Has anyone made an Anki deck of Latin words with English derivatives?


I was thinking of making a deck, but I'm not totally sure that it's worth the time. It seems like quite an easy way to increase one's vocabulary without much effort.

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📰︎ r/latin
📅︎ Sep 08 2017
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Constrained Poetry Challenge 12

write a poem using only words with a Latin origin.

here's a list for those too lazy to google.

👍︎ 2
📰︎ r/Poetry
👤︎ u/todolos
📅︎ Apr 25 2011
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RE: Bekah in Latina Parents Mag. --History lesson!

I typed up a whole ass essay for a comment that ended up getting deleted but thought it may be good to post on the main sub. Never thought I'd be doing a history lesson for the fans of the Bachelor but here we go.

DISCLAIMER: All of this information is personal knowledge and some research I did online. I may have missed the mark in some of it. Please don't come after me lol. :(


ok time for a history lesson!! this is my moment.

I've been waiting for a post like this for the longest time. I'm gonna try to break down a little bit of origin EUROPEAN COLONIAL countries and where the line stands of being 'white' and 'colored' as well as their languages.

Britain (English), Ireland (Irish and English), Scotland (Scottish Gaelic and English), Spain (Spanish), Portugal (Portuguese), France (French), Netherlands (Dutch), Belgium (Dutch, German and French), Russia (Russian), Italy (Italian)

So listed above are our origin countries, and it today's world they are ALL considered white and look white. They're not colored. I'm speaking of course as the 'origin' countries. There was very little diversity back when they were colonizing the Americas and the rest of the world.


Boys and girls do I have an answer for you. But before that I need to break down what the state of the Americas were back before colonialism. For thousands of years, before Jesus, Asian, specifically Siberian countries had discovered the Americas over 15,000 years ago (thanks u/floating-boats, u/Caromora, u/AbolitionistCapybara) and and didn't share that information with any of their more progressive (maybe digressive lol) European countries. We're talking literally Before Christ, 776BC--A little foreshadowing of what was to come centuries later. Anyway, the Asians came and assimilated into these lands which are modern day Canada, USA, Mexico, and Central and South America. These Asians found their ways to Alaska and Canada all the way down to modern day Argentina. That is a HUGE stretch of land. Over thousands of years this became THEIR home. There wasn't any 'natives' in the Americas back then. Asians came and settled to find a new way to live.

Fast forward to 1492, one man was what changed the whole game for us. Christopher Columbus. Cristobal Colon. Christoforo Colombo was his actual name. He was an italian man set out on a quest to find more land.

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📅︎ Mar 10
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Meanings and origins of all the Arknights Operator names!

I already did one of these about 10 months ago, but we've gotten a lot of new operators since then.

If you have any comments or tips, please put them in the comments! I will incorporate them asap.

12F „12F? That was the day I came to this world. You could say it's my birthday.” 12F is the producer's birthday: 1991.02.16→19910216(dec)→12FCE48→12F.

Aak Named in reference to the Sanskrit term A-un, with Hung being the other half.

Absinthe Named after the spirit of the same name. Absinthe (the spirit) has the reputation to be drunk by good willing, but self-destructive people, like van Gogh, Edgar Allan Poe, and Oscar Wilde.

Adnachiel Named after the angel of truth and wisdom.

Ambriel Named after the angel of communication and protection.

Amiya Named after the Hebrew "àmijah", which means "my mother is Jah" aka "my mother is Jéhovah". It litterally makes Amyia a pseudo-Messiah.

Angelina Angelina originates from the Greek αγγελος, “messenger”.

Ansel The name Ansel may be from Dr. Howard C. Ansel. Dr. Ansel worked in Pharmacy of University of Georgia. One of his famous books is Ansel's Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems, a classic pharmacy book.

Asbestos Named after the material of similar name. The operator’s prototype a fire salamander, mirroring the fire resistant properties of the mineral. Her arts damage mitigation could be another nod to this fact.

Astesia Her name is probably derived from aster (Ancient Greek for “star”).

Ayerscape Ayerscarpe is made up of two words: Ayers (Rock) and Scarp (meaning a steep slope, short for enscarpement) Ayers is definitely a reference to Ayers Rock, which is a large sandstone rock formation in the southern part of the Northern Territory in central Australia. It is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Bagpipe Named after the famous instrument of Scottish origin.

Beagle Named after the race of small hound.

Beehunter Named after the old English "beowulf", translated as "beehunter", meaning bear.

Beeswax Named after the naturally produced wax by honey bees. The material is used in a variety of cosmetics, especially polish. The operator probably uses it to keep her horns shiny and beautiful.

Bibeak Maybe meaning “two-beaks”, which could refer to her two swords.

Bison Named after the north American animal.

Blaze A blaze is “a very large or fiercely burning fire”, which descr

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📰︎ r/arknights
👤︎ u/Moorbote
📅︎ Jan 21
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[SPOILERS] Assassin's Creed Valhalla - Analyzing the Isu language transliterations and making Isu alphabet

>Language is a ford through the river of time,it leads us to the dwelling of the dead;but he cannot arrive there,who fears deep water.

- Vladislav Markovich Illich-Svitych, linguist and accentologist.


As many of you noticed, Assassin's Creed Valhalla contains an interesting piece of lore - Isu has their own language. We are introduced to some short pieces of text, accompanied by its translations. However, it's not a Morze code, not a list of characters that were wrapped in n-decimal number system. It's something completely new for the series. And, unwrapping all of this, all I can say is bravo to the developers and writers.

Few days before, my lore analyst colleagues from Access the Animus published two videos, in which they cross-checked the Isu text and its translations, then deciphered how numbers are being written. Most of the work was deciphering texts: "this word means that sequence of Isu symbols", also they revealed some grammar rules and everything around that. If you haven't seen it by chance, I implore you to take a look - it's a huge work that deserves all the praise.


Me and some of my colleagues from our admin team decided to dig into this from other's perspective. In other words, to start from the basics. While discussing these revelations, we all agreed that in any language the pair "letter-sound" is very, very important - after all, that's how verbal communication between people work. And you cannot split text and phonetics. To rephrase:

The meaning of language is to write information, read it and also speak out.

ATA's analyzes solves the first problem with Isu language: now you can write information (although within limits of deciphered text, but still it helps a lot). You might also say that you can read the text. But think again: can you really read what was written here, and also spell it out? Not the translated text, but reading and speaking the actual Isu language written here?


That's the analysis I would like to present you in this post. After learning it, I hope you can read and speak at least some Isu words on their language. Thankfully, AC Valhalla provides enough information for this.

**Disclaimer: I'm not that much familiar w

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📅︎ Jan 17
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Where heroes/titans get their names

I have noticed that many of the heroes' and titans' names are derived from mythology and whatnot; here, I am attempting to catalog as many as I can. Ultra-vague ones like Judge and Dark Star will obviously be left out (unless you can give me what they would have gotten their names from); if you have suggestions, please leave them in the comments. I will comment on them and add them to the list.


Galahad-- Arthurian knight of chastity

Artemis-- Greek goddess of hunting/wilderness

Thea-- misspelling of Theia, Greek Titaness of light

Phobos-- minor Greek god of fear

Astaroth-- Judeochristianized, demonized name of Anat, Canaanite goddess of Love/War

Aurora-- Roman goddess of the dawn

Arachne-- Woman transformed into the fist spider in Greek mythology

Lilith-- Jewish mother of all demons

Orion-- hunter constellation

Nebula-- Roman cloud nymph

Qing Mao-- possibly named after Jiang Qing, aka Madame Mao, Chinese Communist Revolutionary (this is largely speculative, but the use of both Qing and Mao is suspicious)

Corvus-- Crow/Raven constellation?

Morrigan-- Celtic goddess of Death

Satori-- Japanese monkey-like, mind-reading monsters said to dwell in the Hida and Mino mountains.

Ishmael-- Abrahamic son of Abraham; supposed ancestor of Muhammad in Islam

Helios-- Greek god of the sun

Cornelius-- Roman Centurion; considered to be the first Christian convert of previous Gentile

Andvari-- Norse dwarf with magical riches/ring; lives under a waterfall.

Isaac-- possibly named after Issac Asimov, science fiction writer and creator of the Three Rules of Robotics.

Dante-- likely named after Dante Alighieri, 14th-century Italian poet and author of the Divine Comedy (though the only part anyone actually cares about is Dante's Inferno)

Dorian-- Likely named after Dorian Gray, an aristocratic Victorian man from The Picture of Dorian Gray who sells his soul for eternal youth.

Celeste-- Related to the English word "Celestial"; derived from the Latin word "Caelum"

Yasmine-- Possibly derived from Jasmine from Disney's Aladdin

Faceless-- Possibly derived from the Faceless men from Game of Thrones

Krista-- possibly derived from "crystallos", latin for ice

Lars-- Germanic name derived from the Latin word "laurentius", meaning crowned with laurel-- laurel being an evergreen bush, thus checking out with Lars' winter theme.


Mairi-- Derived from Mare, Latin word for water

Hyperion-- Greek Titan of Heavenly light


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📰︎ r/HeroWarsFB
📅︎ Mar 18
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The English word "item" was used as an adverb in Latin, meaning "also"

I was looking at the wikipedia entry for Lucius Artorius Castus today, and when I read the English translation of the inscription on his crypt, I noticed the repetition of the word "also". I was curious about what is the Latin word for this so I looked at the original, and my oh my, it was item. According to wiktionary's etymology of item:

> From Middle English item, from Latin item (“also; in the same manner”). The present English meaning derives from a usage in lists, where the first entry would begin in primis (“firstly”) or imprimis, and the other entries with item (“also, moreover”). Later, people less familiar with Latin, seeing such lists, took the word "item" as meaning "a member of a list".

It makes so much sense!

Here is another thread from this subreddit that discussed the word item together with other related words.

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📰︎ r/etymology
📅︎ Jan 30
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Di-Jun Huang


I’m cutting the character I’ve been complaining about no one else cutting for the entire round, who could have seen that coming?

I like Huang. Low B tier, I guess. Very low B tier. Scraping the top 50 is much more than far enough.

Turnabout Target

Turnabout Target is an excellent case. It’s fantastically paced with big reveals happening snappily one after the other, flying forward through its mystery like a bullet from a gun. It’s more densely packed than any first case has any right to be, and contains more hooks to keep you interested in the rest of the game than was even necessary.

Near the centre of this whirlwind is the titular character of this cut, Di-Jun Huang, the supposedly nearly assassinated president of Zheng-Fa. Isn’t this exciting! Kicking off the game with the attempted murder of the previous game’s rival’s country! And the assassin is the same fucking guy from 2-4? We get to finally take that guy down now, 4 games later, and in the first case no less??

That was enough. That’s all the case needed to be and I would have been satisfied with simply nabbing De Killer and having that be the end of it. But instead we get a great twist midway through the case where not only is Shelly not de killer, but he’s even meddling in the case’s investigation for the specific purpose of allowing Edgeworth to uncover the truth. I love it, and this is barely the halfway point.

The next section of the case finally concerns the man, the myth, the legend himself, the character who is ranked higher than Maya Fey, Di-Jun Huang.

Huang has been this commanding and authoritative presence throughout the entire case, he’s enormous and comically ripped in his stupidly tight suit, and never once lets up from his bravado. An overwhelming, powerful man who is a total fraud.

The assassination plot being a fake is just so fun? It’s fun. What a convolutedly dumb thing to do. The whole thing being an “asinine publicity stunt”, as Edgeworth puts it, isn’t a twist going for gasps so much as it’s going for laughs.

Look at this chubby chump. Pathetic.

It’s an ordeal entirely too entertaining to not captivate, which is great since the whole point of this portion of the case was to be a distraction so Knightley can do his Good Culprit Stuff behind your back. [Or his back, technically.](https://vignette.wikia.nocookie.net/aceattorney/images/e/eb/Knight

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📅︎ Jan 24
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ēa language – an early sketch (obviously)

Remember when some drunk Proto-Slavs crashed a Greek symposium? No? :D Well, I've been trying to create some kind of a χελαίκα σλαβίκα for a long time now and it sounded just awful, what can I say. Greek alphabet just doesn't work with sounds absolutely needed for even the most basic grammar, I can't bear the thought of a Slavic language without all those [ʒ]’s and [ʂ]’s ;)

It's a shame though, because the idea of a tribe of hunters and gatherers only starting to build first *gȏrdi and appropriating a somehow richer (erm… alright: different) culture is, at least linguistically, terribly appealing. I didn’t care much for phonetics but what seemed most attractive to me was creating the simplest grammar system that would prove extremely flexible and then, starting with some basic roots only, build up into a very different linguistic world-view. So one could say it was a morphological exercise in conlanging.

What follows are some left-overs from this project that I reworked today ;)


Vowels – kindly transcribed for English speakers (can you pronounce [ɨ]? ;)).

a [ɑ] ā [aɪ]
e [e] ē [eɪ]
o [ɔː] ō [ɔɪ]
u [ʊ] (not productive grammatically)
i [ɨ] (not productive grammatically)

And the consonants – well, the surprising ones (i/u can work both ways, same as Latin etc.).

i [j]
u [w]
g [ʒ]
h [x] (verry Scottish)

Some Basic Words

So, let's learn the first six ēa roots. We're talking k·r·d, l·k, g·n, s·v·r, h·d, s·l·s. kard means 'heart' and so on: savir 'animal', salis 'sun'. The rule for creating basic nouns is easy: an -a- in the second position and optionally -i- to make the word easier to pronounce. Short nouns are a bit different, but still regular: leka 'tongue', gena 'woman' and heda 'food'.

Verbs can be obviously created from the very same roots, infinitives are formed with -e- in the second position and the suffix -s: kerds 'to believe, to trust', leks 'to speak', heds 'to eat' and sels 'to shine' (notice that -s doesn't get doubled there)..

Adjectives? Easy, but the three-letter-roots (vast majority in the language) have consonants a little bit shuffled. lokos means 'concerning the tongue', but 'concerning the heart/language' is rendered as krodos.

First Conjugation

Verbs are conjugated by three persons (no plurals – they're self-evident most of the time anyway, and can also be indicated by pronouns), perfectivity and three tenses. 3×2×3 is… 18,

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📰︎ r/conlangs
📅︎ Feb 22
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Guide : How to Understand a Latin Dictionary


Reading a dictionary seems like it should be something that isn't too difficult to understand without reading the instructions, but in many cases, this simply isn't true; much like in text speak common terms can be reduced to informal spellings (think ttyl or wuu2) for ease of brevity, the same is done for Latin dictionaries. The only downside to this is that it can sometimes be difficult to gauge what a dictionary is telling you amongst all the shorthand. This article assumes you're aware Latin has grammatical case and gender, but apart from that, you don't need to have any proficiency whatsoever.

Common Abbreviations in Dictionaries

Primarily, it's important to make sure that common terms that will occur in a dictionary are understood. The following are common abbreviations used by dictionaries; you don't need to memorise these, but it may help to at least be aware of them:

  • Often the cases will be expressed with their first three letters, e.g. nom. voc. abl.
  • Often the genders are reduced to m./masc., f./fem., and n./neu. respectively
  • abbr. = the term is an abbreviation
  • acc. to = according to
  • act. = active (e.g. I eat as opposed to I am eaten)
  • adj. = adjective
  • adv./advbs. = adverb
  • cf. = confer/conferatur (compare)
  • conj. = conjunction/connective
  • defect. = the term is defective (doesn't have the full conjugation pattern)
  • dep. = deponent (the term conjugates in the passive to give an active meaning)
  • exclam. = the term is an exclamation
  • imper. = the term is a command (imperative) or the term is impersonal
  • interrog. = the term is a "question word"
  • irreg. = the term is irregular (doesn't follow the expected conjugation)
  • neg. = the term makes the sentence negative
  • prep. = preposition
  • prop. = properly
  • reflex. = reflexive (the verb requires the reflexive pronoun)
  • sg. = the noun is singular
  • v. = the term is a verb

These are only the general ones you may run into, and each dictionary has their own abbreviations they use, especially for more well-known authors and their respective works; to find the meaning of a specific abbreviation, every dictionary should have a General List of Abbreviations. Here is the list for Lewis & Short Latin Dictionary, generally considered the best of the English-language Latin dictionaries available.

What are Lemmata?

A lemma, put simply, is the main form of any word — the one you would recognis

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📅︎ Jan 13
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Evolution of Mafeulo 6:9-13: The Lord's Prayer in Tovasala Relformaidi

TL/DR: I have grown, and so has my conlang. (Look out for some autobiographical bits--and a good deal of rambling.)

This--the first in what I hope will be an ongoing showcase of translated Tovasala extracts, then and now--has followed me all the way since early 2009.

I say early 2009 instead of September 2016--because that's when I began developing a little something called Réformáti as an adjunct to a planned book series called The Sevton Saga. (For those new to my writeups, Sevton--in and out of development since December 2005--is a children's story [or in RFM, edomissnakole] which partially takes place in the fictional Atlantic island nation of Rogatia.) Exactly for what purpose in the proceedings, I still can't quite recall to this day.

Réformáti's grammar draft--including conjugation samples--covered at least eight pages on paper. Back then, I was accompanied by none other than a library-borrowed French dictionary, plus a list of the 100 most common words in English. Atop page 4 of the draft was this side-by-side text of The Lord's Prayer, ca. April 18-19, 2009--which officially was my first RFM translation duty in any shape or form. Someday soon, I'll scan in those papers. (From here--to snowclone a trope convention--prepare to witness the sliding scale of mutual unintelligibility.)

Réformáti English
Nótro Péro, ki est en Zíel, Our Father, who art in Heaven,
Ti nom est konsakré. Hallowed be Thy name.
Ti reinlande vene, Thy Kingdom come,
Ti taske est féyé zur Terre Thy will be done on Earth
kon il est en Zíel. as it is in Heaven.
Dons-nou nótré Pan ze die, Give us this day our Daily Bread,
é pardons-nou nótrés aufenses, and forgive us our trespasses,
kon nou pardónons zels ki as we forgive those who
víólen nou. trespass against us.
É no gids-nou dans le tentázon, And lead us not into temptation,
mai savres-nou de mal. but deliver us from evil.
(Parké Vótré est le reinlande, For Thine is the Kingdom,
le póder é le glore, the Power and the Glory,
pour toújou é toújou.) forever and ever.
Ámen. Amen.

Like I've mentioned of those early days time and again: a middling excuse for a Romance-language (French/Spanish) relex. Skewing more towards the French because…well, see above. (That, and the fact that back home in Dominica, our secondary-school class used to recite the French version if the last lesson of the day dea

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📰︎ r/conlangs
👤︎ u/Routhwick
📅︎ Mar 12
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The names in Hannibal

My Theories about some of the names of the characters in Hannibal:

Hannibal Lecter: The name Hannibal rhymes with Cannibal which is a hint at his culinary preferences( I know it is common knowledge but just to have a somewhat complete list).The name lecter could have two origins. The first origin could be the Latin word "lectus" which as a adjective means exquisite and in my eyes describes his taste in music and (corpse)art.As a noun it means couch or bed and could be a allusion to his Profession.The second origin could be that it rhymes with "nectar". Nectar is a sweet substance used by plants to lure insects into their flowers to carry their pollen to other flowers which could be a allusion to his manipulative nature.

Berverly Katz: The name Katz is derived from the German word "Katze" which means cat in english and could be a allusion to her curiosity ,which was her downfall( curiosity killed the cat).

Randall Tier: "Tier" is the German word for animal and because he thinks and behaves like a animal so his surename describes his nature. Randall is maybe derived from the German word "Randale" which is unnessary and violent behaviour and decribes his actions.

I am sorry for any spelling or grammatical mistakes english is not my first language.

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📰︎ r/HannibalTV
📅︎ Jan 28
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The Cult of Zen



  • What kind of "Cult" is this?


>Cicero defined religio as cultus deorum, "the cultivation of the gods."

>The "cultivation" necessary to maintain a specific deity was that god's cultus, "cult," and required "the knowledge of giving the gods their due" (scientia colendorum deorum).

> The noun cultus originates from the past participle of the verb colo, colere, colui, cultus, "to tend, take care of, cultivate," originally meaning "to dwell in, inhabit" and thus "to tend, cultivate land (ager); to practice agriculture," an activity fundamental to Roman identity even when Rome as a political center had become fully urbanized.

>Cultus is often translated as "cult" without the negative connotations the word may have in English, or with the Old English word "worship", but it implies the necessity of active maintenance beyond passive adoration. Cultus was expected to matter to the gods as a demonstration of respect, honor, and reverence; it was an aspect of the contractual nature of Roman religion (see do ut des). Augustine of Hippo echoes Cicero's formulation when he declares, "religion is nothing other than the cultus of God."

>The term "cult" first appeared in English in 1617, derived from the French culte, meaning "worship" which in turn originated from the Latin word cultus meaning "care, cultivation, worship". The meaning "devotion to a person or thing" is from 1829. Starting about 1920, "cult" acquired an additional six or more positive and negative definitions. In French, for example, sections in newspapers giving the schedule of worship for Catholic services are headed Culte Catholique, while the section giving the schedule of Protestant services is headed culte réformé. Within the Catholic church the most prominent Cults are those of the saints.


Thus, the "Cult of Zen" is a non-denominational religious organization meant to "tend to, take care of, cultivate" the "Zen" tradition. As a group, the Cult of Zen aims to "to dwell in, inhabit" the "Zen" that the original Zen Masters of the tradition talked about.


  • Who were the original Zen Masters?

Here is a brief explanation that will be re-drafted and expanded upon at a later time.

Here is a [search engine of Zen quotes](https:

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📅︎ Dec 27 2020
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The Classical Liberal Arts in a Nutshell

What are the classical liberal arts?

Sister Miriam Joseph, in her wonderful textbook The Trivium: The Liberal Arts of Logic, Grammar, and Rhetoric, defines each art in a poetic way:


  • Logic: art of thinking
  • Grammar: art of inventing and combining symbols
  • Rhetoric: art of communication


  • Discrete quantity
    • Arithmetic: theory of number
    • Music: application of the theory of number
  • Continuous quantity
    • Geometry: theory of space
    • Astronomy: application of the theory of space

She goes on to explain that,

>These arts of reading, writing, and reckoning have formed the traditional basis of liberal education, each constituting both a field of knowledge and the technique to acquire that knowledge. The degree bachelor of arts is awarded to those who demonstrate the requisite proficiency in these arts, and the degree master of arts, to those who have demonstrated a greater proficiency.
>Today, as in centuries past, a mastery of the liberal arts is widely recognized as the best preparation for work in professional schools, such as those of medicine, law, engineering, or theology. Those who first perfect their own faculties through liberal education are thereby better prepared to serve others in a professional or other capacity.

Why do you call them 'arts' instead of 'sciences'?

>Each of the liberal arts is both a science and an art in the sense that in the province of each there is something to know (science) and something to do (art). An art may be used successfully before one has a formal knowledge of its precepts. For example, a child of three may use correct grammar even though the child knows nothing of formal grammar. Similarly, logic and rhetoric may be effectively used by those who do not know the precepts of these arts. It is, however, desirable and satisfying to acquire a clear knowledge of the precepts and to know why certain forms of expression or thought are right and wrong. The trivium is the organon, or instrument, of all education at all levels because the arts of logic, grammar, and rhetoric are the arts of communication itself in that they govern the means of communication

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📅︎ Dec 16 2020
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Hiphop/rap terms, phrases and concepts that Kpop fans should understand before they use them (with lots of examples)

Warning: This post got really long, idk if anyone is actually gonna read it but ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ at this point it just became something fun for me to work on!

I very often see rap/hiphop terms misused/misunderstood within the Kpop community. I think it's totally understandable since most fans are younger/came to kpop first, alternatively a lot of folks might not even be native english speakers and so these terms might be confusing or vague in their meaning. But the misuse can lead to some miscommunication. I thought I'd make a post to clear up some of these terms/concepts so hopefully folks who want to can understand a bit better.

>A disclaimer: i'm not in any way a hiphop scholar (which is a very real, very legit thing) I'm just a fan of the genre and it's many offshoots, and i've tried to familiarize myself with as much of the terminology as possible. If you're interested in learning more one place i think is a good place to start would be Hiphopdx's long running series "The Breakdown" it's had 3 hosts over the years the first being Justin Hunte who also has a really good youtube channel, but here's one episode from the main channel called "Real vs Fake Hiphop" if you wanted to check it out. I don't agree with everything they've talked about in various episodes but it always provides a fresh perspective and is a great history primer for anyone wanting to get more into the genre. Another great starter video is this one from VOX, which is pretty famous already and gives a good quick primer on some of the ways hiphop has evolved in complexity, and gives good visuals for understanding what some of the more technical music terms are around rapping.

^((Also, this will partially be me fanning over some of my fave rappers in the kpop-sphere. I'm not really under any impression that most of these folks are all-time greats in a wider context (though I think that a handful could at least hold their own) but they're definitely idols whose skills deserve to be highlighted, I don't hit on all my favorites in this post but I tried my best to include a wide range of artists as my examples))

Hiphop vs Rapping + the history of Korean HipHop:

I have, on occasion, seen these two used interchangeably but i want to try and make clear the difference.

Hiphop is,

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👤︎ u/franetics
📅︎ Jul 27 2020
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I Decipher and Study Conlangs from Famous Books, TV, Movies, Video Games, Etc., the past 15 Years; Also my Conlangs; Logographic Conscripts: Tho Fan, Ferengi, Klingon, Vulcan, Okrand Atlantean, Pakuni. 电影的人工語言,语素文字:15年的学者.

The last 15 years, I've deciphered a lot of conlangs (invented languages) from famous movies etc that were never deciphered before. Some of these are on my blog.


Here's an organized list of links for this blog and my other blogs:


My real name is Larry Rogers and I'm from SE Michigan. You can find me on facebook. I got a BA Linguistics (language science) degree from Michigan State University in 2009. I've been deciphering "famous conlangs" and conlanging for 15 years now. I've been writing under the pseudonym "Bob" on Zompist Bboard and Conlang Bulletin board the past year.

I run one of the oldest and largest conlanging facebook groups:

Conlangs and Linguistics, Constructed Languages, Invented Languages


I also have some facebook groups for some of the famous movie etc conlangs that I've deciphered and "expanded".


I consider myself an amateur language scientist specializing in conlangs. I have other scholarly specialties that I focus on more, though. My top specialty is the linguistics of hieroglyphic aka logographic writing systems, the comparative study of all 50 or so known logographic writing systems. My other top specialties are all 20 or so known ancient languages of the Bible and the anthropology of all known religions, beliefs, and ideas. I also am known for my knowledge of many (maybe all) ancient languages as well as many historic languages and some exotic (or minority) languages.

I'm notable very interested and well-read in anthropology and ethnography. For anthropology, I specialize in eastern Asia and have lived there 5 or so years. "Hieroglyphic Studies" also i

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📅︎ Nov 19 2020
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Explanations for the Mother Music Iceberg

As follows are my explanations for each layer's topics:

Giant Step

  • Keiichi Suzuki - One of the composers for the first two MOTHER games. He also provided backing vocals and instrumentation for several of the tracks on the vocal album.
  • Hip Tanaka - Another one of the composers for the first two games. He has created iconic sound effects for several classic Nintendo games.
  • Shogo Sakai - The composer of MOTHER 3. If you're a Smash or Kirby fan, odds are you've heard his arrangements.
  • The Beatles - This topic could fill up its own iceberg! Shigesato Itoi is notoriously a big fan of the Beatles, whose influence can be felt throughout the MOTHER franchise. Examples include the Dungeon Man's yellow submarine and "Megaton Walks"'s sampling of "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (Reprise)". When it comes to this franchise, it's hard to tell whether or not something is a deliberate Beatles reference.
  • The Beach Boys - This rock band also has had a sizeable impact on the series' music, with perhaps the most notorious example being "DEIRDREEEEEEE". According to an interview with Suzuki and Tanaka, one which is referenced frequently by the iceberg, Smiley Smile's percussion techniques are stated to have massively influenced Suzuki's compositions.
  • Classical music - The usage of classical music in all three games, much like with the Beatles, could warrant a separate iceberg. Instances include the music for the Mr./Lord Passion fights, the Onett trumpeter, and M1's game over music seemingly homaging the Moonlight Sonata.
  • "OK desu ka?" - Itoi can be heard asking "OK desu ka?" ("Is this OK?") when selecting OK on the naming menu. This clip was recorded by Tanaka without Itoi's knowledge.
  • Pollyanna - One of the franchise's most recognizable songs. It appears in all three games.
  • Runaway Five : Blues Brothers - This is more obvious in the Japanese version, in which Lucky and Nice's clothes are black.
  • Snowman - As with Pollyanna, this popular melody appears in each game.
  • Sound Battle combos - In MOTHER 3, it is possible to land consecutive hits if you press A in time with the beat.

Lilliput Steps

  • Alien leitmotifs - There doesn't seem a consistent name for these two. In EarthBound's soundtrack, a distinct theremin-like riff and a distinct drumbeat can be heard in various songs, oftentimes those associated with Giygas's influence. The former leitmotif actually reappears in MOTHER 3.
  • "Beat It" - Mich
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Éliphas Lévis DEVIN arrangement explained: Multiplying fish and latinizing the sacred Tetragrammaton.

The DEVIN arrangement is a formula or procedure that is described in Éliphas Lévis book Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie in chapter "Shin" about divination. I like to think of it as a qabalist riddle or cryptic meme of occult connections. Understanding it, may require some abstract thinking, a bit of pattern recognition and most importantly, a willfulness to misuse qabalah and gematria in illegal and obscure ways. To be honest, it probably also requires an understanding of French, Latin and Hebrew, but I don't have that and I think we can get away understanding it using english translations only.

Since the formula has an exact numerical solution, it seems in a way trivial once you know the result, but there's still a lot of room for interpretation and I'm not sure if or how well known the solution or meaning of this riddle is; if this is already solved and published somewhere else or if there are any different explanations as far as anyone cares.

I kinda stumbled on the solution myself about a year ago, when /u/Frater_Green_Genes/ asked about here it in a now archieved thread, so I just wildely started speculating and calculating and connecting things until they made sense. However, I'm pretty confident, that I do have 'the correct solution' and therefore may be able to present a comprehensible picture of what Lévis point or idea about the DEVIN arrangement was all about, what it most likely meant to him and how I interpret it.

Let's start (unless noted otherwise, all quotes from The Doctrince of Transcendental Magic):

>One of the privileges which belong to the initiate of the Great Arcanum, and that which sums them all, is Divination. According to the vulgar comprehension of the term, to divine signifies to conjecture what is unknown, but its true sense is ineffable to the point of sublimity. To divine (divinari) is to exercise divinity. The word divinus, in Latin, signifies something far different from divus, which is equivalent to the man-god.

Not much to comment here. Divus means "saint" in latin. Like an avatar or an incarnation of a god i guess.

Also the word "sum" implies a mathematical operation, but that might not have been intended or may been worded differently in the french original. I'm also thinking "division" just because of all the "div" words.

>Devin, in French, contains the four letters of the word DIEU (God), plus

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📅︎ Dec 30 2020
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On Egyptus/Zeptah

"The land of Egypt being first discovered by a woman, who was the daughter of Ham, and the daughter of Egyptus, which in the Chaldean signifies Egypt, which signifies that which is forbidden...Now the first government of Egypt was established by Pharaoh, the eldest son of Egyptus, the daughter of Ham..."

-Book of Abraham 1:20

This verse (aside from containing the contradiction that Egyptus was first Ham's wife, then Daughter) seems to indicate that Egypt was named after a woman named Egyptus. Fortunately, we now know the true etymology of Egypt: the Egyptians called their own capital Hwt-kꜣ-pth, loosely translated as "house of the soul of Ptah", which the Babylonians then rendered in cuneiform as "Hikuptah" which the Greeks then wrote, adding the masculine omicron sigma ending, Aigyptos, which then entered Latin as Aegyptus, from which English Egypt descends. This is not a "theory", all of this is a matter of record. It is as much a proven fact as "Columbus sailed the ocean blue, 1492".

A historical Egyptus being the eponym of Egypt is provably impossible, as that name was several centuries and cultures down the line from Egypt, and even the absence of the 'a' is anachronistic to the Latin it comes from. The only possible excuse left is that the woman's name was Hwt-kꜣ-pth, which has been loosely translated as "Egyptus" for the eponym to make since to English readers; why the Latin -us ending is included would remain a mystery. However, the apologists themselves will disprove this argument for me.

The name Egyptus is so indefensible, the apologists have abandoned it altogether. Pearlofgreatprice.org admits the name is anachronistic, and attributes it to a later interpolation by a copyist of the book of Abraham. They are followed by Fairmormon, who goes so far as to call this verse a "founding myth". Their article ends with a list of no less than eighteen apocryphal sources linking Abraham with the founding of Egypt before the Book of Abraham was published, as if that somehow enhances its credibility.

The apologists instead argued that in older drafts of the Book of Abraham, the name of Ham's wife was "Zeptah". They claim victory, as Zeptah resembles Siptah, (an actual Egyptian name supposedly contemporary with Abraham) as well as contains "Ptah" the name of the god Egypt is actually named after. If any of this were true, it would mean Joseph Smith was translating Egyptian names before hieroglyphics had been deciphe

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📰︎ r/exmormon
📅︎ Dec 20 2020
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The most important languages, according to Bernard Comrie

Bernard Comrie's The World's Major Languages is a respected reference work. The third edition came out in 2018. Forty-one individual languages are featured with their own chapter in the book. (Caveat: technically, some headings are dialect continua, and some languages are bundled together with a genetic grouping, e.g. "Turkish and the Turkic Languages.") Of these, two are no longer widely spoken: Latin and Sanskrit. The remaining 39 form a plausible list of the world's most influential and/or widely spoken languages. Arbitrary as it necessarily is, such a list is still a useful thing to have, as I will explain.

The list, in order of presentation:

  1. English (chapter 3)

  2. German (chapter 4)

  3. Dutch (chapter 5)

  4. Danish-Norwegian-Swedish (chapter 6)

  5. French (chapter 9)

  6. Spanish (chapter 10)

  7. Portuguese (chapter 11)

  8. Italian (chapter 12)

  9. Romanian (chapter 13)

  10. Russian (chapter 15)

  11. Polish (chapter 16)

  12. Czech-Slovak (chapter 17)

  13. Serbo-Croat (chapter 18)

  14. Greek (chapter 19)

  15. Hindi-Urdu (chapter 22)

  16. Bengali (chapter 23)

  17. Persian (chapter 25)

  18. Pashto (chapter 26)

  19. Hungarian (chapter 28)

  20. Finnish (chapter 29)

  21. Turkish (chapter 30)

  22. Arabic (chapter 33)

  23. Hebrew (chapter 34)

  24. Amharic (chapter 35)

  25. Hausa (chapter 36)

  26. Tamil (chapter 37)

  27. Thai (chapter 39)

  28. Vietnamese (chapter 40)

  29. Chinese (chapter 42)

  30. Burmese (chapter 43)

  31. Japanese (chapter 44)

  32. Korean (chapter 45)

  33. Malay-Indonesian (chapter 47)

  34. Javanese (chapter 48)

  35. Tagalog (chapter 49)

  36. Yoruba (chapter 51)

  37. Swahili (chapter 52)

[edit: don't mind the messed-up autoformatting]

It is useful to have a list like this when you need to think about a linguistic feature's prevalence. As auxlangers, we want our creations to adhere to linguistic universals and have typologically common features. Beyond that, we may also want to include features shared by, or at least attested in, the world's most widely spoken languages. (We may also derive words from these languages.)

However, "widely spoken" is hard to quantify, and arguably it should not be the sole criterion. We want languages that are influential, too: widely taught and studied internationally, with vast and active literatures. And we want a diverse, yet not overlarge, sample of languages.

Four of the top 10 most natively spoken languages

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Old Tagalog Food and Cooking Terms from Historical Dictionary Pt. 4

Continued from Pt. 3 https://www.reddit.com/r/FilipinoHistory/comments/jykybu/old_tagalog_food_and_cooking_terms_from/


Laman tubig (laman ng tubig)- que es cualquiera genero de pescado/flesh of any kind of fish ie seafood.

Ysda (isda)-pescado/fish.

Tinic (tinik)-raspa de pescado/fish bones. Eg. Matinic yaring isda “This fish has lots of bones; it’s so spiny.”

Tibo-espina del pescado, esto es, la alilla encima del espinazo/the spine of the fish, that is the wing ie fin on top of the spine

Tuba-arbol que la fruta sirve para matar pescado en el rio...emborrachar pescado/tree which fruit are used to kill fish in the river...to get the fish drunk.

Note: Many people around the world (from India to the Amazon) use a trick call ‘fish poisoning’. Essentially ancient people’s figured out which trees poison (from outright killing the fish, to stunning the fish, etc), they utilize these plants (either using leaves, roots, sap or fruits) process them to make liquid poison or straight up just dip plant parts in the water (usually in rivers or creeks, wherein its is easier to do this). Fish gets stunned or killed, then they harvest them as food. Obviously it’s done in PH as well.

Per research this tree is the Poison vine/derris elliptica now more commonly in Tagalog as ‘tubli’, although still called variation of ‘tuba’ in PH and the region in general. It belongs to the fava bean family (fava beans have certain amounts of poison that can kill people with deficient enzymes that can break it down). In parts of Borneo, it’s used by hunters to poison their arrow. In Ifugao, they use the roots to poison fish. They had been used as pesticides by peoples in this region esp. against mosquitoes. It is also used for suicide before pre-industrial times. The leaves, sap, and the fruit are all poisonous containing compounds called rotenoids. Rotenoids/rotenone kills cells in the cellular level.

There is another tree list here called putat/barringtonia asiatica...but for some weird reason its meaning here is ‘tree whose leaves are also eaten…’ I much doubt that since it’s very poisonous. In fact on YT majority of the videos for 'fish poisoning' is using this plant lol

Tindag-ensartar pescados/string fish caught together (so they are easy to carry home).

Bahog-incorporarse o empaparse la sal/the salt is incorporated int

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📅︎ Nov 23 2020
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A comprehensive analysis of mythological references (mainly from Germanic/Norse and Græco-Roman mythologies) and real world historical paralles and inspirations in Attack on Titan. Coupled with an in-depth breakdown of how I think it will end, in my opinion. (VERY LONG READ) [PART 2-B]



This is the continuation of Part 2 of my post, Part 2-B. You can find Part 2-A here: https://www.reddit.com/r/titanfolk/comments/k9znek/a_comprehensive_analysis_of_mythological/

THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE (these informations are taken from its Wikipedia page)

As you know, following the “fall” (not instantaneous, but long and slow), of the western half of the empire, only the eastern half, which will later be called by historians “the Byzantine Empire, remained to carry on Rome’s culture and institutions. This empire was the direct continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern Istanbul, formerly Byzantium) and it continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1453.

Map of the Roman Empire and its cities in 330 AD

During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. "Byzantine Empire" is a term created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire simply as the Roman Empire (Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, romanized: Basileía Rhōmaíōn), or Romania (Medieval Greek: Ῥωμανία, romanized: Rhōmanía), and to themselves as Romans (Medieval Greek: Ῥωμαῖοι, romanized: Rhōmaîoi). Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. [Constantine I

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📅︎ Dec 09 2020
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[Lamentations chapter 2; Jerusalem reduced to cannibalism](https://esv.literalword.com/?q=Lamentations+2)

Chapter Two

>>>*Distress [צערה, Tsah`ahRaH] of TseeYON [Zion], their fall [נגרם, NahGRahM] upon hands of the Name [ה', Hah’]

-1. How he disgraces [יעיב, Yah`eeYB] in his fury [באפו, Be’ahPO], my Lords, [את, ’ehTh] Daughter TseeYON, sent forth from skies [to] land,

[the] splendor [תפארת, TheePh’ehRehTh] [of] YeeSRah-’ayL [“Strove God”, Israel],

and he does not remember the stool [הדמ, HahDoM] of his legs in [the] day [of] his fury.

>“The word יעיב [YaheeYB*] is regularly derived from עוב [*OoB], ‘to becloud,’ but it is better derived, with Ehrlich, et al. [and others], from a middle yôdh root which is found in Arabic and means ‘to disgrace.’ As it stands, the verb is frequentative imperfect, but the LXX [the Septuagint, the ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible] reads the perfect. The splendor of Israel may be the temple (cf. [compare with] Isa [Isaiah]. 64:11 [Hebrew 64:10]) or the city (cf. Isa. 13:19), cast down like a falling star (cf. Isa. 14:12) …” (Meek, 1956, p. VI 16)

>“His footstool] The ark of the covenant…” (Adam Clarke, 1831, p. IV 150)

-2. Swallowed [בלע, *BeeLah*], my Lords, **no pity**, [את, *’ehTh*] all habitations [נאות, *Ne’OTh*] [of] Yah-ahQoB ["YHVH Followed", Jacob];

threw down [הרס, HahRahÇ], in his crossing, strongholds of [מבצרי, MeeBTsRaY] Daughter YeHOo-DaH ["YHVH Knew", Judah],

arrived [הגיע, HeeGeeY`ah] to [the] land,

defiled [חלל, HeeLayL] her kingdom and her princes.

>“The verb בלע [BeeLah`], he hath swallowed up… appears again in vss. [verses] 5, 8, 16. The clauseחמל לא [Lo‘ HahMahL], without mercy… is in the adverbial accusative of manner, lit. [literally], ‘in that he did not show mercy’ … The same construction appears again in vss. 17, 21; 3:43. The word חלל [HeeLayL], ‘he has degraded’… is taken with the preceding verb by the RSV [Revised Standard Version] as adverbial, in dishonor, but this is contrary to the accents and it spoils the parallelism… The meter is clearly 2+3.” (Meek, 1956, pp. VI 16-17)

-3. Hewed [גדע, GahDah`] in flared [בחרי, BahHahReeY] nostril every horn [of] YeeSRah-’ayL,

withdrew [השיב, HaySheeYB] rearward his right [hand], from before [the] enemy,

and burned in Yah-`ahQoB like fire,

a flame consumi

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📅︎ Jan 20
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[translation]The deciphering of the Khaenri'ah character in the game and PV (Teyvat) - They used Latin!

This is a translation of a thread at NGA[https://bbs.nga.cn/read.php?tid=23604939]. As title suggests, the author[多闻不穷] found Khaenri'ah characters are created based on Latin. However, author and his friends are not familiar with Latin, so maybe you guys can give some advices on understanding it.

There might be some issues on specific notions, because I played game in Chinese so I don't know the corresponding notions in English. If these issuues appear in the following text, you can remind me to correct them.


  • Preface

In Genshin Impact, we can often see 3 kinds of characters. One of them appears in Mond's tombstone, the sign, the Abyssal Order's letter in the "Hero of the Night's alibi" and text in the anime where Ningguang was reading at Liyue. We shall call this character Teyvat common character by its universality. According to decryption and research, we know this character is based on English, the letter is basiclly the mirror of the corresponding Latin letter, and the grammer is actually English. The second type of characters is Zhuan-font-like (a traditional Chinese font), no one knows how to decrypt it, even no idea.

Teyvat common character

Liyue character

The third one is common in acient ruins, such as the writing in the secert realm, the writing projected in the "disc" of Liyue relics and the red writing around the treasure chest. The PV(Teyvat) released recently use this character under the main title. Given that the available evidence clearly points to the fact that the secret realm we often farm against in the Genshin Impact originated from the ancient Khaenri'ah civilization, I hereby refer to this character as the Khaenri'ah character, and its language (if any) as the Khaenri'ah language. Moreover, we only need to compare a little to see the huge difference between this character and the Teyvat common character. Does this character, like the Teyvat character, have a mapping of the language of reality?

Khaenri'ah chracter

Before the release of the PV, the amount of text that originally appeared in the ruins and secrect realms (the same text that appears around the unblocked treasure chests in the ruins (see above)) was

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📅︎ Oct 05 2020
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The Semantic Experiment

This is an experiment in 'meaning', and I am interested in your perspective.

This experiment is based in numerology, and my hypothesis surrounding the crafting of 'spells' (ie. dictionary words), but don't let that put you off - it's not important to your participation.

The current year is 2021 (Gregorian calendar), which collapses to the number 221.

Following below is compete list of words extracted from online dictionary files that sum to 221 in the prime number cipher (ie. the first 26 prime numbers applied to the Latin alphabet).

I have various theories about alphabetic encoding, and the mechanism and intentions behind it, but forget about that for now. I ask that anyone interested simply peruse this list and respond with a list of perhaps the three or four words that you think are the most 'loaded' or 'meaningful', to you (ie. which words, if any, seem to you to be 'foundational'). Pure nouns and verbs might be said to be preferred, as opposed to derived terms that make use of prefixes or suffixes. Present tense, or infinitive forms might also be said to be preferred, as they too are 'core' words, and not derived or modified for a particular sense or context. Certain words might be important to you for personal reasons - try to look beyond this, and consider them instead on the basis of your perceived ideas about how these words contribute to societal structure and understanding (as building blocks of communication).

Don't let these optional restrictions hold you too strongly however - I leave it to you - which words jump out at you with the most 'energy' or 'relevance'?

List of spells summing to 221 in primes:

  • "abdicator" = 221 pri
  • "advancing" = 221 pri
  • "aggrieve" = 221 pri
  • "allure" = 221 pri
  • "alumina" = 221 pri
  • "Andromeda" = 221 pri
  • "annuli" = 221 pri
  • "archly" = 221 pri
  • "areolar" = 221 pri
  • "avast" = 221 pri
  • "backbiting" = 221 pri
  • "banally" = 221 pri
  • "Barnaul" = 221 pri
  • "barouche" = 221 pri
  • "basset" = 221 pri
  • "Bigfoot" = 221 pri
  • "bigfoot" = 221 pri
  • "blazes" = 221 pri
  • "blindside" = 221 pri
  • "booming" = 221 pri
  • "brazen" = 221 pri
  • "buckler" = 221 pri
  • "bulldog" = 221 pri
  • "bunches" = 221 pri
  • "caesura" = 221 pri
  • "calaboose" = 221 pri
  • "calfskin" = 221 pri
  • "Calgary" = 221 pri
  • "callus" = 221 pri
  • *"cand
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New Normal

The number 369 is a key number for which I have kept an eye out since the beginning of my gematria study.

Many people are familiar with the Nikola Tesla quote:

> "If only you knew the magnificence of the numbers 3, 6 and 9, you would have a key to the universe"

There are entire branches of perhaps dubious 'alternative mathematics' investigating conceptualizations surrounding these numbers (re. 'Vortex mathematics' etc.). I've not delved too deeply into these, and simply take 3,6 and 9 (and thus 369 ) as a 'cultural touchstone' - starting points from which to begin an investigation ( just as we might take 911, or 42, or 666, for example - which are numbers I treat as given to us as gateways into the labyrinth; pop-culture keys that might lead us to the Holy Grail, for all we know...).


> "If only you knew the magnificence of the numbers 3, 6 and 9, you would have a key to the universe"

What are the odds then, that in the prime number cipher (which I deem to be perhaps primary, in the English schema), we have:

  • "Humanity" = 369 primes

Hu.man --> Mighty.man

  • "The Mighty" = 369 primes

... and not forgetting the system of mnemonics that may encode that Humanity (ostensibly 'created in the image of god'):

  • "The Alphabet Code" = 369 primes

However, this article not about 369, but about the number just beneath it, 368.

  • "New Normal" = 368 primes

You might ask, are we being degraded, or is this a countdown? In this context of 369 as 'humanity', is it a 'good' or 'bad' thing to descend numerically? Do we get 'closer to god' by going towards infinity, or instead, towards the Monad, 1?

Either way...

  • "Humanity" = 369 primes
  • .... "New Normal" = 368 primes

I definitely see an aspect of mockery here - in one sense, the people of the world are being corralled like beasts.

Some might choose to view this degradation as representative of a necessary stage in an initiation ritual (ie. 'break them down to build them up').

  • "Initiation" = "Humanity" = 369 primes ( = "The Mighty" )
  • .. ( "New Normal" = 368 primes )
  • .. . ( "The Initiate" = 368 primes )
  • ... . ( "Total Noob" = 368 primes ) [ Noob @ Boon ]
  • ... . ( "To Break Them" = 368 primes )
  • ... .. ( "The Ritual" = 368 primes )
  • ... .. . ( "One Ritual" = 368 primes )
  • ... .. .. ( *"The Complianc
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The origins of Armello's names

Edit: Putting in some corrections and additional information from u/Berkenfruit. No, I am not correcting the Amber thing, it's an overly drawn out bad joke.

You ever wonder what's in a name? Names carry much more meaning than being simple monikers. They can carry wishes, carry history. I feel like in any creative endeavor with names those names should carry meaning related to the character or object that name was given to. It's actually why I'm terrible at naming things in the first place. Anyway, I looked up the origins and meaning of all 24 heroes' given names and was pleasantly surprised at how fitting the names used are. I focused on given names as only a few characters have known surnames and said surnames are the usual fantasy compound words. One last thing before I begin, researching this was hard because of all the trashy baby name sites so I'm not going to say that this list is definitive or correct. In fact, I wouldn't be surprised if there was an error or two, but since Google results are flooded with crap this is the best I could come up with. Enough rambling, here we go, clan-by-clan. Buckle up, this is a big one.

Wolf Clan:

  • Thane: English. "Warrior"
  • River: Exactly what it says on the tin, named for a flowing body of water
  • Magna: Scandinavian. May come from the Latin "Magnus" meaning "Great"
  • Fang: Probably referring to the tooth and not the Chinese surname 方

Rat Clan:

  • Mercurio: Italian surname. Derived from Latin "Mercurius" or "messenger of the gods." Fitting since the Rat Clan is known for its ability to deal in information
  • Zosha: This one was hard to pin down because it's so uncommon, but my best guess is it's Polish meaning "Wisdom"
  • Sargon: Akkadian. "True King" or "Legitimate King." Sargon of Akkad was the first leader of the Akkadian empire
  • Griotte: Okay, I need an explanation for this because I must be missing something. "Griotte" is the French name for a sour cherry and is also used as the name for a type of red marble named after said cherry. I would probably pretty ornery too if I was named after a fruit for no good reason

Bear Clan:

  • Sana: Indian. "Radiant"
  • Brun: European surname. Commonly used to describe people with brown features or wore brown, the name has multiple origins and was pretty widespread in Europe
  • Ghor: Urdu. "Mountain"
  • Yordana: Hebrew. "Descended from"

Rabbit Clan:

  • Amber: English. Name comes from the fossilized stone that may just hold enough Dino DNA to be able to create dinosaurs,
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📰︎ r/armello
📅︎ Nov 30 2020
🚨︎ report
Since someone thought this sub wasn't about trains heres the entire trains wiki article

Train - Wikipedia To all our readers, This is the 1st time we've asked recently, so we'll get straight to the point: this Friday we need you to make a donation to protect Wikipedia's independence. 98% of our readers don't give; they simply look the other way. If you are one of our rare donors, you have our gratitude, and we warmly thank you.

We know you’re busy and we don’t mean to interrupt you, but we must remind everyone that if they donated just a few dollars, we could keep Wikipedia thriving for years.

We don’t charge a subscription fee, and Wikipedia is sustained by the donations of only 2% of our readers. Like us, they believe that knowledge belongs in the hands of everyone.

We know most people will ignore this message, but consider that our editors don't get paid. They offer you their knowledge simply because they care. And our mission is to give them the tools they need to continue their work.

If Wikipedia provided you with a useful amount of knowledge this year, please take a minute to secure its future by making a gift to the Wikimedia Endowment. Thank you.

Not to be confused with Locomotive. This article is about the rail vehicle. For the act of teaching or developing skills or knowledge, see Training. For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). A train is a form of rail transport consisting of a series of connected vehicles that generally run along a railroad (or railway) track to transport passengers or cargo (also known as "freight" or "goods"). The word "train" comes from the Old French trahiner, derived from the Latin trahere meaning "to pull" or "to draw".[1]

Motive power for a train is provided by a separate locomotive or individual motors in a self-propelled multiple unit. The term "engine" is often used as an alternative to locomotive. Although historically steam propulsion dominated, the most common types of locomotive are diesel and electric, the latter supplied by overhead wires or additional rails. Trains can also be hauled by horses, pulled by engine or water-driven cable or wire winch, run downhill using gravity, or powered by pneumatics, gas turbines or electric batteries.

The track usually consists of two running rails with a fixed spacing, which may be supplemented by additional rails such as electric conducting rails ("third rail") and rack rails. Monorails and maglev guideways are also occasionally used.[2]

Passenger trains include passenger-carrying vehicles and can often be very long and fast. High-speed rail sys

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👍︎ 36
📅︎ Dec 18 2020
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A glossary of common terms in magic systems

Terminology is a common thing to get caught up on when building magic systems. Should I call my magic-users sorcerers or wizards? What's the difference between a spell and an incantation?

The meaning of words differs drastically across contexts, so it's generally safe to define terms however you see fit. But if you want to have a grounding in real-world history or folklore, it's useful to know where the words come from. So, I thought that a brief glossary might be helpful.

An explanation of every magical term could fill a full book, so I decided to include the most common words (with a few shout-outs to some more obscure terms) along with a brief summary of where they come from, how people have historically used them, and how fantasy authors typically use them.

  • kinesis comes from the Ancient Greek for “movement.” It was popularized in speculative fiction via the idea of telekinesis – moving objects with one’s mind – and can serve as a modern/scientific-sounding suffix in a magic system.
  • mancy is a suffix from the Ancient Greek manteía, which refers specifically to divination. So, in folklore/history/anthropology a necromancer is not someone who makes zombies, but rather someone who summons the spirits of the dead to predict the future. A pyromancer is someone who uses fire in fortune-telling. And so on. But in fantasy, it has evolved into a generic suffix to denote any type of magic.
  • urgy is what pedants like myself use in the place of –mancy. It comes from the Ancient Greek érgon, for “work,” so its meaning is much more general.
  • Alchemy is a protoscience that gained popularity in Europe through the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It is often described as a precursor chemistry, since alchemists were concerned with the transmutation of elements. Though, their actual theories were very different from modern chemistry, usually incorporating religious and mystical ideas. Alchemy was also practiced in the Muslim world, and similar traditions existed in India and China. The term comes from the Arabic prefix al- and the Ancient Greek khēmeía, which is also the source of "chemistry." While real-life alchemy was a complex and wide-reaching field, in fantasy settings, it is usually simplified to refer to the crafting of potions.
  • Arcane comes from the Latin for “hidden, secret.” The term has often been applied to mystical secrets—the word arcanum was used in alchemy, and aracana in tarot—so fantasy writers often use
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👍︎ 257
👤︎ u/umacxisto
📅︎ Aug 22 2020
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Addressing COVID-19 and misinformation

Last Updated, 14/3/2020. Since this is no longer pinned, it will be more of an information thread as originally intended, so I won't be updating the TLDR bits as much . Use this as a means of educating yourself on COVID-19 as well as discovering useful resources in tracking/learning about the virus.

There are two arguments regarding the novel coronavirus. One is the panic reaction, and the other is the opposite, saying people are overreacting. Both are too far in one direction.

I want to re-iterate that this virus knows no borders and is not an excuse to be racist towards Chinese people who literally have no control over any of this. They probably have suffered most in the last few months. If anything, take your frustrations out towards the Chinese government for mishandling the situation early on.

TLDR International Situation

  • There is no point in summarizing this since this is a rapidly evolving situation. Please refer to the resources on the bottom of this post or this tracker. I also highly recommend viewing WHO's daily situation reports.
  • Generally, many countries are now outside containment are in mitigation.
  • As for China, their cases have tapered off and the focus has shifted internationally.
  • This is now the first coronavirus to be declared a pandemic

TLDR Canada Situation [As of 13/03/2020]

  • The Government of Canada is warning against all non essential travel outside the country.
  • International flights will only be accepted at certain airports (TBA).
  • Cruise ships with over 500 people have been banned from docking in Canada until July.
  • The risk is still considered low for Canadians (for people who have an issue with this assessment, low risk does not mean ignore that this is happening, please exercise caution).
  • For active cases, refer to PHAC
  • Sophie Trudeau has been diagnosed with COVID-19. Justin Trudeau will remain in isolation for 14 days.

TLDR Current Situation in Quebec [As of 14/03/2020]

  • Overall risk remains low.
  • All indoor events with more than 250 people have been banned. Schools can remain open but should not have more than 250 people in the room.
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👍︎ 511
📰︎ r/mcgill
📅︎ Mar 09 2020
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Nilfgaardian and the Dutch language

I don't speak Dutch myself, but grew up around Dutch grandparents and so came across a lot of the language whenever I visited their house. I keep coming across posts here and there asking what Nilfgaardian is based off of, but no one really mentions its obvious similarity to Dutch.

While Nilfgaardian does sprinkle in loan words from other European languages (especially German, which is similar), most of the words it borrows directly from Dutch:

Nilfgaardian English
aâ'anval attack (from Dutch: aanval)
beisten animals (From Dutch: beesten)
belean'graec important, something important (From Dutch: belangrijk - pronounciation is nearly the same)
bloede bloody, gory, damn (UK: bloody / Dutch: Bloederig = bloody)
bloedzuiger leech (From Dutch: bloedzuiger, literally 'blood sucker')
ceas'raet empire (of Nilfgaard) (From Dutch: Keizerrijk)
deien to serve (From Dutch: Dienen)
d'yaebl devil (From Spanish: diablo / Dutch: duivel)
e'er honor (from Dutch: eer)
evn'gesaen ambassador (From German: Abgesandter / Dutch: afgezant)
Ker'zaer Emperor (From German: Kaiser / Dutch: Keizer)
kusse genitals (From Dutch: Kutte)
nyald needle (From Dutch: naald)
pest pestilence, plague, blight (from Dutch: pest)
piemelikkers cocksuckers (from Dutch: piemellikkers)
raet country (From Dutch: Rijk)
schijtleister coward (From Dutch: Schijtlijster, literally 'little shitbird')
se'ege victory (From Dutch: Zege)
stronthe shit (From Dutch: Stront)
tedd time, age, season (From Dutch: Tijd)
twe two (From Dutch: twee)
vaer'truov to hope, to trust (From Dutch: vertrouw)
var'oom? what? (from German: warum / Dutch: waarom)

For a comparison, here is a list of total loan words in Nilfgaardian from each language listed on the Nilgaardian language wiki page:

  • Dutch: 23
  • German: 5
  • English: 3
  • Irish: 3
  • Italian: 3
  • Welsh: 3
  • Spanish: 2
  • French: 2
  • Latin: 1

Besides loan words, I noticed there is also a heavily prevalence of double vowels and the letters 'z', 'j', and 'k' in Nilfgaardian, which sound harsh to an English listener but are common in Dutch. Likewise, many Nilfgaardians speak with a Dutch accent, or something close to it.

Additionally, many Nilfgaardian characters also have names with Dutch or Flemish origins:

  • Carthia van Canten ('van' is very common prefix in Dutch surnames)
  • Joachim de Wett (Flemish origin)
  • Declan Leuvaarden (Leeuwarden is a city in the Netherlands)
  • Menno Coehoorn (Dutch origin)
  • Peter Evertsen (
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👍︎ 18
📰︎ r/Witcher3
👤︎ u/NeutyBooty
📅︎ Oct 10 2020
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Since that is what it is...

  • "Domination" = ... ?

I leave it to you, noting...

  • "The Number" = 333 primes


> Etymology

> > From Middle English domynacion, from Old French dominacion, from Latin dominātiō (“rule, dominion”), from dominor (“domineer; rule”); see dominate.

> Noun:

> 1. The act of dominating; the exercise of power when ruling

> 2. A ruling party; a party in power.

> 3. A high order of angels in the celestial hierarchy.

> 4. A fetish characterized by control/power over and discipline of one's sexual partner.

> 5. (topology) Synonym of cover

  • "Rulership" = 2020 squares

  • "Wear the mask" = 2020 squares

Why? Simple:

> A fetish characterized by control/power over and discipline of one's sexual partner.

  • "According to the code" = 1234 trigonal
  • ... ( "Code of Culture" = 1234 trigonal )
  • ... ( "The Spells of Eden" = 1234 trigonal )
  • ... .. ( "Great Knowledge" = 1234 jewish-latin-agrippa )
  • ... .. ( "What is in a name?" = 1234 jewish-latin-agrippa )

How have you enjoyed this year-long masquerade ball?

  • "Covid-19 domination" = 969 english-extended | 1109 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... "A Foundation" = 969 trigonal ( "The Vision" = 1019 trigonal )
  • ... .. "Business" = 969 trigonal ( "The Pattern" = 1109 trigonal )
  • ... .. .. "Matrix Code" = 969 trigonal ( "Master Plan" = 119 alphabetic )

A temperature of 969 degrees C is 1776.2 F

  • "The Supreme Ruler" = 1776 trigonal
  • "Emperor of the World" = 1776 trigonal
  • .. [ "The English Alphabetic Order" = 1776 trigonal ]

Temperature guns pointed at your head:

  • "Citizen" = "Temperature" = 666 jewish-latin-agrippa

... noting...

  • "Gun" = "The Canon" = "Garden of Eden" = 247 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • "Gun" = "The Canon" = "Danger of Need" = 247 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • "Gun" = "The Canon" = "Need of Danger" = 247 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... ( "The Riddle" = "The Time" = 247 primes )

... while...

  • "Covid-19 domination" = 1109 jewish-latin-agrippa [ 11/9 @ 9/11 ]
  • ... "The Slaves" = 1019 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... ( "Divine Rule" = 119 alphabetic )

... 119 @ 911

  • "Lockdown" = 119 reverse alphabetic
  • ... ( "The Mirror" = **11
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👍︎ 2
📅︎ Nov 04 2020
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MAME 0.221

MAME 0.221

Our fourth release of the year, MAME 0.221, is now ready. There are lots of interesting changes this time. We’ll start with some of the additions. There’s another load of TV games from JAKKS Pacific, Senario, Tech2Go and others. We’ve added another Panorama Screen Game & Watch title: this one features the lovable comic strip canine Snoopy. On the arcade side, we’ve got Great Bishi Bashi Champ and Anime Champ (both from Konami), Goori Goori (Unico), the prototype Galun.Pa! (Capcom CPS), a censored German version of Gun.Smoke, a Japanese location test version of DoDonPachi Dai-Ou-Jou, and more bootlegs of Cadillacs and Dinosaurs, Final Fight, Galaxian, Pang! 3 and Warriors of Fate.

In computer emulation, we’re proud to present another working UNIX workstation: the MIPS R3000 version of Sony’s NEWS family. NEWS was never widespread outside Japan, so it’s very exciting to see this running. F.Ulivi has added support for the Swedish/Finnish and German versions of the HP 86B, and added two service ROMs to the software list. ICEknight contributed a cassette software list for the Timex NTSC variants of the Sinclair home computers. There are some nice emulation improvements for the Luxor ABC family of computers, with the ABC 802 now considered working.

Other additions include discrete audio emulation for Midway’s Gun Fight, voice output for Filetto, support for configurable Toshiba Pasopia PAC2 slot devices, more vgmplay features, and lots more Capcom CPS mappers implemented according to equations from dumped PALs. This release also cleans up and simplifies ROM loading. For the most part things should work as well as or better than they did before, but MAME will no longer find loose CHD files in top-level media directories. This is intentional – it’s unwieldy with the number of supported systems.

As usual, you can get the source and 64-bit Windows binary packages from the download page. This will be the last month where we use this format for the release notes – with the increase in monthly development activity, it’s becoming impractical to keep up.

MAME Testers Bugs Fixed

  • 07560: [Crash/Freeze] (cave.cpp) hotdogst: Using debugger memdump command causes MAME to crash. (O. Galibert)
  • 07603: [Documentation] (snes.cpp) snes [asterix]: Release year does not match title s
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👍︎ 169
📰︎ r/emulation
👤︎ u/cuavas
📅︎ May 19 2020
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[SHARE] Fulfilled Textbook Request Megathread #5

Download any of these for free at https://oppfiles.com/585933

DM me if you have any requests for anything not on the list.

If you want solution manuals/testbanks, you can also request them

Almost all the books are in their latest editions and some of them are available in multiple editions too.

Please subscribe the sub to find all the latest textbook releases.


1 [Book] (JSTOR) Mishima, Aesthetic Terrorist: An Intellectual Portrait by Andrew Rankin(self) 1 [Article] The Cancho i Ferrer - Solé model does not explain Zipf's Law(self) 1 [BOOK] The Skills Training Manual for Radically Open Dialectical Behavior Therapy: A Clinician’s Guide for Treating Disorders of Overcontrol By Thomas R. Lynch(self) 3 [BOOK] Quantum Mechanics, Volume 3: Fermions, Bosons, Photons, Correlations, and Entanglement by Claude Cohen Tannoudji, Bernard Diu, Frank Laloe(self) 1 [Article] Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of an Urdu-version of the summary of Diabetes self-care Activities Measure (U-sDsCA)(self) 1 [Book] Advanced Asset Pricing Theory, by Chenghu Ma(self) 4 [Article] How open is OpenGLAM? Identifying barriers to commercial and non-commercial reuse of digitised art images(self) 2 [Article] RandomForest4Life: A Random Forest for predicting ALS disease progression(self) 1 [BOOK] Training in Interpersonal Skills: TIPS for Managing People at Work by SP Robbins and PL Hunsaker(self) 2 [Article] A Technological Review on Multilevel Matrix Converter for Wind Power Generation System(self) 1 [Book]Speaking of Writing: A Brief Rhetoric by Allegra Goodman; Michael Prince(self) 2 [Article] Human Rights and Tear Gas: The Question of Carter Administration Officials Opposed to the Shah -- Javier Gil Guerreo, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 43(3): 2016.(self) 2 [BOOK] Commercial Law Concentrate (Law Revision and Study Guide) by Eric Baskind (5th edition, Oxford University Press, 2019)(self) 1 [BOOK] Road Map for Revolutionaries: Resistance, Activism, and Advocacy for All(self) 5 [ARTICLE] Developing Symptoms: Noncommunicable Diseases Go Global(self) 4 [Book] Varieties of Secularism in Asia (Routledge) by Nils Bubandt, Martijn Van Beek(self) 2 7 [Book] Quantitative Modeling of Derivative Securities, by Peter Laurence(self) 2 [Book] 20 Years of Censored News by Carl Jensen and Project Censored(self) 2 [Book] Histoire de la rhétorique dans l'europe moderne (1450-1950), ed. Marc Fuma

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👍︎ 7
👤︎ u/jaylenholt
📅︎ Jul 23 2020
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A Halloween Moon

In the simplest possible alphabetic cipher:

  • "Moon" = 57 basic alphabetic

Hence, look out for moon symbolism, or mentions of lunar concepts with regards to the ever-controversial '5G' (ie. because G is 7).

  • "Number fifty-seven" = 1968 english-extended
  • ... ( "The Storm" = "The Rising Sea" = 1968 squares ) [ie. Moon @ Tides ]

If you've been reading along here for a while, you know why 1968 was an important year with regards to current affairs.

Tomorrow is Halloween, and tonight is Mischief Night:

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mischief_Night

There is an obvious lunar connectivity to Halloween, since it represents the dark and witchy night-time. The lunar light in opposition to the solar light of day.

  • "A Halloween Moon" = 1,161 trigonal
  • .
  • "A Halloween Moon" = 470 primes
  • ... ( "The Number" = 470 jewish-latin-agrippa )
  • ... .. ( "Orthodox" = 47 reduced | 119 alphabetic )
  • ... .. ( "Foundation" = 47 reduced | 119 alphabetic )
  • ... .. ( "Authority" = 47 reduced ) ( "Government" = 47 reverse )
  • .
  • "A Halloween Moon" = 63 reduced | 63 reverse-reduced
  • ... ( "Witch" = "Broom" = "Know" = "Sight" = 63 alphabetic )

The following paragraphs might be viewed as advanced or theoretical aspects of gematria encoding - it will be confusing for people brand new to this study:

Why do I use an 'A' in the above spells? I do not view this as a 'cheat', as many skeptics of gematria might argue. Doing so has a formal name in numerology: it is the Rule of Colel, or the off-by-one rule, which argues that sequential numbers might be viewed as paired (ie. quantum-entangled, like animals on Noah's ark, two-by-two - after all, esoterically, odd numbers are viewed as male, and even numbers as female). Furthermore, some spells that have much implicit 'weight', when viewed through multiple ciphers (ie. as a spectrum of different 'frequencies') have numeric values that appear to be slightly unbalanced, almost as if they have been designed to be slightly obscured - to intentionally not have numbers that would be too 'on-the-nose', and thus require what we might call an orthodox spell augmentation [*

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👍︎ 2
📅︎ Oct 30 2020
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Meanings Behind the Legends' Personal Names

I decided that today for fun I'd look into all the Legends names and the names meanings and come up with theories on how it relates to the character. Some of this feels really true and some of this feels like my brain trying to be too big for its britches or whatever. The subtitle for this project is "What's in a name?" because I'm very original and creative.


Anita is a Spanish diminutive of Ana, itself deriving from Hebrew name Hannah which means favor or grace. This in combination with her legendary La Catrina skin makes me think perhaps Anita has Hispanic heritage. La Catrina is an important figure when it comes to the Mexican holiday Dia de Muertos, or Day of the Dead. Relevant reading here: https://dayofthedead.holiday/traditions/who-is-la-catrina

I also believe the name Anita is a reference to Bangalore's spirituality.

Williams is an English surname derived from the English given name, William. It means "resolute protector" or "will." Makes sense given Bangalore's military history and strength, physically and otherwise.


Renee is the French form of late Roman name Renatus, which means "reborn." Wraith didn't know who she was when she set out on this journey, so you could say she's been reborn. Also perhaps implies cyclical imagery, to be reborn means you were born once before.

Blasey is a French surname that I unfortunately couldn't find a solid meaning behind, buuuuut I did remember there's a word that describes Wraith perfectly: *blasé,* which means "unimpressed or indifferent to something because one has experienced or seen it so often before." Renee is literally a rather blasé individual, evidenced by multiple voice lines (First example that comes to mind: "I know all the roads, they all lead to the same place.") So I have a feeling this is perhaps where her surname comes from!


Natalie is a French name that can mean "Christmas day/born on Christmas" or, simply, "to be born."

Paquette is a French surname that means "bundle of kindling." Like, kindling as in stuff you use to make a fire. I was curious about how this connects to her character, but then I remembered her father's name is Luc, which is a French name meaning "light." Luc Paquette died, and thus, in Natalie, a fire was born. Too much?? Perhaps light is symbolic for Wattson? She does have a kill quip where she states, "Go

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👍︎ 367
📰︎ r/ApexLore
👤︎ u/galaxybutt
📅︎ May 05 2020
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Шäлä! - This Week's Language of the Week is Mari!

Caлaм лийжe!

What is Mari? The basics

Mari is a Uralic language spoken in mostly Mari-El, the Mari Republic in Russian Federation. The language is spoken by roughly half a million people (and it seems to be increasing). The language has its own subsection in the Uralic languages but it’s in general seen as closer to the Ugric languages so it’s a distant cousin to both Finnish and Hungarian of the more known Uralic languages.

It is a bit complicated as to how many Mari languages (or dialects) there are, the biggest two are Hill Mari and Meadow Mari, both have distinct written languages and I used first for the title and the second for the first line. There are also two other dialects: Eastern Mari and North-western Mari, each related to the main two. The connection between all four is clear but they are often seen as at least two different main dialects, sometimes different languages. Still, the Mari people often identify as one group to the outside world.

The language dates back to a long time but the first written examples come from the 18th century. They think that it originally developed west of where it is spoken today but there is little concrete history. These days both main Mari languages are official languages in Mari-El but are spoken second to Russian.

Phonology and orthography

Mari language uses mostly Cyrillic alphabet but has Latin alphabet additions like ö, ä, ÿ and so on (more information here). The additions expand the vowel list as Cyrillic itself does cover a lot of ground with consonants. Some letters of the alphabet are only used for Russian words as they are not native to Mari. Examples of alphabets here.

Mari has a lot of vowels and like many other Uralic languages (Finnish, for example), they utilize vowel harmony. This means that vowels are divided into groups and if a vowel of one group is present at the beginning of the word (or is the main vowel), the suffix must use one from the same group, they can’t be mixed. In addition to the usual front/back (named after where your tongue is) harmony, Mari also has round/unround harmony which means that if the main stressed vowel in the word is rounded (you round your lips to say it), the suffix also has to use a rounded vowel. Uralic languages love vowels a lot!


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👍︎ 90
📅︎ Jul 06 2020
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Ærsk: The Phonology and Etymological Orthography of a Nordic West Germanic language

>For ad werþe zen nýe Mannen, bez mann hæbbe allhjarted.
>[ɸɔɾ ɑ ˈɰɛrːs̪ə ʃɲ̩ ˈnœʏ̯ːjə ˈmɑnːn̩ bəʃ ˈmɑnː ˈʃæbːə ˌɑlːˈʃɑrːtə]
>for to become-inf the.m.sg new-def.m.sg Manne-the.m.sg be.fut.sg man.sg have-inf all-heart-def.n.sg
>"To become God, you have to walk in everyone's shoes."
>- Erish proverb

Erish (ærsk), an a posteriori West Germanic artlang, isn't the first constructed language I've worked on, but it is the first one I can say has come to a point where it is presentable. The concept is that, in the conworld, Erish arises from Proto-West Germanic nearby North Germanic languages as they arise from Proto-Norse, and is still in a sort of sprachbund with them. Intelligibility, particularly in speech, is hampered by Erish's own innovations, especially phonologically.

Here, I would like to provide a summary of the closest thing to a standard Erish pronunciation, as well as an account of the orthography, as its depth tells a bit about the changes that Erish has undergone. With each, I'll give a snippet about the goals I had going into them, as well as feedback questions I myself have - Erish is and will always be a work-in-progress. I am greatly indebted to a variety of resources, so I will provide several of them at the end of this post and the others that may follow it, as well as a concluding gloss.


Most Erish speakers simply use their own dialects when speaking, up to and including the King or Queen. The pronunciation taught to foreigners, as well as the one used in national broadcasting, is that of Hamnstead, which was the city where radio broadcasting first developed in Erishland, and which is still a center of national media. The Hamnstead dialect is a Western dialect close enough to Southern dialects that its phonology is sort of a mixture of the two groups, plus its own quirks.


Personally, this phonology is my attempt at creating one reminiscent of the older stages of Germanic languages, but which feels plausibly modern and plausible in a place where North Germanic contact and influence continues into present. A bit of a summary and highlights of what that means:

  • The vowels, especially as phonemes, are not too dissimilar from contemporary and historic relatives, as Germanic languages were and are known for their many vowels.
    • Hamnstead Erish doesn't have the /ɵ,ʉː/ of Southern Erish dialects, but the realization
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👍︎ 38
📰︎ r/conlangs
📅︎ Sep 22 2020
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(Discussion) 100+ Pagan or Witch names and their meanings

100+ Pagan or Witch names and their meanings

Posted by Michelle Gruben


100+ Pagan or Witch names

Looking for the perfect Pagan or witch name? Check out our list of over 100 magickal names drawn from the realms of the occult. Whether it’s for yourself, an animal familiar, or a fictional character, have fun perusing these delightfully witchy monikers.


Christian names have usually honored Biblical figures and saints, but Pagans prefer to name themselves after nature, folklore, and the gods of antiquity. Many names are drawn from ancient stories and are charged with mythic power. Some of the names on this list didn’t start out magickal, but got that way in modern times through association with famous witches. (This is admittedly a Eurocentric list, since my own background is in classical literature and Western magick. If you are the bearer of a witchy name from another tradition, I’d love to learn about it!)


Many witch names are unisex and others can be adapted to any gender. Creating compound names are one way that Pagans pay homage to sacred objects, spirits, and concepts (e.g., Raven Moonflower or Amethyst Dragonfyre). Try mixing and matching these first names with your favorite nouns and adjectives to create your very own Craft name.


Adelinda - A Germanic name meaning "noble serpent." A variation is Delinda.

Aine – “Radiance.” Queen of the fairies in Celtic lore.

Airlia – “Ethereal.”

Aislinn – “Dream or vision.” Irish female name.

Alcina – A Greek sorceress. Title character of an opera by Handel.

Alita – “Winged one.”

Althea – “Healer.”

Alvin/Alvina – “Elf.” Many "Al-" names related to elfkind, including Alfred/Alfreda ("elf counsel") and Albert ("bright elf" or "elf ruler").

Ambrosia/Ambrosius – “Food of the gods.”

Amethyst - Lovely purple stone, known to the ancients for bringing sobriety, wisdom, and protection, especially to travelers.

Angela - “Divine messenger.”

Aoelus – “Wind.”

Aradia – Legendary Italian Witch, one

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👍︎ 5
📅︎ Nov 10 2020
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The Interesting Etymology of Italian Pesto

Hello everyone, like many other people I’ve take up the interest of gardening during the pandemic. I planted some basil seeds in hopes of one day using the leaves to make my own pesto (my favorite Italian sauce!) and to my delight, the seed container had an interesting tidbit on the etymology of the word “pesto”. “Pesto” comes from the Italian word “pestare” which means to pound. For anyone who has made the sauce before, this makes sense due to the crushing of each ingredient that takes place in the mortar & pestle. This piqued my interest and soon I was researching the etymological histories of each ingredient. Unsurprisingly, learning these histories gave me a better understanding of the stories of the ingredients and a glimpse into the world when preparing food took a bit more work than driving to the super market. So below is a list of some brief etymologies and histories of most of the ingredients and other elements related to the sauce served with pasta. I am by no means an expert Italian culinary historian or chef, but I’ll try my best! Feel free to argue amongst yourselves about the “correct” way to make the dish, that’s a subject I’ll leave for the more culinarily skilled. My points will try to contain interesting information that relates to Italian and English languages, but I’ll include other information as well. Buon Appetito!

Pesto- This sauce originated in Genoa, a city in the north-west corner of Italy in the 16th Century and is traditionally called “Pesto alla Genovese” to differentiate from other variants. Like I previously stated the word “pesto” comes from the Italian word “pestare” which means to pound. This word is actually a cognate with the word “pestle” (which is the tool used to do the pounding) and comes from French and ultimately from the Latin “pistillum”. Traditional ingredients include: Genovese basil, garlic cloves, olive oil, European pine nuts, & a hard cheese like Parmigiano Reggiano.

Basil- The main and colorful ingredient of the sauce likely comes from Africa and Southeast Asia, but does well in the warm Mediterranean climate of Italy; this has led to its success as an Italian culinary staple. The word “basil” comes to English from French and ultimately from the Latin “basilius” and Greek “basileios” which means “royal, kingly” since it was likel

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👍︎ 224
📰︎ r/etymology
👤︎ u/upinatdem
📅︎ May 11 2020
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Dia daoibh - This week's language of the week: Irish!

Irish (Gaeilge) is a Goidelic language of the Celtic language family, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family. Irish originated in Ireland and was historically and still is spoken by Irish people throughout Ireland. Although English is the more common first language elsewhere in Ireland, Irish is spoken as a first language in substantial areas of counties Galway, Kerry, Cork and Donegal, smaller areas of Waterford, Mayo and Meath


The Irish language has a rich history, with documentation of it dating back to the 4th century CE in ogham stones. These writings have been found throughout Ireland and the west coast of Great Britain. Primitive Irish transitioned into Old Irish through the 5th century. Old Irish, dating from the 6th century, used the Latin alphabet and is attested primarily in marginalia to Latin manuscripts. During this time, the Irish language absorbed some Latin words, some via Old Welsh, including ecclesiastical terms.

By the 10th century, Old Irish had evolved into Middle Irish, which was spoken throughout Ireland and in Scotland and the Isle of Man. It is the language of a large corpus of literature, including the Ulster Cycle. From the 12th century, Middle Irish began to evolve into modern Irish in Ireland, into Scottish Gaelic in Scotland, and into the Manx language in the Isle of Man.

Early Modern Irish, dating from the 13th century, was the basis of the literary language of both Ireland and Gaelic-speaking Scotland. Modern Irish, as attested in the work of such writers as Geoffrey Keating, may be said to date from the 17th century, and was the medium of popular literature from that time on.

Since then, however, the usage of Irish has been fast diminishing, thanks to the prevalence of English as well as actions take to keep the Irish from speaking Irish and make them switch to English. However, up until the time of the Great Potato Famine, Irish was still considered an urban and rural language; since then, it has been drastically on the decline, with the areas where Irish has been spoken have been consistently on the decline, despite (or, perhaps, because of) the efforts of the Gaelic Revival (which often wanted to keep these areas pre-industrial, something which has hurt them in modern times).

There is a growing rise of "urban Irish" or "Gaelscoilis" speakers, but vast differences have been noted between their language and that of native speakers in the unbroken tradition which still stands on the west coa

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👍︎ 104
📅︎ Jun 22 2020
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Di-Jun Huang

I’m cutting the character I’ve been complaining about no one else cutting for the entire round, who could have seen that coming?

I like Huang. Low B tier, I guess. Very low B tier. Scraping the top 50 is much more than far enough.

#Turnabout Target

Turnabout Target is an excellent case. It’s fantastically paced with big reveals happening snappily one after the other, flying forward through its mystery like a bullet from a gun. It’s more densely packed than any first case has any right to be, and contains more hooks to keep you interested in the rest of the game than was even necessary.

Near the centre of this whirlwind is the titular character of this cut, Di-Jun Huang, the supposedly nearly assassinated president of Zheng-Fa. Isn’t this exciting! Kicking off the game with the attempted murder of the previous game’s rival’s country! And the assassin is the same fucking guy from 2-4? We get to finally take that guy down now, 4 games later, and in the first case no less??

That was enough. That’s all the case needed to be and I would have been satisfied with simply nabbing De Killer and having that be the end of it. But instead we get a great twist midway through the case where not only is Shelly not de killer, but he’s even meddling in the case’s investigation for the specific purpose of allowing Edgeworth to uncover the truth. I love it, and this is barely the halfway point.

The next section of the case finally concerns the man, the myth, the legend himself, the character who is ranked higher than Maya Fey, Di-Jun Huang.

Huang has been this commanding and authoritative presence throughout the entire case, he’s enormous and comically ripped in his stupidly tight suit, and never once lets up from his bravado. An overwhelming, powerful man who is a total fraud.

The assassination plot being a fake is just so fun? It’s fun. What a convolutedly dumb thing to do. The whole thing being an “asinine publicity stunt”, as Edgeworth puts it, isn’t a twist going for gasps so much as it’s going for laughs.

Look at this chubby chump. Pathetic.

It’s an ordeal entirely too entertaining to not captivate, which is great since the whole point of this portion of the case was to be a distraction so Knightley can do his Good Culprit Stuff behind your back. [Or his back, technically.](https://vignette.wikia.nocookie.net/aceattorney/images/e/eb/KnightleysLa

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👍︎ 48
📰︎ r/AARankdown
👤︎ u/donuter454
📅︎ Aug 24 2020
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Idol-Rapper Analysis #1 - 4th Gen Boy Groups 1: ATEEZ, Oneus, A.C.E


i thought it would be fun to start trying to do some technical analyses of kpop idol-rappers and enough other ppl seemed to enjoy the idea so here i am! Very self centered of me to think you care about my opinion but if you don't care about it you don't have to read this! It costs zero dollars to click away from here!

  • here is my original post outlining a lot of Hiphop terminology/concepts/analysis
  • here is my post where ppl submitted the rappers they wanted to see analyzed

>Ranking system:
>I will give a tier ranking using the S / A / B / C / D / F tier system.
>Here is a full breakdown of what i consider each tier to represent generally. If you care about how I rank these folks I highly recommend checking it out
>I give tiers based on the following aspects technical abilities like speed/breath control/enunciation/dynamics/and complexity of flow, cohesion with the group, creativity/originality, emotional delivery and versatility.
>Note: I consider an AVERAGE idol rapper to be around a D or C tier. If you think my ranking is harsh that's what i'm comparing against.

>Some Disclaimers:
>This post is fxckin long
>This post will cover both technical aspects of rapping and some more critical analyses including my own personal opinion. I will try and justify my opinion as best possible but in the end, the opinion belongs to me and only me, if you enjoy a rapper I don't, or if you don't enjoy a rapper I do, that is all ok! Additionally if you are uncomfortable seeing your faves criticized this might not be the post for you! All of our faves have flaws and room for growth and pointing them out does not diminish their talents or hard work.
>If you disagree with my analysis I'd love to hear your thoughts! If i get something incorrect please feel free to correct me in the comments! I am open to criticism and correction!
>!!!!!! I will do my best to point out both an idols strengths and weaknesses, but I will not water down my opinion to do so. !!!!!!
>My preparation for this post was listening to ALL the tra

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👍︎ 203
👤︎ u/franetics
📅︎ Aug 12 2020
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