candy's has become a small bat cave. Invading through broken windows and holes in the roof, the bats mostly nest in the office, the arcade room, and parts and service. Their guano mixes with soil blown in through the windows, fertilizing it and making plants grow in every square inch of Candy's Burgers and Fries. Vines climb up the slumped-over forms of Candy and Cindy, albeit more so on the latter. With angry spirits possessing them, RAT and Old Candy have established the restaurant as their territory. The former is feare

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π€︎ u/Lightvsdark777
π︎ Jan 01 2018
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Case File #18 The Architect Project

First: Case File One

Previous: Case File Seventeen

Next: Case File Nineteen

The Case Files Wiki: Here

The first thing I noticed is that the usual Case File info was gone. Looks like we have another project on our hands. I believe this project takes place around the same time as The Hysteria Project so that puts it somewhere in the 80βs.

Doctor Rollinsβ early notes on The Architect entity.

The Architect is a predator that this organization has been following for many, many years. It is a feral, humanoid being that has been spotted on multiple continents over a rather long period of time. Some within my research team believe it to be multiple entities around the globe but the prevailing theory is that this is a singular entity with a longer lifespan than most creatures native to this planet. It gets its name due to the fact that we believe it holds missing sequences of DNA necessary to prolong life or improve the human specimen. The blueprints to many secrets are surely held within The Architectβs flesh.

After several years of cat and mouse I have received word that we have finally cornered The Architect in a small, coastal town in California. This isnβt the best timing as Iβll have to compete with Marloweβs project for funding but this is the best shot I have at capturing the beast. Iβve sent my approval to make our move. I estimate a twenty five to thirty percent casualty rate for our forces. Acceptable.

The following is the debriefing from the operative in charge of The Architectβs apprehension.

The target was tracked to the town of Advent, California. The beast was in a slaughtering house, pigs I think it was. Not that it matters much. If it was feeding than it was vulnerable so we made our move. I was monitoring my men from a surveillance vehicle in the parking lot. I had mic and cam feeds to all members of my team. I sent in two squads of men, one in back and one from a side entrance. Additional men were posted at all entrances incase it attempted to flee.

It was Dubois and Flattner that stumbled upon something first, a defiled pig carcass. We had assumed it went into the building to feed but there was no signs of

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π°︎ r/nosleep
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π︎ Jul 01 2015
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Which book best describes what it is like to live for hundreds of years/be immortal?

I often find it hard to wrap my mind around what it would be like to look at the world through the eyes of a 500-year-old elf or a 20,000-year-old celestial being.

Why would elves care about what happens to humans? Would they even consider them to be sentient creatures at all? If so why? What would happen if an elf literally spent 100 years of its life being brainwashed?

I can only see a race of creatures with 500-infinite year lifespans going one of two ways:

1. They are an eternal empire of conquerors, controlled by strict never changing political regimes who would look upon humans the way we look upon chimpanzees.

2. They wouldn't care about what happens at all. They have had hundreds of years to watch how much the world changes and how impermanent all things are. They would cloister themselves into small monasteries and try to live lives of total detachment from all things. They would spend years in silent meditation without even having a thought. Basically everyone of them would be a Buddha.

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π°︎ r/Fantasy
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π€︎ u/comicgeek1128
π︎ Feb 02 2017
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Updated Grimmybear quotes. Original post found at: https://www.reddit.com/r/Grimmybear/comments/58xcsf/grimmy_quote_collection/.

This is simply an updated version of the much more impressive post made by /u/Shilena, which is found at https://www.reddit.com/r/Grimmybear/comments/58xcsf/grimmy_quote_collection/. #277 is of special interest.

0 "these arent even funny quotes!"-grimmybear [Fallout: New Vegas]

1 "Long hair don't care" - Real Grimmybear 2015

2 "Donna is going downa"-grimmybear [Dark Souls 2]

3 "You shut your mouth, you fucking hillbilly person you!!!" [Fallout: New Vegas]

4 "Look at my butt you dirty hussey" [Fallout: New Vegas]

5 "I constantly have swamp ass, kill me." -Grimmybear [Fallout: New Vegas]

6 "I am of scare." -Grimmybear

7 "that is the most disgusting utter ever, i just wanna suck that" -Grimmybear [Fallout: New Vegas]

8 "I'm like a huge beacon of come and fuck me."- Grimmybear [Fallout: New Vegas]

9 "That makes more sense than dick staring." -Grimmy

10 "C'mon I know how to fist"- Grimm

11 "Alright kid.. bend over"-Grimmybear [Fallout: New Vegas]

12 "Don't you guys know the enjoyment of sinking your teeth into some bone?" -grimmybear [The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth]

13 "No one wants to be a hilllbilly, its just a thing you're born with, like an extra nipple"- Sambowned [The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth]

14 "Winters coming? I'm cumming on Winter. Kreygasm " -Grimmybear

15 "I'll fuck a mutant [Fallout: New Vegas]

16 "I just wanna swing on this giant penis" Grimmybear [Don't Starve Together]

17 My baby titties are freaking out right now"-grimmybear [The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth]

18 "Take your shirt off, nerd, what the hell." -Grimmybear [H1Z1]

19 "someone touch that zombie sack" -Grimmybear [H1Z1]

20 "Oh my god I shot it in the dick with an arrow" -Grimmybear [H1Z1]

21 "Hello speed hacker you fucking ass nugget" [H1Z1]

22 "Oh my god Skype hentai Sesh on stream I would love that Kreygasm " [H1Z1]

23 "There would be dongers all over the place if I was allowed" -Grimmybear [H1Z1]

24 "Nice hairdo Vanilla Ice" -Randy [Rust]

25 "Welcome back mike hunt is moist" -Grimmybear [H1Z1]

26 "With all the ass stabbing they should call this game Dark Holes!"- Grimmybear [Dark Souls II]

27 "I feel like all the other D's are better" -Grimmybear [The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth]

29 "Grimmy is the proof that video games invoke violence in preteens." - left4deadspace [H1Z1]

30 "I'll lick anything" -Grimmybear [Don't Starve Toge

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π︎ 4
π°︎ r/Grimmybear
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π€︎ u/Devo2397
π︎ Nov 13 2018
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GURPS Body Mod Expansion: Perks and Quirks

This is an expansion on the base Body Mod CYOA, one of the cornerstones of Jumpchain. Use this as a way to alter your base form of all your alt-forms, or as alternatives to Drawbacks in a specific setting.

PERKS

360 degree Vision [100]: Your range of vision is increased to 360.

Acute Senses [20]: Your Senses are a level higher than they should be in one specific category. You may have better Vision, Hearing, Smell/Taste or Touch.

Ambidexterity [50]: You're capable of using your non-dominant hand to do tasks as well as the other.

Amphibious [100]: Your body is adapted to moving on land and sea. You move as fast in water as you do on land.

Brachiator [50]: You can travel by swinging on vines, tree branches, ropes and so on much more easily than before. You're also a little better at climbing.

Breath-Holding [10]: You can hold your breath for much longer than before. each time you buy this, double the time you can hold your breath.

Catfall [50]: Like a cat, you always fall on your feet first. Actually, this just reduces the problems you have with falling distances and surviving without taking damage.

Chameleon [20]: You can change your surface pattern to blend in with your surroundings. When naked, you get sometimes fool others when sneaking around. Being dressed, even partly, screws with this effect. You can take this multiple times, doubling it's effect. Four times as effective makes it near impossible to spot you when in the nude.

Super-Clinging [100]: You can cling to walls, like a spider. This also helps with your ability to slow yourself when falling by clinging to nearby surfaces.

Damage Resistance [50]: You're harder to damage, a single purchase of this making your skin as tough as thick leather. You can buy this multiple times, and with a few modifiers: If it's a full-body force-field like effect, increase the cost by 10 CP. If it's ablative (damage knocking off the resistance, regenerating it at 1 per 24 hours), reduce the cost by 40 CP. If it's Flexible (doesn't block Crushing attacks or blunt trauma), reduce the cost by 10 CP. If it's Tough Skin (meaning that should the damage penetrate and delivery a poison or toxin, the toxin affects you), reduce the cost by 20 CP. If the attack is Semi-Ablative (As Ablative, but it takes 10 times the damage to remove a level of resistancce), reduce the cost by 20 CP. The bare minimum cost of the Perk is 10 CP.

Dark Vision [200]: You can see perfectly well is any lighting level, from di

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π°︎ r/JumpChain
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π︎ Jul 08 2017
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[Sunday, October 29 2017] Puerto Rico scraps Whitefish Energy \$300M power grid contract; Since Mali formed armed brigade to protect endangered desert elephants 9 months ago, not a single elephant lost to poachers; Depression associated with an increased risk of premature death for both men and women

#/r/WorldNews

• /u/maxwellhill

Facebook executive denied the social network uses a device's microphone to listen to what users are saying and then send them relevant ads.

• /u/AstronomicalUnit

[Title Post] Puerto Rico scraps Whitefish Energy's \$300M power grid contract after governor's demand

#/r/News

• /u/Pach1no

Woman's ID stolen 15 times after Equifax breach

• /u/speaktodragons

Las Vegas shooting victims struggle to afford mounting medical costs

#/r/UpliftingNews

• /u/LuvBamboo

[Title Post] Since Mali formed an armed brigade to protect its endangered desert elephants 9 months ago, not a single elephant has been lost to poachers

#/r/science

• /u/tazcel

[Title Post] Depression is associated with an increased risk of premature death for both men and women, a Canadian study shows. The connection appeared strongest in the years following a depressive episode but decays over time, underscoring the importance of diagnosing and treating depression

#/r/space

• /u/Juano_Guano

Mars 2020 Cruise and Descent Vehicles at JPL SAF

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π︎ 120
π°︎ r/tldr
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π€︎ u/kaunis
π︎ Oct 30 2017
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What if Ilya Ivanovoch Ivanov's experiments to create human-ape hybrids in the 20s/30s were a success? (Details in description)

In the 1920s, Ivanov carried out a series of experiments to create a human/nonhuman ape hybrid. Working with human sperm and female chimpanzees, he failed to create a pregnancy. In 1929 he organized a set of experiments involving nonhuman ape sperm and human volunteers, but was delayed by the death of his last orangutan.

In the course of a general political shakeup in the Soviet scientific world, Ivanov and a number of scientists involved in primate research and experiments lost their positions. In the spring of 1930, Ivanov came under political criticism at his veterinary institute. Finally, on December 13, 1930, Ivanov was arrested. He was sentenced to five years of exile to Alma Ata, where he worked for the Kazakh Veterinary-Zoologist Institute until his death from a stroke on 20 March 1932. The renowned physiologist and psychologist Ivan Pavlov wrote an obituary for him.

This is one of the more implausible scenarios, so I'll provide some basic details. Feel free to go a bit crazy with this one.

In this new timeline, Ivanov's 1929 experiments weren't delayed and he managed to create one successful human-ape hybrid by the end of 1930. Hybrid species are generally larger, stronger, and smarter than both original species, but have a slightly shorter lifespan, so let's say this hybrid, if it survives till then, has a lifespan of about 45 years. It matures fully by age 10.

What are the impacts of the creature's existence? Do the Soviets announce this to the world, or do they keep it secret? Do they make more human-ape hybrids, or just keep the one for study?

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π°︎ r/HistoryWhatIf
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π€︎ u/CycloneSwift
π︎ Oct 20 2017
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Josh something's wildly popular anti-evolution Facebook video; a line-by-line response

Someone linked me this video, in which a startlingly popular wannabe pastor has over 1.5 million shares on a staggeringly bad set of arguments...and the comments make me lose faith in humanity.

Anyway, I wrote up a response for my friend, because there's no way to really summarize how bad these arguments were without breaking them down one at a time. (Fortunately, my friend is reasonable, and was convinced of how bad the arguments were by reading what I wrote. He's a good guy.)

Here's a copy of my reply, if anyone's interested.

"An atheist told me I was an idiot, moronic, and stupid for believing in God."

I haven't heard even the most vehement "militant" atheists talk like that, so I am pretty sure this didn't happen. It's a very common caricature of atheism that gets recycled every time a movie like βGodβs Not Deadβ comes out. Since quite a few statements in the video (such as the one about the Second Law of Thermodynamics) are quoted from other apologists, I wouldnβt be surprised if the anecdote is as well.

"[Evolution] was never observed."

Actually, on top of the significant genetic and fossil evidence, there have been a number of lab experiments and direct observations that act as evidence. For controlled experiments, check out the Lenski long-term bacteria experiment or the artificial selection of the domesticated silver fox by the soviets. If you want to see the genetic ancestors of humans and chimpanzees leap to humanity in a single generation, an example of that would actually be strong evidence against evolution by natural selection.

For direct observations of the effects of evolution, you could look to Darwin's finches, but my favorite is the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which for all vertebrates crosses a one-inch gap by extending down the spine, looping under the heart, and going back up the spine. In giraffes, this detour can be ten feet long or more--it makes no sense if "designed" but makes perfect sense from an evolutionary perspective.

Another example of science that arises from observations of effects rather than direct observation is the life cycle of stars. Because novas occur very infrequently and transitions between star cycles occur very slowly, we must rely on observational evidence of the current states of stars to figu

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π°︎ r/atheism
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π€︎ u/Grays42
π︎ Jul 25 2014
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Some thoughts on rejuvenation

Why do humans age? There appears to be no single simple definitive answer to this question. Various factors are thought to be implicated. Opinions also differ widely on whether we will one day have the ability to radically extend the human lifespan beyond the roughly 120 years that humans can now potentially reach. I first wish to point out something today that may seem obvious to some of you, but nonetheless needs to be said. There is no strong motive for nature to evolve the capability for human beings to live forever. In fact, excessive longevity can cause the elderly to end up competing with their own offspring in a manner that harms the overall fitness of a community.

If you look at humans, it's clear that our bodies demonstrate the effects of aging in a way that can quite rapidly be conveyed to other people. More importantly, these signs of aging do not appear to be the inevitable result of a biological mechanism that ceases to function, but rather, these signs are programmed to appear. As an example, consider the tendency for humans to develop grey hair. In sub-saharan Africans, it tends to take much longer before humans develop grey hair.

Similarly, men tend to grow bald as they grow older, but not all men are affected by this phenomenon and it seems to be less common in sub-saharan Africans. It's clear that what we perceive as aging is not always the product of the underlying deterioration of the body, but rather, partly serves to signal something. In earlier days, when people tended to die at higher rates and at younger ages, to be old conveyed status.

As a result, men in such circumstances might benefit from appearing old. A bald head, a grey beard, a hairy chest, all of these are symptoms of maturity or old age. This may have lead some women to seek out such men for reproduction, or encouraged other men to take a less hostile attitude towards them. Today, with so many old people around, the status associated with longevity is much reduced, instead, the elderly are now perceived as a burden.

We similarly know that a very important signal of aging, the menopause, it rather unique to human beings. Again, there is nothing in biology that necessitates for female organisms to stop reproducing halfway through their potential lifespan. Instead, menopause appears to be a phenomenon that emerged long ago because it benefited our ancestors in one for

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π°︎ r/accountt1234
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π€︎ u/-triggerexpert-
π︎ Oct 13 2016
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Trying to find a particular website detailing the evolution of man in a post-apocalyptic world

Hi! I remember reading through this website a while back and wanted to revisit it. It was extremely extensive (though not very well written, ESL maybe?) and portrayed some intriguing ideas. One thing I enjoyed was the way it conveyed its story: it used short stories to show certain members in each "group", just enough to give you a picture of the world, and then moved onto the next individual/scenario. Plus, it had actual pictures. I am a particularly crappy story-teller, but here is what I remember about it:

1. Mankind, through some viral/resource/war-based disaster needs to find a way to survive. They genetically engineer various people to adapt for various environments, geared towards gathering resources and helping build space-worthy vehicles. The best of the best are chosen to board these and leave to find another planet. Everyone else is left on earth.
• Involved include these skinny, balloon-like guys suited for the vacuum of space only and can't reproduce
• There were whale-people
• There were normal people left on Earth
1. So, humanity's hope has left the Earth and now everyone else is left to fend for themselves. Well, the environment has already gone down the gutter and the only places with adequate resources are these enclosed cities, but resources are still limited. As such, there is a large population left outside of them (and didn't participate in the ship-building) who have to fend for themselves. These individuals become progressively more feral.
• whale guys still there, less of a struggle for them, apparently. I think they were engineered to survive in polluted waters?
1. Human lifespans within the cities increase with gradually improving medicine. Even though they live in these enclosed cities, these "elite" human beings can't completely escape outside contamination and sterility slowly creeps into the population. They continue to research methods to prevent population decline including extended lifespan and methods to increase virility (including artificially cloning themselves), but none are successful for long. Meanwhile, the ferals have thinned themselves out, but the strongest/most virile + adapted to the environment survive.

2. The world begins to recover and the humans have now resorted to using machines to help them carry out daily activities as they are now too frail to do so autonomously. They see the best way for a bit of humanity to survive on earth through the ferals. They take some samples and create new creatures

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π°︎ r/scifi
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π€︎ u/Akeera
π︎ Aug 17 2014
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Predator in the Jungle: Aaean Rivits

Context: Rivits can be seen as primitive cousins to another sapient race in Arganine. You might compare them to the chimpanzees of earth in relation to humans. The jungle that they live in is very dense so the conditions are pretty dim even during the day.

I would love some constructive criticism and questions, especially if something doesn't make sense or doesn't seem plausible because my goal is realism.

## Aaean Rivits

Physical Characteristics:

The rivit, found only on the island of Aae, is a fierce jungle predator. The rivit is very well adapted to the often pitch black jungles of the island and is a fierce beast when confronted. The rivit stands at around 5 Β½ feet tall and weighs in at 125 pounds. Deep red fur covers their entire body and head. Two large eyes with narrow vertical pupils protrude from the front of their head. Their mouths contain both an upper and lower row of many short, razor sharp, pointed teeth. Rivits also possess very long ears which often lay flat near the back of their head. These ears are capable of rotating slightly to channel their hearing. In lieu of a snout, they intake air into their mouths to detect scents. For proper respiration, four rows of armored vent-like slits line their upper torso.

Aaean rivits have two long arms which attach at the shoulders and end in large padded hands with 5 fingers. The 2nd, 3rd, and 4th fingers of each hand have three joints and have short claw like nails while the 1st and 5th fingers have two joints and are opposable. Their two legs extend from the hip and are slightly shorter than their arms. When walking upright, commonly seen when tracking prey, a rivitβs upper legs angle forward to maintain balance. Their lower legs then angle backward and allow them to walk silently on the balls of their feet at a relatively quick pace. When closing in on prey or travelling otherwise, they will drop onto the palms of their hands.

Behavior:

Rivits typically travel alone but are not territorial. They will usually stay within a large area of jungle for their entire lives. After killing prey, they may emit several very low frequency bursts to alert other rivits of their findings. Other rivits follow these bursts to the location of the kill. These βfeeding groundsβ or forums allow rivits to breed, share food, and interact. Rivits will otherwise pass up any carcass that they come across. This is because carcasses which spend more than a few hours in the

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π°︎ r/worldbuilding
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π€︎ u/Destroyer333
π︎ May 20 2017
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[Serious] Respect Composite Animal (Real Life?)

COMPOSITE ANIMAL

"I am fond of pigs. Dogs look up to us. Cats look down on us. Pigs treat us as equals" β Winston S. Churchill

A single entity that has all of the abilities and talents of all animals on Earth. It is as fast as the fastest animal, strong as the strongest animal, durable as the most durable animal, as smart as the smartest animal, and has tons and tons of weird minor hax abilities.

(Note: In this case, humans are not counted as animals. Animals that live underwater or are extinct will be included.)

###PHYSICALS

STRENGTH

SPEED

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π€︎ u/CoolandAverageGuy
π︎ Nov 21 2020
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Why do viruses often come from bats? Here are some possible answers.

# A: It's complicated.

TL;DR - Bats are a perfect storm of: genetic proximity to humans (as fellow mammals), keystone species interacting with many others in the environment (including via respiratory secretions and blood-transmission), great immune systems for spreading dangerous viruses, flight, social structure, hibernation, etc.

---

You may not be fully aware, but unless your head has been stuffed in the sand, you've probably heard, at some point, that X virus "lives in bats." It's been said about: Rabies, Hendra/Nipah, Ebola, Chikungunya, Rift Valley Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis, and yes, SARS, MERS, and, now, (possibly via the pangolin) SARS-CoV-2.

But why? Why is it always bats? The answer lies in the unique niche bats fill in our ecosystem.

---

# Bats are not that far off from humans genetically speaking

They're placental mammals that give birth to live young, that are about as related to us (distance-wise) as dogs. Which means ~84% of our genomes are identical to bat genomes. Just slightly less related to us than, say, mice or rats (~85%).

(this estimate is based upon associations in phylogeny. Yes I know bats are a huge group, but it's useful to estimate at this level right now.)

Why does this matter? Well, genetic relatedness isn't just a fun fancy % number. It also means that all the proteins on the surface of our cells are similar as well.

For example, SARS-CoV-2 is thought to enter our cells using the ACE2 receptor (which is a lil protein that plays a role in regulating blood pressure on the outside of cells in our lungs, arteries, heart, kidney, and intestines). The ACE2 between humans and bats is about 80.5% similar (this link is to a paper using bat ACE2 to figure out viral entry. I just plugged the bat ACE2 and human ACE2 into protein blast to get that 80.5% number).

To giv

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π€︎ u/_Shibboleth_
π︎ Apr 18 2020
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Why do viruses often come from bats? Here are some possible answers

# A: It's complicated.

TL;DR - Bats are a perfect storm of: genetic proximity to humans (as fellow mammals), keystone species interacting with many others in the environment (including via respiratory secretions and blood-transmission), great immune systems for spreading dangerous viruses, flight, social structure, hibernation, etc. etc.

---

You may not be fully aware, but unless your head has been stuffed in the sand, you've probably heard, at some point, that X virus "lives in bats." It's been said about: Rabies, Hendra/Nipah, Ebola, Chikungunya, Rift Valley Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis, and yes, SARS, MERS, and, now, (possibly via the pangolin) SARS-CoV-2.

But why? Why is it always bats? The answer lies in the unique niche that bats fill in our ecosystem.

---

# Bats are not that far off from humans genetically speaking

They're placental mammals that give birth to live young, that are about as related to us (distance-wise) as dogs. Which means ~84% of our genomes are identical to bat genomes. Just slightly less related to us than, say, mice or rats (~85%).

(this estimate is based upon associations in phylogeny. Yes I know bats are a huge group, but it's useful to estimate at this level right now.)

Why does this matter? Well, genetic relatedness isn't just a fun fancy % number. It also means that all the proteins on the surface of our cells are similar as well.

For example, SARS-CoV-2 is thought to enter our cells using the ACE2 receptor (which is a lil protein that regulates blood pressure on the outside of cells in our lungs, arteries, heart, kidney, and intestines). The ACE2 between humans and bats is about 80.5% similar (this link is to a paper using bat ACE2 to figure out viral entry. I just plugged the bat ACE2 and human ACE2 into protein blast to get that 80.5% number).

To give you an idea of what that means for a virus that's crossing species barriers, CD4 (the protein HIV uses to get into T cells) is about 98% similar betw

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Live Slow; Die Never: Senescence and the Evolution of the Elven Lifespan

Hello people of the internet. I am an archaeologist, university instructor and long-time player of Dungeons and Dragons. In my spare time I've been contextualizing the fantasy races of D&D in evolutionary theory, and I wanted to share with you short article on the subject. It is directed primarily at dungeon masters, world builders and people interested in learning more about how anthropologists approach the study of human beings.

I think I should also add that the theories I present here and in other posts are notably at odds with the lore of D&D in most cases. I recognize that each of these species already has founding mythologies, some of which are very detailed. What I'm presenting is an alternate history in which evolution played the dominant role in shaping the current suite of life. It's still possible for both these ideas and the cosmological stories of the D&D races to coexist, so long as we understand the myths to be cultural narratives that are not necessarily grounded in literal fact.

If you want to read more on the topic, I have also posted about the evolution of orcs, dwarves, halfings, two on dragonborn, and several on elves. I've also posted on what makes a species in the context of half-orcs and half-elves.

Enjoy!

Iβve written a few posts on elves to-date, but a subject I havenβt yet touched is their strangely long life-spans. While the average human might expect to live around 80 years, elves can live to be nearly 1000 with little deterioration to their physical or mental states. A perfectly valid question in both D&D and biology is why do elves live so much longer than ot

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π︎ Sep 04 2019
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Why do viruses often come from bats? A discussion with your friendly neighborhood virologist

Hello /r/Science! Iβm /u/_Shibboleth_ and Iβm a Virologist/Immunologist.

The 4.5 years I spent getting a PhD were dedicated to studying antibody responses against emerging viruses like Ebola and Marburg. So you can imagine how much time Iβve spent thinking about bats.

Hereβs some answers about why they always seem to be the culprit when it comes to outbreaks.

# A: It's complicated.

TL;DR - Bats are a perfect storm of: genetic proximity to humans (as fellow mammals), keystone species interacting with many others in the environment (including via respiratory secretions and blood-transmission), great immune systems for spreading dangerous viruses, flight, social structure, hibernation, etc.

You may not be fully aware, but unless your head has been stuffed in the sand, you've probably heard, at some point, that X virus "lives in bats." It's been said about: Rabies, Hendra/Nipah, Ebola, Chikungunya, Rift Valley Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis, and yes, SARS, MERS, and, now probably SARS-CoV-2 (with the addition of another intermediate species?)

But why? Why is it always bats? The answer lies in the unique niche bats fill in our ecosystem.

# Bats are not that far off from humans genetically speaking

They're placental mammals that give birth to live young, that are about as related to us (distance-wise) as dogs. Which means ~84% of our genomes are identical to bat genomes. Just slightly less related to us than, say, mice or rats (~85%).

(this estimate is based upon associations in phylogeny. Yes I know bats are a huge group, but it's useful to estimate at this level right now.)

Why does this matter? **Well, genetic relatedness isn't

... keep reading on reddit β‘

π︎ 2
π°︎ r/thewestwing
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π︎ May 06 2020
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Live Slow; Die Never: Senescence and the Evolution of the Elven Lifespan

Hello people of the internet. I am an archaeologist, university instructor and long-time player of Dungeons and Dragons. In my spare time I've been contextualizing the fantasy races of D&D in evolutionary theory, and I wanted to share with you short article on the subject. It is directed primarily at dungeon masters, world builders and people interested in learning more about how anthropologists approach the study of human beings.

I think I should also add that the theories I present here and in other posts are notably at odds with the lore of D&D in most cases. I recognize that each of these species already has founding mythologies, some of which are very detailed. What I'm presenting is an alternate history in which evolution played the dominant role in shaping the current suite of life. It's still possible for both these ideas and the cosmological stories of the D&D races to coexist, so long as we understand the myths to be cultural narratives that are not necessarily grounded in literal fact.

If you want to read more on the topic, I have also posted about the evolution of orcs, dwarves, halfings, two on dragonborn, and several on elves. Iβve also discussed what a species is in the context of half-orcs and half-elves.

Enjoy!

Iβve written a few posts on elves to-date, but a subject I havenβt yet touched is their strangely long life-spans. While the average human might expect to live around 80 years, elves can live to be nearly 1000 with little deterioration to their physical or mental states. A perfectly valid question in both D&D and biology is why do elves live so much longer than other races? Moreover, what might

... keep reading on reddit β‘

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π€︎ u/jjwerner42
π︎ Sep 04 2019
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Lifespans, longevity and utilitarian veganism

I already posted this at /r/debateavegan specifically discussing utilitarian-based arguments for veganism. Didn't get much feedback from the utilitarians. Perhaps you'd like to give it a shot, I'm interested in your ideas regarding lifespan and longevity

A common vegan (utilitarian) argument against husbandry is that animals are slaughtered at a fraction of their natural life span, thus depriving them of the enjoyment of future experiences. I've seen several info-graphics that illustrate this point of which I'll link a couple:

Within his utilitarian calculus, vegan philosopher Jeff McMahan came up with a thought experiment in which he justified a form of "benign carnivorism" based on the assumptions that "it does not... seem morally objectionable to eat an animal that has died of natural causes" which I believe epitomizes the critical importance that utilitarians give to sentient creatures being able to reach their natural lifespans:

>Suppose that we could create a breed of animals genetically programmed to die at a comparatively early age, when their meat would taste best. We could then have a practice of benign carnivorism that would involve causing such animals to exist, raising them for a certain period in conditions in which they would be content, and then simply collecting their bodies for human consumption once they died. Such a practice would not be bad for the animals and would arguably be good for them, since they would have lives worth living and would not have existed at all if not for the practice. And the practice would not involve doing anything to them, such as killing them, that would be against their interests.

https://philosophy.rutgers.edu/joomlatools-files/docman-files/Eating_Animals_the_Nice_Way.pdf

Vegans that base their beliefs on other positions would argue that it's still wrong in itself to modify living creatures for the purpose of exploitation. However, McMahan mentions the possibility of finding such gene occurring in nature, in which case he explains that:

>There would, it seems, be no more reason to eliminate the gene than there is to try to increase the life spans of shorter-lived species to match those of longer-lived species.

While "because it's natural" shouldn't be an appropriate justification for our ethical positions I assume tha

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π︎ Apr 26 2019
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Updated Grimmybear quotes. Original post found at: https://www.reddit.com/r/Grimmybear/comments/58xcsf/grimmy_quote_collection/.

This is simply an updated version of the much more impressive post made by /u/Shilena, which is found at https://www.reddit.com/r/Grimmybear/comments/58xcsf/grimmy_quote_collection/. #277 is of special interest. (Use arrow keys to scroll horizontally)

``````0   "these arent even funny quotes!"-grimmybear [Fallout: New Vegas]

1   "Long hair don't care" - Real Grimmybear 2015

2   "Donna is going downa"-grimmybear [Dark Souls 2]

3   "You shut your mouth, you fucking hillbilly person you!!!" [Fallout: New Vegas]

4   "Look at my butt you dirty hussey" [Fallout: New Vegas]

5   "I constantly have swamp ass, kill me." -Grimmybear [Fallout: New Vegas]

6   "I am of scare." -Grimmybear

7   "that is the most disgusting utter ever, i just wanna suck that" -Grimmybear [Fallout: New Vegas]

8   "I'm like a huge beacon of come and fuck me."- Grimmybear [Fallout: New Vegas]

9   "That makes more sense than dick staring." -Grimmy

10  "C'mon I know how to fist"- Grimm

11  "Alright kid.. bend over"-Grimmybear [Fallout: New Vegas]

12  "Don't you guys know the enjoyment of sinking your teeth into some bone?" -grimmybear [The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth]

13  "No one wants to be a hilllbilly, its just a thing you're born with, like an extra nipple"- Sambowned [The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth]

14  "Winters coming? I'm cumming on Winter. Kreygasm " -Grimmybear

15  "I'll fuck a mutant [Fallout: New Vegas]

16  "I just wanna swing on this giant penis" Grimmybear [Don't Starve Together]

17  My baby titties are freaking out right now"-grimmybear [The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth]

18  "Take your shirt off, nerd, what the hell." -Grimmybear [H1Z1]

19  "someone touch that zombie sack" -Grimmybear [H1Z1]

20  "Oh my god I shot it in the dick with an arrow" -Grimmybear [H1Z1]

21  "Hello speed hacker you fucking ass nugget" [H1Z1]

22  "Oh my god Skype hentai Sesh on stream I would love that Kreygasm " [H1Z1]

23  "There would be dongers all over the place if I was allowed" -Grimmybear [H1Z1]

24  "Nice hairdo Vanilla Ice" -Randy [Rust]

25  "Welcome back mike hunt is moist" -Grimmybear [H1Z1]

26  "With all the ass stabbing they should call this game Dark Holes!"- Grimmybear [Dark Souls II]

27  "I feel like all the other D's are better" -Grimmybear [The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth]

29  "Grimmy is the pro``````
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π€︎ u/Devo2397
π︎ Nov 06 2018
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How old do Bigfeet get before dying?

Well, human lifespan before all the medicine was around 50-60 years and most great apes live quite long too, like the Chimpanzee living to an average age of 35-40 and Gorillas living to between 45-55 most of the time and Orangutans living to about 40 years. One main rule for most mammals is that the bigger you are the longer you live with the blue whale having a lifespan of around 80-110 years and some Bow heads reaching 200 years of age. Bigfeet in the wild I'm guessing have a lifespan of around 60-70 years but if they live somewhere where it does not get too cold nor too hot and they have a good, constant supply of food and are isolated from humans and other things they can probably reach an age of 100 or more. What is your opinion on how long they live?

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π︎ Jul 12 2018
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Grimmy Quote Collection

Impressed by the sheer number of quotes that Grimmy has, I decided I wanted to collect them all! Over the past few months, I have been slowly making my collection. Basically the only rule I am following is that I myself am not allowed to type "!quote" in chat. Enjoy!

UPDATE: In the morning hours of 1/2/2017, I realized my dream by getting completely up-to-date with all quotes. Thanks to twitch user Baseballfan56 for going on a wild goose chase which led them to call up every single missing quote in chat. Cheers!

Quote Number Quote Text
0 "these arent even funny quotes!"-grimmybear [Fallout: New Vegas]
1 "Long hair don't care" - Real Grimmybear 2015
2 "Donna is going downa"-grimmybear [Dark Souls 2]
3 "You shut your mouth, you fucking hillbilly person you!!!" [Fallout: New Vegas]
4 "Look at my butt you dirty hussey" [Fallout: New Vegas]
5 "I constantly have swamp ass, kill me." -Grimmybear [Fallout: New Vegas]
6 "I am of scare." -Grimmybear
7 "that is the most disgusting utter ever, i just wanna suck that" -Grimmybear [Fallout: New Vegas]
8 "I'm like a huge beacon of come and fuck me."- Grimmybear [Fallout: New Vegas]
9 "That makes more sense than dick staring." -Grimmy
10 "C'mon I know how to fist"- Grimm
11 "Alright kid.. bend over"-Grimmybear [Fallout: New Vegas]
12 "Don't you guys know the enjoyment of sinking your teeth into some bone?" -grimmybear [The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth]
13 "No one wants to be a hilllbilly, its just a thing you're born with, like an extra nipple"- Sambowned [The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth]
14 "Winters coming? I'm cumming on Winter. Kreygasm " -Grimmybear
15 "I'll fuck a mutant [Fallout: New Vegas]
16 "I just wanna swing on this giant penis" Grimmybear [Don't Starve Together]
17 My baby titties are freaking out right now"-grimmybear [The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth]
18 "Take your shirt off, nerd, what the hell." -Grimmybear [H1Z1]
19 "someone touch that zombie sack" -Grimmybear [H1Z1]
20 "Oh my god I shot it in the dick with an arrow" -Grimmybear [H1Z1]
21 "Hello speed hacker you fucking ass nugget" [H1Z1]
22 "Oh my god Skype hentai Sesh on stream I would love that Kreygasm " [H1Z1]
23 "There would be dongers all over the place if I was allowed" -Grimmybear [H1Z1]
24 "Nice hairdo Vanilla Ice" -Randy [Rust]
25 "Welcome back mike hunt is moist" -Grimmybear [H1Z1]
26 "With all the ass stabbing they should call this game Dark Holes!"- Grimmybear [Dark Soul
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